ΤΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΦΥΣΙΚΗΣ

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ΤΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΦΥΣΙΚΗΣ

Transcript of ΤΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΦΥΣΙΚΗΣ

  • 2

    2

  • 3

    3

    (S.I.)

    L meter m m Kilogram Kg t second sec i Amperes A

    T Kelvin K mole mole I Candela cd radian rad steredian sr

    deka da = 101 deci d = 10-1 hecto h = 102 centi c = 10-2 Kilo K = 103 milli m = 10-3 Mega M = 106 micro = 10-6 Giga G = 109 nano n = 10-9 Terra T = 1012 pico p = 10-12 Peta P = 1015 femto f = 10-15 Exa E = 1018 atto a = 10-18

    : 12 cm = 12 10-2 m = 0,12 m 220 m = 22010-6 m 15 KW = 15103 W 200 nF = 20010-9 F m2 m3. :

    cm = 10-2 m (cm)2 = (10-2 m)2 cm2 = 10-4 m2 mm = 10-3 m (mm)3 = (10-2 m)3 mm3 = 10-6 m3

    : 1 L = 10-3 m3, 1 m3 = 103 L 1 L = 103 mL, 1 mL = 10-3 L

  • 4

    4

    . x , . x(t) . x=x(t) .

    . x y o - x y . x y , . (x(t), y(t)) t.

    . x y z o x y z -. r(t )r

    =(x(t),y(t),z(t)) - t.

    x . 2 1r r r=

    uur ur ur

    r1 r2 - . x = x2-x1

    S . .

    u (Velocity)

    . rut

    =uurr

    r . (

    11)

    x

    y

    z

    A(xA,yA,zA

    A

    yA

    xA

    zA

    x

    y

    O

    A

    xA

    yA A(xA, yA)

    (x) i + - O

  • 5

    5

    xut

    =uurr

    2 12 1

    x xut -t

    = xut

    = m/sec2

    : t 0

    rut

    =uurr

    r(t )uuur

    :

    Su ut

    = =

    : .

    u = x = xo + u(t to) x = xo + ut x = ut ( xo=0)

    xo ( to=0 sec)

    ( )

    x-t -

    ... .

    10

    S (m)

    t (sec) 0 2 4

    20

    U (m/sec)

    t (sec)0

  • 6

    6

    u

    t 0

    ut

    =uurr

    : ut

    =uurr

    2 12 1

    u u -u= =t t -t

    m/sec2

    uuur

    , :

    - () ()

    . a

    r -

    .

    -

    .... (uo 0)

    x

    t

    x

    t

    U

    t

    16

    0

    8

    4 7 9

    t

    5

    0 -2

    4 8

    +x

    Uo U

    +x

    Uo U

  • 7

    7

    (>0) (0) (

  • 8

    8

    (Force) -. Newton = Kgm/sec2

    F=F2+F1

    F=F2-F1

    F = 2 21 2F F+ = 1

    2

    FF

    F = 2 21 2 1 2F F 2F F + + = 1

    2 1

    FF F +

    :

    : () .

    Hooke .

    F=Kx, K : , x : .

    Newton .

    F

    y

    Fx = F

    F y =

    F

    x

    F1

    F2

    F

    F1

    F1

    -

    F1

    F2

    F

    F1 F2

    F

    F1 F2 F

  • 9

    9

    F = 0uuur r

    . . . Newton

    F =

    m

    uuurr F = m

    uuur r

    : pF =t

    uuruuur( = )

    x y : Fx=max Fy=may

    : F = m

    : .... ... Newton FAB , FBA. :

    AB BAF =-Fr r

    Newton:

    1 22

    m mF=Gr

    G : G = 6,67310-11 m2Kgr-2 r :

    : 0 ,max T,max=Fk

    : : Fk : . 9 ()

    < ,max 9 : T = Fk () 9 = Fk

    (Momentum)

    p=mur r

    F1 F2

    m2m1 r

  • 10

    10

    ( ) .

    F=0 p=p ( . 43) - Newton ( ) :

    p F t= uur uuur ur = Fuuur t puur= ur p p+ =r ur r

    ( )

    (, ) .

  • 11

    11

    :

    f : sec f = N t

    = , Hz=s-1

    - : 1f=T

    u

    : Su=t

    u = 2RT

    u =2Rf

    : m/sec

    : = t

    = 2T

    = 2f

    : rad/sec

    u .

    ! .

    .

    - : u = R

    : . u, - , .

    =2u

    R

    : . - :

    F=m F=2mu

    R

    Newton :

    FR=F =2mu

    R

    r xy, ( ) r:

    drudt

    =uurr

    u

    S

    u R

    uR

  • 12

    12

    , - . :

    (//u) u

    ( u) u

    =2u

    R R ( -

    ) F = m

    r

    R

    ro

    r

    u

    x

    y

    O

  • 13

    13

    -

    W=FS ( W=F Sur r ) :

    F: S: : F S.

    Joule ( J = Newtonm)

    F=(x) F=(x) x. W = F=(x) .

    :

    ( x1 x2) :

    W = 12x12 -

    12x22

    T x1, x2 - . (...) ( )

    (Energy) , . . , , . Joule, J = Newtonm m =mc2 (Einstein 1905). , . ( ) (.. - ).

    . .

    x2x1

    F

    F1

    x x

    F S

    ST

    W=TS180 W=-TS

    =90

  • 14

    14

    (Potential Energy) UAB -

    U = - W

    UB = mg(hh) UB = mgh

    UE= 12x2

    To x .

    q1 q2 r

    1 2q qU Kr

    = (Kinetic Energy)

    = 12

    mu2

    (Conservative) ,

    . : , (Coulomb), ,

    : , , ,

    = + U

    ( - ) ,

    = 1 + U1 = K2 + U2

    -

    E=WF- (= Q)

    ( , ....)

  • 15

    15

    -

    = WF

    = WF1+WF2+

    (To .... , )

    :

    P = Wt

    = t

    P = E/t () F : P = Fu() :

    u F u

    : Watt, W=Joule/sec HP =750 W (Horse Power = )

    : ,

  • 16

    16

    q Q (Electric Charge) ( ). : (+) (-)

    : , . , () e = 1,6 10-19 C e. Q=Ne

    : . .

    : Coulomb C ( = Amperesec)

    Coulomb ( ) q1 q2 :

    1 2 2

    q qF=Kr

    : K=9109 m2/C2 r :

    =

    14

    : (permittivity of free space) = 8,8510-12 C2N-1m-2 : ( )

    (Electric Field) . . (Electric Intensity) q -, q

    FE=

    +q

    urur ()

    /C V/m.

    2

    QE = K

    r

    : Q : r : -

    -

    -q

    F

    F +q

  • 17

    17

    V (Potential) V , - q , - q.

    V = AW+q

    ()

    V = Uq+

    VA = A

    QKr

    (o o Q o )

    UA :

    WA

    V = VA - VB = A BW

    q

    + ()

    V = VA - VB = ABU

    q+

    VAB = A B

    1 1K Qr r

    ( ) (Field Lines)

    -

    -q

    -

    q . : - . ( ) . .

    + -

    +

    +q

  • 18

    18

    . - . -.

    (Capacitor) . :

    C (Capacitance)

    QC=V

    Farad, Coulomb CFVolt V

    = = :

    SC = l

    : : : S : :

    1U= QV2

    21 QU

    2 C= 21U CV

    2=

    (permittivity) () Co - C>Co =Co/C. ( ).

    C

  • 19

    19

    (Direct Current)

    , .

    (Electric Current) : = q/t i = q/t Ampere, ()

    (Electric Cell) , .

    () (Electromotive Force)

    = PI E = W

    q

    (E W) . Volt, V=J/C

    (Resistance) :

    R= VI

    Ohm, = Volt/Ampere

    S ( ) :

    R=Sl

    =(1+)

    : : : 0 :

    : R=R(1+)

    , Ohm i V R,

    = VR

    : -.

    Joule R i t :

    Q=i2Rt

  • 20

    20

    E = iVt E = i2Rt

    E = 2V

    Rt

    P = iV P = i2R

    P = 2V

    R

    : i

    i1=i2=i3 V1+V2+V3=V R=R1+R2+R3

    V1=V2=V3=V i1 + i2 + i3 = i

    1 2 3

    1 1 1 1R R R R

    = + +

    Kirchhoff (+) (-) . i = 0 ( )

    Kirchhoff .

    V = 0 ( )

    Ohm , r, R -:

    EiR r

    = + E=i(R+r)

    P = i

    P = Vi ( = i2R )

    P = i2r

    R1

    V

    i R2 R3

    V1 V2 V3

    R1

    R2

    R3

    V

    i1

    i2

    i3

    i

  • 21

    21

    . r

    V = E iR

    ()

    - ( )

    -.. V i -

    . .

    i=/r

    . .

    () . - .

    i

    V

    i

    V

    i

    i

    V

  • 22

    22

    (Magnetism) , Fe3O4 (Magnetic Field) . B

    ur .

    (Magnetic Induction) : Tesla, T=N/Am

    B . :

    ( ) (North N)