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  • 10.

  • , . , .

    , , . .

    , . (operational amplifiers, op amps, OAs), (integrated circuits, ICs). ( ) .

    . - , .

    2

    10.1

  • , . , .

    10.2

    ()

    4:

    1. :

    2. : . ( )

    3. D: DC .

    4. : push/pull .

    1,2 3,4 1. .

    3

  • , . , .

    (V+-V-)

    V+-V- ( ) , {Vout=(V+-V-)}.

    : 104 - 106

    Rin Rout

    VS- Vout VS+ , VS . VS- Vout VS+ . .

    4

    10.3

  • , . , .

    , , ( ) ( ) kHz. .

    1 2

    3

    4 5

    .

    : (inverting) (non-inverting), - + , ( ) . (2) ( ) (1).

    5

  • , . , .

    , . (bipolar), , . 15 V. . , , .

    V- V+, :

    ( ) (open-loopgain) . =104-106

    (1) , 1-2 V () . , -15 +15 V, (1) V0 -13 +13 V (). (operational range) .

    6

    0V A V V (1)

  • , . , .

    V+ - V- , 200.000 -12 +12 V, (saturation), (1).

    . (1) V+ - V- = Vo/A V0 = -12 V +12 V

    V+ - V- = = (-12 V) / 200.000 = -0,00006 V -0,06 mV

    V+ - V- = = (+12 V)/200.000 = +0,00006 V +0,06 mV

    , , V+ - V- -0,06 +0,06 mV.

    7

    1

    (1) 200.000 -12 +12 V.

  • , . , .

    , (a). :1. (. V+ - V- )

    , ( ) .

    2. . , .

    3. , .

    (1) V0 V- , , 180 , .

    (closed loop), ( b) (feedback), ( ). , . , (closed loop gain).

    8

    (a)

    (b)

  • , . , .

    () . () . .

    .

    ( ) ( ).

    ( ) .

    9

    10.4 :

  • , . , .

    R2 . R2 . R2 .

    10

    10.5

  • , . , .

    10.5.1

    :

    :

    u1 u2. .

    (virtual ground) 2 , , , u1 . 1 .

    11

    0

    1

    UG

    U

    0

    2 10

    uu u

    A

  • , . , .

    R1 :

    R2 .

    :

    , :

    . , . .

    12

    1 0

    1

    1

    1 1

    u

    I Iu U u

    iR R

    0 2

    1I

    u RG

    u R

    u0= U1 i1 R2 = 0i1 R2=-(u1/R1)R2

  • , . , .

    u0/A. , - u0/A.

    i1 R1 :

    i1 R2, .

    :

    :

    13

    10.5.2 (

    )

    0 01

    1 1

    I Iu u A u u A

    iR R

    0 0 0

    0 1 2 2

    1

    Iu u u u A

    u i R RA A R

    0 2 1

    2 11

    1I

    u R RG

    R Ru

    A

    , 1800 .

  • , . , .

    Rin, R1. R2/R1 R2 , ( ). .

    (u2-u1) .

    14

    10.5.3 /

    1

    1

    I

    in

    I

    uR R

    u R

  • , . , .

    R1 R2 Z1 Z2

    ( )

    15

    10.5.4

    0 2

    1i

    V Z

    V Z

  • , . , .

    16

    10.5.5 Miller

    +

    -

    R

    C

    +Vs -

    Vo

    is

    iC

    + VC -

    i_

    V(t)

    Vs

    Vo

    t

    ,

    i_=0 is=ic

    .

  • , . , .

    17

    , 1=R 2=1/sC=1/jC,

    CRjV

    V

    i

    10

    . . 6dB/octave . dB ( ) (1/CR). =0 . dc , dc . dc .

  • , . , .

    2=R

    18

    10.5.6

    11Z

    sC 0

    i

    VsCR

    V

    0

    0

    I

    i

    du tVsCR u t CR

    V dt

    , CR ( )

    d =1/CR

  • , . , .

    .

    i1,i2,,in

    i=i1+i2++in Rf

    :

    19

    10.5.7

    1 2

    1 2

    1 2

    , ,..., nn

    n

    u u ui i i

    R R R

    0o f f

    u iR iR 0 1 21 2

    ...f f fn

    n

    R R Ru u u u

    R R R

    1.

    2.

    3. .

  • , . , .

    (I/V) (current-to-voltageconverter, current follower). To ". .

    V0 , . Rf. ,

    I/V :

    .

    . -, (electron multipliers). , .

    20

    i=(v--vo)/Rf=-vo/Rf

    vo=i/Rf

    3. I/V

    10.5.8

  • , . , .

    uI , R1

    21

    10.6

  • , . , .

    ,

    , uI.

    R1 uI/R1. R2.

    :

    :

    22

    0 2

    1

    1I

    u R

    u R

    0 2

    1

    I

    I

    uu u R

    R

  • , . , .

    (u2-u1),

    23

  • , . , .

    . (buffer amplifier) .

    .

    R2=0 R1=.

    24

    10.6.1 -

  • , . , .

    +, - .

    . .

    :

    .

    25

    10.7

  • , . , .

    26

    ()()

    () ()

    . : RL

  • 10.7

  • , . , .

    28

    10.1:

    .

    . . ( u12) u01 u11(. ).

    2

    43

    121

    1

    20

    /1

    /1u

    RR

    RRu

    R

    Ru

    )1(1

    2

    43

    4202

    R

    R

    RR

    Ruu

    1

    1

    201 u

    R

    Ru R3, R4

    u02

    u0

  • , . , .

    29

    2

    43

    121

    1

    20

    /1

    /1u

    RR

    RRu

    R

    Ru

    u0=0 u1= u2 R2/R1=R4/R3.

    )( 121

    20 uu

    R

    Ru

    R2/R1 . ( ) .

  • , . , .

    10.2:

    30

    , (), . , .

    () () ()

    , () (), () R , () - (: ).

  • , . , .

    ( ). , (i < 1 ) . , .

    . R ( ), iR. (' ) (V)., (Rin) R, RRin/ (R + Rin) .

    31

  • , . , .

    I/V. :

    1. , ' ( ). , . () - iR ( ) .

    2. , , .

    3. Rf 2-3 2-3 .

    32

  • , . , .

    33

    : . () () . () () .

    10.2 :

  • , . , .

    R ( -1.34 V Hg). (1-2 C) . 36-38 C :

    34

    2.1

    R ( ) = 185.2 - 3.20 ( C) :() 36.0 38.0 C. () ( 37 C).

    . () (i) , V0 = f(), :

    V0 = -(-1.34 V) x 200 / (185.2 - 3.20) = 268 / (185.2 - 3.20) V (ii)

    (ii) = 36.0 38.0 C ,

    V0 = 268 / (185.2 - 3.20x36.0) = 3.829 V V0 = 268 / (185.2 - 3.20x38.0) = 4.214 V

    () V0 = f() ( ii)

    dV0/d = (-3.20)x[ -268 / (185.2 - 3.20)2 ] = 857.6 / (185.2 - 3.20)2

    = 37.0 C

    dV0/d = 857.6 / (185.2 - 3.20x37.0)2 = 0,193 V / C.

    (i)0 2

    1I

    u RG

    u R

  • , . , .

    , .

    35

    = 36.0 38.0 C ,

    0 = 1390.9/(185.2 - 3.20x36.0) - 19.87 = 0.00 V

    0 = 1390.9/(185.2 - 3.20x38.0) - 19.87 = 2,00 V

    () (iii)

    dVo/d = 4450.9 / (185.2 - 3.20)2 (iv)

    = 37.0 C.

    dVo/d = 4450.9 / (185.2 - 3.2037.0)2 = 0,997 V/ C.

    1,34 1,341038k 1390,9 185,2 3,20 19,87

    185,2 3,20 k 70kov (iii)

    .

    () :

  • , . , .

    :

    200

    1038 . 1038

    36 38 C

    () +19.9 +21.9 V .

    .

    () +13 V.

    36