Supply Chain Relationship Management - Αρχική | mba ...mba. 11 Supply Chain Relationship...

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Transcript of Supply Chain Relationship Management - Αρχική | mba ...mba. 11 Supply Chain Relationship...

  • Chapter 11

    Supply Chain RelationshipSupply Chain RelationshipManagement

    11-1

  • Lecture Outline

    Supply Chain Relationships

    The Role of Trust

    11-2

    Managing Conflict and Dispute Resolution

    Negotiation Concepts, Styles, and Tactics

    Relationship Management in Practice

  • Importance of Relationships

    SCM is primarily about the managementof relationships across complex networksof companies

    Issues include:

    11-3

    Issues include: respect and trust

    joint ventures

    negotiation

    contracting

    conflict resolution

  • Relationship Management as anElement of SCM

    11-4

  • Relationship Dimensions

    Relationships should be segmented basedon how much management is needed

    Two Dimensions:

    Scope Scope degree of responsibility assigned to supplier

    greater scope means greater dependence

    Criticality extent to which the sourced item or task

    impacts ability to perform core competencies

    11-5

  • Relationship Dimensions Continued

    As scope and criticality increase, so does the riskto the buyer

    11-6

  • Relationship Matrix

    Four categories of relationships:

    11-7

  • Non-Strategic Transactions

    low scope and criticality

    transaction oriented relationships

    typically standardized products

    limited buyer/supplier communication

    typically alternative sources of supply

    11-8

  • Contractual Relationships

    high scope and low criticality

    moderate levels of communication

    some relationship managementrequired due to size of arrangement

    relationship based on formal contracts

    11-9

  • Partnerships

    low scope and high criticality

    limited frequency of interaction

    strong trust between supplier and buyer

    relationship management not extensive

    11-10

  • Alliances

    high scope and high criticality

    high interaction frequency

    significant trust and commitment between significant trust and commitment betweenbuyer and supplier

    significant investment in relationshipmanagement

    products and services are highly customized

    typically large transaction volumes

    11-11

  • 11-12

  • Power-Based vs. Trust-BasedRelationships

    Power-Based Relationships

    historical basis of relationships

    one partner maximizes its profit at expense one partner maximizes its profit at expenseof others

    extracting unfair concessions hurts thecompany if balance of power shifts

    creates competition rather than cooperation

    decreases supply chain profitability

    11-13

  • Power-Based vs. Trust-BasedRelationships

    Trust-Based Relationships

    development of joint objectives

    greater sharing of information

    elimination of duplication of efforts

    coordination easier to implement

    11-14

  • Relationship Evolution

    Contractual Based View formal contracts used to ensure cooperation

    the initial view of supply chain relationships

    Relationship Based View trust and cooperation viewed as a result of

    interactions over time

    a strong supply chain relationship evolvestoward the relationship-based view over time

    11-15

  • Developing a Trust-BasedRelationship

    Key Steps:

    Assessing the Relationship identify the mutual benefit

    equity equity

    Identifying Operational Roles sequential interdependence

    activities and information of one partnerprecedes the other traditional approach

    reciprocal interdependence parties exchange information in both directions

    11-16

  • Developing a Trust-BasedRelationship Continued

    Key Steps Continued:

    Creating Effective Contracts

    contracts that encourage negotiation as contracts that encourage negotiation asunplanned events arise

    Designing Effective Conflict ResolutionMechanisms

    specify rules and guidelines

    frequent meetings

    11-17

  • Managing a Trust-BasedRelationship

    Factors:

    Commitment

    top management commitment is crucial

    clearly identify the value of the clearly identify the value of thepartnership for each party

    Clear Method of Communication

    two major factors that lead to thebreakdown of partnerships are:

    lack of information sharing

    inability to resolve conflicts

    11-18

  • Managing a Trust-BasedRelationship Continued

    Factors Continued:

    Performance Visibility

    helps identify defective processes

    makes it harder for either party to beopportunistic

    Fairness

    most relationships involve parties withunequal power

    fairness influences relationship strength

    11-19

  • Managing Conflict andDispute Resolution

    Look at:

    Sources of Conflict

    Dispute Resolution Procedures Dispute Resolution Procedures

    Litigation

    Arbitration

    Mediation

    Negotiation

    11-20

  • Sources of Conflict

    Potential Sources:

    Relationship Conflicts

    strong emotions, poor communication,negative behaviornegative behavior

    stereotypes and language differencesproblematic with intercultural communications

    Data Conflicts

    different interpretation of data

    lack of information

    11-21

  • Sources of Conflict Continued

    Potential Sources Continued:

    Interest Conflicts competition over substantive interest

    Structural Conflicts Structural Conflicts unequal control, destructive behavior

    physical factors that hinder cooperation

    prominent source of conflict

    Value Conflicts different ways of life, ideology, religion

    11-22

  • Dispute Resolution Procedures

    Supply chain partners should decide aheadof time how they will resolve disputes

    Four primary resolution processes

    can be combined to form hybrid options can be combined to form hybrid options

    11-23

  • Litigation

    legal wrong committed

    judge and jury determine outcome

    time consuming

    potential for bad press

    costs can be excessive

    outcome usually all or nothing

    11-24

  • Arbitration

    neutral third party issues a binding decision

    useful when international courts not desirable

    desirable for highly technical fields who want desirable for highly technical fields who wantto avoid a lay jury in litigation

    parties can customize arbitration procedure

    courts usually enforce arbitration agreements

    11-25

  • Mediation

    neutral third party facilitates process

    parties not required to agree to outcome

    usually voluntary usually voluntary

    preferred over litigation and arbitration whenrelationship preservation is important

    parties can customize mediation procedure

    11-26

  • Negotiation

    positions are exchanged until the two partiescan agree on a mutually beneficial settlement

    most informal procedure most informal procedure

    no third-party assistance

    can be inexpensive

    can be fast

    11-27

  • Negotiation Concepts

    Leverage

    amount of bargaining power

    party with the most leverage loses the leastwalking away from the negotiationwalking away from the negotiation

    Position vs. Interest

    position is a signal of willingness to accept (orpay) wont pay any more than $7/unit

    interest is the underlying reason for position

    11-28

  • Negotiation Concepts Continued

    Negotiators Dilemma

    sharing truthful information provides a higherchance of a mutually beneficial outcomechance of a mutually beneficial outcome

    Integrative Opportunities

    non-zero-sum negotiation opportunities

    Distributive Opportunities

    zero-sum negotiation opportunities

    11-29

  • Negotiation Styles

    Two Categories:

    Adversarial zero sum approach: every benefit one party

    receives is a direct loss to the other partyreceives is a direct loss to the other party

    tough positional bargaining tactics

    Problem-solving non-zero sum approach: concessions made

    by each party to create value

    discussions address underlying interests

    11-30

  • Adversarial Negotiation Tactics

    Extreme Opening Offers

    Few and Small Concessions Few and Small Concessions

    Withholding Information

    Manipulating Commitments

    11-31

  • Extreme Opening Offers

    Anchoring

    initial offer has powerful effect on thefinal agreement

    can make a company look less credible

    11-32

  • Few and Small Concessions

    Concessionary Tactics:

    Norm of Reciprocity

    when one party makes a concession, apsychological norm encourages the otherpsychological norm encourages the otherparty to do the same

    Rejection-then-Retreat

    make an offer that you know will be rejected

    real offer is subsequently made with greaterlikelihood of acceptance

    11-33

  • Withholding Information

    Information Asymmetry

    one party has access to information that theother party does not know about

    Both Parties can Withhold Information

    prevents parties from understandingunderlying interests

    dont know the true position of counterparty

    11-34

  • Manipulating Commitments

    Binding the Counterparty

    get the counterparty to commit to aprinciple, then use it against thecounterparty later in negotiationcounterparty later in negotiation

    Binding Yourself