Myth of EUrope in art

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The Myth of Europe

Through literature, paintings, sculptures, places, artistsFrom Homer and Hesiod onwards

The Myth of Europe

two meanings:from eu-rope, e-, well irrigatedfrom (eurus), wide + /-/- (ps/p-/opt-), eye, face - Eurp, wide gaze", wide look", synonymous full moon, name of the goddess.Europe - Europa is a feature of the Greek mythology.

The name Europe derives from ancient Greek

In the Myth Europa was a Phoenician woman of high lignage from whom the name of the continent has been taken.ORIGINS

Very popular Myth in western culture represented in literature and art: First written signs are to find back in Homers and Hesiod, but an oral tradition refers to events connected to the Myth in XIX - XV c. BC. Quite complex and differing interpretation:Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliad, Homer (8th c. BC).

Another early reference is in the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Hesiod (650-750 BC) LITERATURE SOURCESThere were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but they agreed that she came to Crete, where the sacred bull was paramount. In the more familiar telling (Hesiod) the name Europa occurs in the long list of daughters of Oceanus and Tethys and is the object of the seduction by the god Zeus in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus and carried her away to Crete.Herodotus (484 425BC) provided a more literal version beginning the account of Persian-Hellene confrontations telling how she was kidnapped by Minoans, who were said to have taken her to Crete.

As a further proof of Europa's Phoenician origin in 2012, an archaeological mission of the British Museum, discovered in Sidon ancient currency that depicts Europa riding the bull with her veil flying all over like a bow recurring element in iconography.Moreover the mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull, which had been worshipped in the Levant. The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; Its to frame among "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses (Kernyi ). The daughter of the earth-giant Tityas and mother of Euphemus by Poseidon was also named Europa.

After reaching the beach Jupiter reveals his real identity and lives with her giving birth to three children Minos (future King of Crete), Radamanto and Sarpdone; finally Jupiter gives Europa as a wife to the king of the island, Asteria, who adopts the children.Europa, Phoenician Princess (from present Lebanon territory, cities of Tyre and Sido), is picking flowers by the sea with girl-friends, where she is spotted and desired by Jupiter-ZeusMain features of the Myth (in different versions, most popular by Ovidius-Ovid):- to seduce her he turns into a white bull and make Mercury be the leader of a proper herd towards the girls to gets closer; - the girl is fascinated by the beautiful and gentle animal, she caress it, put a crown on it and finally she climbs on its back;- the bull dives into the sea and swims towards the island of Crete bringing her along;The Myth continues with the stories of Europas brothers, travelling to different directions in search of their sister: among them Cadmo who, reaching eastern Greece, founded Tebe; THE MYTH

The image of the girl travelling by sea on the back of a lover bull,a bull in love suspended between delight and fear, has been a main subject of inspiration for several artists (sculptors, painters, mosaic and textile makers) through centuries. Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, but at Lebadaea in Boeotia. Pausanias, a Greek traveller and geographer of the II c. AD (who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius) noted that Europa was the epithet of Demeter"Demeter whom they surname Europa ."Generally the Myth represents a movement of civilization from East to West and the name Europa, given to western territories, witnesses this movement.The degree of respect of ancient sources is very varied, from total adhesion to vague inspiration and the feeling of continuity is illusory. The dissemination of the Myth in the Middle Age belongs to illustrated Ovids Metamorphoses.

From XIVc. the version of the Ovide moralis, informed by Ovid, the Christian Bible and other Latin and vernacular authorities, from Plato to Chrtien de Troyes, written by an anonymous Franciscan friar was very popular. Allegorical meaning: Europa represents the human soul and the bull is Christ, as a redeemer moving Europa from Earth (desires and misguided affections to which many of Ovid's protagonists succumb) to Paradise (Img11).

At least 200 images of the Myth are known to be produced in ancient times. The earliest vase-painting with subject securely identifiable as Europa, dates from mid-7th century BC, Here to follow a very partial but meaningful idea of the richness of the production through the centuries representation of different moments of the Myth:In some periods as in 600-700, the Myth seems often to be without any deep meaning more used as an ornamental motif to reproduce even on different objects or tapestry. On the other hand during the 500 and onwards great representation of the Myth recalling the theme with all its dramatic features. Tiziano Vecellio or Paul Rubens among the most significant: two images showing an extraordinary mixture of creativity and repetition as a duel in a 70 years period gap (Img 25-31a).In the contemporary age the Myth has been again modified and adapted to times, reflecting political and cultural changes of the continent (Img 40 onwards).There have been also plenty of engraving representations for printed books (e.g.Img 24, 30a)

Title: Europe on the bull Author: / Date: Half VII BC.

Location: Paris, Bibliothque NationaleType: fragment of phitos beota

Img 1

This fragment of PHITOS BEOTA is the most ancient representation of the Myth of Europe known.

PHITOS: ancient Greek word for a large storage jar of a characteristic bombed shape

BEOTA, from Beotia, part of present Central Greece region facing the Gulf of Corinth and of Ancient Greece with the most important city Thebes

References to Beotia:

As already told, Pausanias, in his Description of Greece, a crucial link between classical literature and modern archaeology, tells about the archaic story of Labadea, beotian city where is recorded a particular form of worshipping of goddess Demeter, who presided over harvest and fertility, there called also Europe

Cadmius, brother of Europe, well represents a link to Beotia because there, searching for the sister, he founds Thebe and brings the alphabet from East to West, from Phoenicia to Greece.

Typical archaic iconography for the representation of the Myth: very simple scene and characters superimposed, Europe on the running bull, from right to left

Details: a very thin bull more similar to a horse , but with a bull tail, different iconography from others

the paws very apart to represent the extended running movement through the sea to the island of Crete

the decorated dress and Assyrian jewel to characterise the Princess (similar to other representations of bulls in minoan-mycenean culture of Crete, see Img 3)

Title: Europe on the bullAuthor: /Date: 580560 BC.

Location: Palermo, Museo Archeologico Antonio Salinas (Selinunte, tempio Y)Typology: Sculpture in tuff

Img 2One of the most significant ancient representation of the Myth renowned. Found in the 10th February 1892 by Antonio Salinas together with three other metopes belonging to a tower of the city wall of Selinunte (around V c. BC.)

Originally it had to be polychrome, some traces of blue colour where found. Carved in tuff stone it presents a bas-relief.

Simple graphic but detailed:Europe shows her face in profile; her hands are resting, one on the horn, the other in the back of the animal, legs are both to the right main motif recurrent through centuries.Shes wearing a long chitone (long tunic) and the hair is gathered and dispersed on her body. Arching front paws accentuate the idea of movement in the water.

Two dolphins under the bull paws represent the sea that is one of main the subjects of the Myth (see also e.g. Img 10a).

The bull has its muzzle facing the viewer . Bulls hair in the forehead is well kept as well as Europas one, even the bulls tail is combed in a tress.

Europas attitude is serene, still far from the poetic tradition from I c. AC. onwards Ovid version tells about a playful and sensual relation but at some point terrified (see also Horace, Carmina, book II, XXV 9.

OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiters abduction of Europa. Mercury There his father calls him aside, and without revealing love as the reason, says Son, faithful worker of my commands, go, quickly in your usual way, fly down to where, in an eastern land, they observe your mothers star, among the Pleiades, (the inhabitants give it the name of Sidon). There drive the herd of royal cattle, that you will see some distance off, grazing the mountain grass, towards the sea shore!

He spoke, and immediately, as he commanded, the cattle, driven from the mountain, headed for the shore, where the great kings daughter, Europa, used to play together with the Tyrian virgins. Royalty and love do not sit well together, nor stay long in the same house. So the father and ruler of the gods, who is armed with the three-forked lightning in his right hand, whose nod shakes the world, setting aside his royal sceptre, took on the shape of a bull, lowed among the other cattle, and, beautiful to look at, wandered in the tender grass. continues nxt page

In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain-filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his expression was peaceful. Agenors daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how unthreatening.

But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the yellow sands. When her fear has gradually lessened he offers his chest now for virgin hands to pat and now his horns to twine with fresh wreaths of flowers. The royal virgin even dares to sit on the bulls back, not realising whom she presses on, while the god, first from dry land and then from the shoreline, gradually slips his deceitful hooves into the waves. Then he goes further out and carries his prize over the mid-surface of the sea. In colour he was white as the snow that rough feet have not trampled and the rain-filled south wind has not melted. The muscles rounded out his neck, the dewlaps hung down in front, the horns were twisted, but one might argue they were made by hand, purer and brighter than pearl. His forehead was not fearful, his eyes were not formidable, and his expression was peaceful. Agenors daughter marvelled at how beautiful he was and how unthreatening. But though he seemed so gentle she was afraid at first to touch him. Soon she drew close and held flowers out to his glistening mouth. The lover was joyful and while he waited for his hoped-for pleasure he kissed her hands. He could scarcely separate then from now. At one moment he frolics and runs riot in the grass, at another he lies down, white as snow on the yellow sands. She is terrified and looks back at the abandoned shore she has been stolen from and her right hand grips a horn, the other his back, her clothes fluttering, winding, behind her in the breeze.OVID Bk II:833-875, Jupiters abduction of Europa

Title: Rape of EuropeAuthor: /Date: 500 BC.

Location: Providence, Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of ArtTypology: Attic vase (lekythos)

Img 3The decoration develops all around the geometry of the vase, from left to right up to the neck of the vase with a flower motif. these garlands are usually associated with Dyonisos and the Maenads. Here there might be a minor motif contamination, as can be seen on numerous vases

Presumably , according to the position and attitude of the subjects, Europe and the bull are still standing out of the water, the one moment before the proper rape, as soon as the bull has just arched his back and the girl gets surprised.

The God is perhaps forced to lift his muzzle responding to the attitude of Europa who, scared by the risk to fall, grabs one horn and try to hold herself. The girl is wearing as a Princess: a long elegant multi-folded decorated chitone and a nice hair band More clear the other figures to the side : Afrodite (with a mirror) and Hermes. Possibly representing two divinities: on one side love, good premonition for the union of Jupiter and Europa and the trip (Hermes, messenger of gods and god of commerce) to Crete where Europe will give birth to three children and be a Queen .

Title: Rape of EuropeAuthor/ Artist: Painter from Berlino (Beazley)Date: 480 BC.

Location: Tarquinia, Museo NazionaleTypology: Attic vase

Img 4The crater is a funerary urn containing the ashes of a woman according to a small golden ring found inside.Europe is richly dressed as a Princess.Even here the more common iconography, is abandoned: the scene is depicting the previous moment to the proper rape, when Europa is behind the bull still not on his back holding him by a horn.

Title: Juppiter and EuropeAuthor: /Date: 470-450 BC.

Location: Parigi, Muse du LouvreTypology: Boeotian terracotta sculpture

Img 5The work is a sculpture in the round with a rough surface and archaic forms: figures features appear rigid and approximately described, the low detailing would suggest a worshipping function.

Title: Jupiter and EuropeAuthor/Artist: Assteas Date: 350-330 B.C.

Location: before in Los Angeles, Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum, recently got back to Italy, now under control by Carabinieri del Nucleo Tutela Patrimonio Culturale- Heritage CareTypology: Vase in the shape of chalice from Paestum

Img 6Found in a black excavation in SantAgata dei Goti (BN) and illegally exported abroad in 1973 to be sold. It was bought by the Paul Getty Museum in Malibu where it has been until 2009, when recognized and given back to Italy together with other masterpieces.

Its a rare example of work with the signature of the author. It shows the decoration on the front with the narration from right to left.

Img 6The bull is moving to the left but looking to the front. Classical iconography: Europa is sitting to a side looking forward, her hair down on her shoulders with a beautifully embroidered dress, one hand on a horn the other one keeping her veil blowing in the wind. The central group of Europa sitting on the back of the bull presents elements connected to a marine landscape: fishes on the bottom and sea divinities with long tails, the bull also has curved legs as if he was swimming in the water.

Title: The rape of EuropeAuthor: /Date: I c. AD.

Location: Paris, Muse de Guimet, from Begram (Afghanistan)Typology: Glass vase

Img 7Part of a rich treasure found in one of the four afghani sites - Begram - discovered during the first half of XX c. discovered by the Mission Hackin around 1939, a wide variety of priceless historical and artistic value painted glasses. The most common shape is elongated and conical, typical of Alexandria of Egypt hellenistic age painting ((332 -30 b.C.).

Img 7Begram glasses were decorated, as showed here, with a peculiar style with a prevailing black sign to define shapes and shadows.

The veil blowing in the wind shaped in an arch is a recurrent element as well in the figurative tradition as in the literary one.

The bull is red because of the white background.

Title: The rape of EuropeAuthor: anonymousDate: End of I Century B.C.- beginning of Ist CenturyA.D.

Location: Aquileia, Archaeological MuseumTypology: Mosaic

Img 8Fine Hellenistic craftsmanship, was part of the pavement in a roman house room in Aquileia (north-eastern border of Italy with Slovenia) situated in the northern part of the main Piazza Capitolo.

Made in calcareous stones and green and blue glass paste it was found in 1845 during an excavation made to the north of Aquileia Basilica (public building for meetings and justice).

Img 8Young Europa is here completely naked without any traditional attribute seen so far (only the fact shes sitting on a side, the hair in the wind and the position of the hands). This character could refer to another tradition recognizing in Europa a Nereide, as told by Esiodo in his Teogonia where Europa is mentioned as daughter of Nereo (ancient God, symbol of a calm and good sea) .

Title: Europe and the bullAuthor: anonymousDate: 50 AD.

Location: Napoli, National Archaelogical Museum, corridor I (from Pompei, House of Giasone (IX, 5, 18), west wall of cubiculum g) Typology: wall painting, Fresco

Img 9In the museum collection since 1878 following the excavation wanted by king Ferdinando IV Borbone in 1787. The painting is ascribable to the IV Pompeian style (mural painting styles by archaeologist August Mau, 1840 1909).

Img 9Scenae frontes are inserted in aedicules decorated with rectangles and losenges, transposition on fresco of an easel painting. The scene represents the moment when Europe is sitting on the bull dressed in a veil leaving the body naked and covering the legs.The girl has an absent gaze, again holding with a hand one of the horns and with the other the veil (or the back of the animal - Ovid) (Img 2, 7,8)More complex and real scene: three maids are helping her.

Title: The rape of Europe Author: anonymousDate: 330-360 AD.

Location: Kent, Lullingstone Villa Type: floor painting mosaic

Img 10Situated in the semicircular triclinium of the Villa. The construction belongs to the roman influence period and was realized in a long period of time from the I-II c. to the IV-V sec. AD. The villa is composed by a series of stratified and superimposed buildings and was used as a private rural estate or as a sort of farm. It was decorated in the IV c. with floor mosaics, as the one of Rape of Europa.The mosaic frames the scene with some aniconic (with no images) motifs. Europa is represented sitting on a side of the bull Jupiter: with a hand shes holding to the neck and with the other one she keeps the blowing veil, she has a foot lifted not to touch the water.

Title: Rape of EuropeAuthor: /Date: III c. AD.

Location: House of Europa Typology: Mosaic

Img 10aSerene attitude of Europa brought away by the bull, embracing confident the animal.

Representation of the sea with fish (Img2).New element is the angel with the torch of love.

Title: Rape of EuropeAuthor: /Date: ?

Location: GermanyTypology: Mosaic

Img 10bVery dynamic scene, three groups of figures:the three maids, Europa and the bull, the shephard Mercury.Beautiful mountain landscape. Important roman mosaic discovered in 1676 in Praeneste, Palestrina, left Rome 1941 for Germany and is still there: Hitler wanted it for his museum never born in Linz.

From 1691, it was exposed in Palazzo Barberini; from 1934, in Villa Giulia. It has been a model for later art.

Title: The rape of Europe Author: anonymousDate: 1385

Location: Lyon, Bibliothque de la Ville, handbook dellOvide Moralis, Ms. 742. fol. 40Typology: Illustation Tecnique: miniature (67 x 61 mm)

Img 11The miniature is taken from the Lyon manuscript translating lOvide Moralis, from the Metamorphoses. It represents the passage of the Ovidian Myth telling how Jupiter raped the beautiful Europa, as in the bottom caption in red. Jupiter is depicted as a white bull transporting Europa on the sea far from the beach, towards the left to what we know Sidonia Crete. To the right, on the edge of a rock, there are three girls from the entourage of Europa she was playing with before the rape.

Img 11The three are facing Europa, dressing in the contemporary way according to the manuscript: one of them, with her hands open in front of Europa, seems to be calling her, the other has her hand on the heart and the third, in the background, is peacefully looking at the marine ride. Europa, represented while riding the bull with her blond hair blowing in the wind, is sitting to one side with her feet together, one hand on her dress the other lifted to the left. The look is serene completely dedicated to the divine animal.

The rape of Europa, is here told according to a Christian interpretation tending to give to the Myth a new allegorical meaning: the transportation of Europa through the sea made by Jupiter has here a totally positive connotation, as a symbol of human soul redemption through the incarnation of God in the body of Christ- the bull.

ROMATitle: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Antonio di Pietro Averlino, named Filarete (1400-1469?)

Date: 1433-1445 Location: Citt del Vaticano, Basilica of St. Peter, Bronze door of St. Peter. Client: papa Eugenio IV (1431-1447) Typology: relief

Img 12The door is considered one of the first forms of the Renaissance art in Italy; inaugurated in 1445 to celebrate the church and the Pope Eugenio IV.

A wide frame in acanthus leafs defines scenes with profane and mythological character where is possible to recognize, located in the six shutters of the door: Emperors portraits, historical figures and eastern and western church reunification episodes by pope Eugenio IV, Saint Peter and Paul martyrdom scenes and other sacred images.

Img 12

ROMAThis representation is a synthesis between ancient images (Byzantine and Classical) and contemporary ones, intended to stress the passage from Pagan Rome to Christian and modern Rome.

Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: artist from Padua or Venice XV-XVI secoloDate: 1470-1490

Location: Firenze, Museo Nazionale del BargelloTypology: Little bronze (h. 21,5 cm)Tecnique: in the round bronze cladded with black laque

Img 13

General sense of classical grace and majesty (see the classical clothing of the girl, from the footwear to the tunic, similar to a peplum), probably a reference to the rediscovery of the classical world by the venetian art and culture of the time.

Img 13Europa is sitting on the bull, it proceeds slowly alluding more to a classical triumph scene then to the representation of a rape.

Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Albrecht Drer (1471-1528)Date: 1494-1495

Location: Wien, AlbertinaTypology: Drawing

Img 14The paper belongs to a notebook that shows preparatory works and drafts. The rape of Europa is represented on half the paper and is separated by a dividing line from other preparatory works (three lion heads, a statue of Apollo and an eastern man) as if it was a sketch book.

The representation and the polularization of the Myth and of the iconography of Europa are tightly linked to the rediscovery of the ancient world in northern Europe from the XV c.

Img 14

The whole artistic style of the time was affected by these ideas.

Through more frequent commercial exchanges between North and South distances are reduced and cultures contaminate. The development of the press and the habit of artists to travel through Europe represent the opportunity to exchange and spread new themes and iconographies.Very dynamic scene, Europa is sitting with an arm bend on the bull.

Title: The rape of Europe on the bull Author/ Artist: Andrea Briosco, named Riccio Frizzy? or somebody of his entourage

Date: 1500Location: Budapest, Szpmvszeti MuseumType: Bronze Sculpture

Img 15The fine making of the two figures (young Europa and Jupiter in form of bull) composing the sculpture, separately cast, let think to an artist with a goldsmith training.

The iconography is a unicum: its a particularly dramatic and violent version of the Myth.

Img 15The girl looks very aggressive as in Orazios version in one of his Odi - Carmina (Libro II, ode XXV 9) (23 BC). Europa is here represented after the rape in Crete, very angry and threatening the bull with a weapon in her hand, that was originally part of the sculpture and today is lost. The author make a personal choice to recall a literary source and a peculiar very dynamic instant .

Title: The rape of Europe Author/ Artist: Francesco Giovanni RusticiDate: 1495

Location: London, Victoria and Albert MuseumTypology: reliefTechnique: glazed terracotta

Img 16Very relaxed Europa on bull-Jupiter, regarding each other. Shes in a playful pose.

Very natural and dynamic setting, between the waves, the wind and the clouds.

Title: Taurus (Aprile)Artist: Giovanni Maria Falconetto (1468-1535)Date: 1520

Location: Mantova, Palazzo DArco, Zodiac HallClient: Giulio dei Gonzaga di Feltrino (Capodieci-Ilari)Typology: wall paintingTecnique: Fresco

Img 17

The context is a frame dedicated to the astrological sign of the Taurus. The rape of Europa is on the background in a complex interpretation scene where Jupiter is represented four times.

In the foreground a white haired figure with the beard on his back, a small ram identified as a Pan, playing the flute or syringe, with small horns on his head, the goat Amaltea with small Jupiter.

Img 17

The scene according to experts is a clear reference to fertility and earth abundance but especially breeding fertility as Ovid states in the Fasti regarding the month of April dedicated to Venus Verticordia (opening hearts).

Img 17

To the left Jupiter on an arch identified with the Arch of Augustus in Fano, is putting the bull in the sky as a sign of gratitude to have let him having Europa.

The idea is reinforced because of different elements:the breeding goat, the ram drinking to a source with a Priapus symbol, a couple of deers as a symbol of lust the same bull in his generative meaning, often associated to sexual ardour.

Title: Europas life Europa sitting on the bulls backArtist: Bernardino Luini (1481-1532)Date: 1521-1523Location: Berlin, Staatliche MuseenType: wall paintingTecnique: Fresco

Img 18Part of a series of thematic frescoes on the Stories of Europa commissioned by business man Gerolamo Rabia for his residence in Milan by architect Cristoforo Solari. The frescoes were seriously damaged through the centuries and at the beginning of the XIX c. it was necessary to detach them. They were then sold.

It is therefore impossible to know the original location in the building.

Img 18

Luinis frescoes represent an extraordinary exception in the pictorial tradition regarding the Myth of Europa in the XVI c. as well as in the previous and following centuries. Its one of the first cases of picture of the Myth in a narrative sequence comprehending more then one episode (see also e.g. Img 21) .

Title: Jupiter and EuropaArtist: Jacopo Robusti named Tintoretto Date: 1541Location: Modena, Galleria EstenseTypology: Painting

Img 19This oil on wood is part of thirteen mythological pictures taken from Ovids Metamorphoses during his young years (1540 1541). These pictures used to decorate the ceiling of the palace of the client Vittorio Pisani Earl of San Paterniano, but in September 1658 Francesco I dEste bought them and they were located in the new gallery.

The representation of the Myth is reduced to the minimum, as if forced inside the octagon:

Img 19

the girl is on the back of the bull and looks at her maid holding in one hand the crown made with plants.

Europa seems coming forward, towards the vacuum, as to predict her destiny .

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Ren Boyvin (1525-1580)

Date: post 1540Location: Vienna, AlbertinaTypology: burin engraving

Img 20Its the reproduction of an original fresco by Rosso Fiorentino (1495-1540) located in the Francis I Gallery (prototype for the gallery itself and a showcase for the Renaissance in France) in Fontainebleau. The fresco representing the rape is the fresco twin of Saturn and Filira; the two pictures are located to the sides of the Elefante Reale, allegory of strenght and prudence of Francis I.

The three scenes are connected on the idea of unity between animal and goodness.

All frescoes have a double meaning, at a time positive and negative: they represent negative passions, but also positive passions of figures that once transformed in animals generate wise people: Europa and Jupiter as a bull generate Minos, wise King of Crete; Fillira and Saturn as a horse generate Chirone, centaur and teacher of Achille .

Img 20The picture of Europa naked has the most ancient precedent in the mosaic of Aquileia (see img 8)

The legs of Europa have a disordered posture, the right one bend on the back of the bull, the other one, extended on the side, as in the precedent in Durer drawing (see img 14).

Title: Europa raped by Jupiter Artist: Giulio Bonasone (1510 - post 1576)Date: 1546 Location: New York, Metropolitan Museum of ArtTypology: engraving on wood

Img 21The subject is taken from a sketch by Raffaello, not recalled among his known works. Bonasone accurately duplicates the scene, attaching to it a personal and original mark due to his manual and creative ability.

Img 21

The scene is defined simultaneous or synchronic, because it puts together on the same paper different moments of the Myth (see Img 18). In the centre the moment when Europa puts a flower crown of the bull, made by her maids, the animal is lying down to help the girl to climb on him; to the left the three girls working; in the back ground the bull swimming towards Crete .Mercury is in the form of a shepherd and Neptune is in the sea

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Andrea Meldolla, called Schiavone (1510/15151563) or Lambert Sustris (1515-1591) Date: Second half of XVI CenturyLocation: : Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Type: Oil painting on canvas

Img 22A small painting originally inserted in a frame together with another canvas depicting the Myth of Nesso e Deianira (*) represents a very simple scene of Europa who, against her will, is brought by sea by Jupiter-bull. (*) dramatic Myth, Nesso is killed by Deianira husband Eracle and kills Eracle through Deianirawith a shirt poisoned with his own blood.

The work presents a typical venetian extraordinary naturalism e.g. details as the bulls eye almost human and the light foam of the see waves.

Img 22

The very upset girl looks back towards her friends calling her from the beach. She holds herself tightly to the bulls horns while her dress and hair are blowing in the air because of the rapid movement of the bull, as in Ovids Metamorphoses.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Jean Cousin il Vecchio (1526-1593 ca.) Date: 1550

Location: Blois, Muse de Beaux- Arts du Chateau Type: Oil painting on canvas

Img 23Jean Cousin the old was a painter connected to the School of Fontainebleau - Ecole de Fontainbleu (c.1530c.1610, late Renaissance Mannerism) specialized in glass and engraving painting with a very independent way of working strong decorations and interest for Ancient Culture. The artist has always had a deep interest for the tales by Ovid - he was the illustrator of a whole edition of the Metamorphoses in 1566.

The painting was originally in the Hotel de la Poste in Blois, destroyed in 1940.

Img 23The episode of the rape is very common in French Renaissance and the landscape on the background - with monuments inspired to the past.

In the scene, on one side Jupiter turned in bull swims with a garland of flowers, given by Europa, around his neck; the girl is sitting with the wind blowing her hair, holding both horns.

Around them plenty of Eroti (little angels or winged spirits) (version of Luciano and Achille Tazio) riding newt holding trumpets, plants and garlands.

Img 23

Such a serene image of the rape is probably due to the original function of the painting as a decoration of a bedroom in the hotel and therefore celebrating the nuptial life. Jean Cousin represents the climax of the bulls ride, with Europa who isnt scared at all but very pleased by the Erotis parade.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Bernard SalomonDate: 1557

Location: Bernard Salomon, La Metamorphose d'Ovide figure, Lione 1557, 178 p.Client: Jean de Tournes Typology: EngravingTecnique: blockprint woodcut

Img 24

The book presents the main episodes of Ovid Metamorphoses. Each page is a concluded unity with an ornamental frame containing an image and a text:inscriptio (brief description of the title), pictura (image of one of the scenes from the Metamorphosis) and subscriptio (poetic description of the episode in the pictura).

There is a very tight relationship between text and image, a proper Picta Poesis, where poetry is defined as a talking painting and painting as a silent poetry (Guthmuller, 1997).

Img 24

The text was very successful and was re-edited in a revised and shorten version. Salomons series was often forged in Paris. The fake molds were reused out of France as in the Tetraschica by Virgil Solis (Cappelletti, 1997). The peculiarity of Salomon depends on the narrative character based on a single theme.

Img 24

Europa and the bull are travelling by sea towards Crete, in the background. On the left there is Agenore (King of Tyre-Tiro - Lebanon, Europas father) s bulls herd by the beach. In the foreground the girls of Tyre worried for the rape. The rape of Europa is represented moving from left to right, in the classical position with a hand on a horn and the other on the back of the animal with the dress blowing and the feet suspended not to wet (e.g.Img 10); The image matches the description of the rape in the Metamorphoses, and in the Ovide figure.

The girl Europa is represented with a more melancholic mood, for a not too dramatic scene see the veil in an arch.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: /Date: Second half of XVIth century

Location: Pesaro, Museo della CeramicaTypology: Ceramic plateTecnique: Majolica (diam. 27,5 cm)

Img 24aPartially inspired by the engraving illustrating the Rape of Europa in La Metamorphose d'Ovide figur (Img 24), 1557 by B. Salomon, this ceramic, as well as the other one kept still inPesaro (Img 24b), shows the tight relation between this type of decorations and the contemporary print illustrations.

Salomon represents a precedent only regarding the central figure of Europa sitting on the bull: although the bull and Europa are still not in the water, the pose and some details, as the blowing veil on the girls head, clearly recall the main group in the well-known engraving.

Img 24aOn the left there are the maids of Europa, to the right a shepherd, perhaps Mercury, while on the background, far away, the moment of the proper rape is represented with Europa brought away by Jupiter-bull.

Img 24b

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: atelier FontanaDate: 1560-1570

Location: Pesaro, Museo della CeramicaTypology: Ceramic plateTecnique: polychrome painting (16,5 cm )The subject of the rape is clearly written on the back of the plate. Also this scene presents an undeniable reliance on the engraving by Salomon (Img 24)La Metamorphose dOvide figure, 1557.

The plate dates after 1557, but before 1575 (Polidori, 1956).

Img 24b

The scene develops from left to right and the composition faithfully recalls Salomons work.

The reproduction of Salomon engraving highlights once more the luck and diffusion of it. To notice the difference compared to the original is in the more detailed representation of the city in the background, the island of Crete.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Tiziano Vecellio (1488/90-1576)Date: 1559-1562

Location: Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner MuseumClient: Filippo IIType: Oil painting on canvas

Img 25Among the works for Filippo II defined by the painter ''poetry, together with Perseo che libera Andromeda. Sent to Madrid in April 1562.The composition of the canvas is very original: the young Princess is lying down in an unseemly position while being raped and brought away by the bull in the water; in the background the maids are crying, on the foreground three angels, two in the sky with bow and arrows and the third on a dolphin as if chasing the bull.

There are different theories on the sources used: Hilliard Goldfarb (1998) sees in Jupiter-bull king Philip II bringing Europa in the New World;

Img 25Karinne Simmoneau (1999) interprets Europa as the personification of the Republic of Venice protected by Filippo II against the Turkish, represented by the fish among the waves. Shapiro (1971) quoting the text of Horace on Europa, mantains that the three angels and the monstrous fish around the girl represent passions condemned by stoic philosophy: happiness (the angel on the dolphin), desire (the angel with the arrows), fear (the monstrous fish) and pain (the angel with the arch, ancient symbol of torture).

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Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Taddeo Zuccari (1529-1566)Date: 1563-1564

Location: Caprarola, Palazzo Farnese, piano nobile, Winter apartmentsClient: Alessandro Farnese (1520-1589)Typology: wall paintingTecnique: Fresco

Img 26Future pope Paolo III, buys in 1504 the land of Caprarola as the base of his ideal family domain.The palace is by Antonio da Sangallo and Vignola, example of Renaissance Architecture and the decoration is by the brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccari, while the iconographic program was committed to three humanist man, Annibal Caro, Panvinio and Fulvio Orsini Full artistic and cultural project.

The Villa is divided in two zones: the Winter (private life) and Summer (public activities) apartments.

Img 26The image is simple and straightforward, without any redundant element very calm atmosphere. Important relationship between the Cardinal and Jupiter stories told in the room frescoes celebration of Jupiter. The Summer apartments were decorated in the '60s of XVI c. with subjects connected to the single rooms functions; The Winter one were destined to representative activities and presents a topographical iconography connected to the places where the Farnese family was ruling. In this part of the Villa there is the Room of Jupiter where in a fresco two colour medallion is represented beautiful Europa while putting a garland on the bulls horn where shes nicely sitting.

Title: Rape of Europa Artist: Martin de VosDate: 1572

Location: Bilbao, Museo de Bellas ArtesTypology: Marble sculptureTecnique: relief

Img 27According to Alessandra Baroni (Il mito di Europa, 2002, pp. 89-90) a new wave of nude figures is more and more common in the second half of XVI c. in the Netherlands. The nude figures loose their heroic attitude derived from roman sculptures towards a more soft, languid and sensual line (Img 8, 20).

Europa is not anymore portrayed as an innocent girl, but more as a mature woman in her full femininity and sensuality.

Img 27

The foreground is completely occupied by Europa raped by the bull; the girls pose, sensually layed down on the bull, will be recalled some years later by Jean Boulogne -Giambologna (Img 28) (Fontana dellOceano, Giardino di Boboli, Florence) (see also Img 16). To be noticed the flower garlands around the bull to recall the moment previous to the rape, when Europa adorns the bulls muzzle with flowers.

In the background Europas maids are desperate, while Mercury, Jupiter accomplice, is in the sky surrounded by small angels holding darts, Jupiters attribute.

ROMATitle: The rape of EuropaArtist: Jean Boulogne named Giambologna (1529-1608)Date: 1600

Location: Roma, Museo di Palazzo VeneziaTypology: Sculpture (32,6 cm)Tecnique: Bronze cast

Img 28The small bronze sculpture is not registered and there are no news about the client. Probably the work is associated to the group of Nesso and Deianira, another Myth about the lover rape.The event of Europa is not completely extraneous to the Flemish artist. He already, in 1575, had inserted the subject in a marble bas-relief at the base of the Fontanadi Oceano, in the Giardino di Boboli in Florence.

ROMAThe composition presents Europa on the back of a running bull unstable on his back paws: the girl holding a horn is sitting herself in an unstable pose unbalanced by the violence of the jump of the animal, with her head back and her look to heaven as to look for salvation.

Img 28The dramatic pose of the raped Princess and her fight against the kidnapper recalls many works where she flails and tries to free herself (Img 8, 16, 25, 27).

Title: The rape of EuropaArtist: Paolo Caliari, named Veronese (1528-1588)Date: 1580

Location: Venezia, Palazzo DucaleClient: Jacopo Contarini Type: Oil painting on canvas

Img 29Ordered for the Contarini family residence Palace in S. Samuele by Jacopo. Donated to the Serenissima at the death of Samuele in 1713, it was placed in one of the rooms of the Palazzo Ducale. In 1797 the painting was moved to Paris by french troops, and only at the beginning of XIX c. it was given back to Palazzo Ducale.

The theme is again the one in the Metamorphoses of Ovid. The painter has focused on the courtship of the girl by the bull differently than usual.

Img 29Four maids attend to the event, two are arranging the Princesss rich dresses as if she was leaving on a honey moon, the other two are picking nuptial garlands given by the angels; the dog could be interpreted as a symbol of marriage loyalty. The love atmosphere of the scene is stressed by the physical intimacy of the couple: while Europa is sitting on the bulls back, the bull is kissing her foot (see Ovids text) richness of details and complexity of the subject.

ROMATitle: The rape of EuropaArtist: Paolo Caliari, named il Veronese (1528-1588)Date: 1580

Location: Rome, Pinacoteca CapitolinaClient: Jacopo Contarini (1536-1595)Technique: Oil painting on canvas

Img 30Second version of the same subject.Three moments of the Myth are represented (see also Img 18,21).

On a hillock with trees, and a white Pyramid classical reference Europa, in the foreground, is sitting on the back of the bull gently touching her foot (original iconographic detail, invented by the artist freely interpreting literary sources: kisses on the girls hands by the bull).

ROMAAround the girl there are the maids intent to accomplish activities related to marriage.

The erotic tension (details as the naked breast) is therefore softened.

Img 30A girl is arranging Europas dress, another one is decorating her cleavage with a jewel, the last two girls are picking flower garlands falling from the angels hands flying in the upper part of the composition.

ROMAIn the foreground the presence of the Erote Cupid keeping the bull through the reins and the small angel with a torch conducting the bull to the sea in the second scene, are clear reference to the literary source of Amori di Leucippe e Clitofonte by Achille Tazio.

Img 30Finally in the background Europa is represented already in the water with the bull, turned to her maids asking for help, another .

Title: The rape of EuropaArtist: Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617)Date: 1590

Location: /Committenza: /Typology: Print Technique: Engraving (168 x 250 mm)

Img 30a

There are three series of engravings: in 1589 by G. own atelier, 1590 (with poetry by Franco Estius), in 1615. The engravings were inserted in Bernard Salomons Metamorfosi di Ovidio (Strass, 1982).

The picture is very dramatic. The sea is rough and the protagonists are excited and dynamic.

Img 30a

On the background of the composition a previous moment of the Myth is represented (Img 30, 21, 18): Mercury, brings away the bulls herd to the beach as told by Jupiter in the Metamorphoses by Ovid and recalled by other authors in the Renaissance. Jupiter is on a cloud together with an eagle, one of his typical attributes.

ROMATitle: The rape of EuropaArtist: : Giuseppe Cesari, detto il Cavalier dArpino (1568-1640)Date: 1603-1606 (Rttgen)

Location: Rome, Galleria BorgheseType: Oil painting on canvas

Img 31The canvas although dated by Tosini (Cieri Via, 1996) in the 90s of XVI c., according to Rttgen (2002), for stlystic affinity with coeval works, was probably realized between 1603 and 1606. It must have been bought or even ordered (see Mythologica, 2005) by Scipione Borghese directly from the painter. First certain news about its presence in the family collection in 1650 (Manilli).

ROMAThe painting depicts the moment of the rape according to the text by Angelo Poliziano (1454-1494, poet, humanist and playwright ).

Img 31Europa, sitting on a side on the back of the bull is looking at her scared friends.

Shes represented with a cloak and the dress blowing in the wind while holding herself to a horn of the bull; the other hand is embracing the neck of the animal as told in Ovids Fasti. The dark grey colour of the bull is detaching from Ovids description and is original compared to any other artistic and literary source. But the white spot on the muzzle is mentioned by Mosco (II sec. B.C.).

ROMATo the top left Cupid, while riding an eagle and shooting an arrow towards the protagonists of the Myth: symbolic allusion to the love of Jupiter for Europa, but also reference, to the Borghese family heraldic symbol - the eagle (Kristina Herrman Fiore, Mythologica, 2005) - a reason more to think to a direct order to the painter by Scipione.

Img 31In the background to the right, behind the group of desperate girls, a shepherd, probably Mercury, walking the herd away. Patrizia Tosini (Cieri Via, 1996) interprets as the model of the composition the engraving by Goltzius, 1590 (Img 30a) where although Cupid is Jupiter and there is a general more open composition. K. Herrman Fiore (2005), sees the similarity to an ancient relief once inserted on the faade of the Villa Borghese.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Pieter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)Date: 1628-1629

Location: Madrid, Museo del PradoClient: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605-1655)Technique: Oil painting on canvas(120 x 109 cm)

Img 31aWe know that Rubens 25 yrs before (1603) had seen the canvas of the venetian master during a period in Spain.

This canvas is the exact copy, together with the one with of the one with Diana e Callisto, realized by Tiziano (Img 25 1559) for King Philip II.Rubens shows his deep knowledge of Tizianos work in each detail.

Img 31aThe flemish painter was also very well educated on classical culture and had a direct knowledge of the Classic Literature, perhaps even the Metamorphoses.

This helped to face the work on mythological themes.

Different technical aspects: canvas in Flandre fabric a clear-grey ground colour giving to the painting a more background cold tone in contrast with a series of warm colours

Img 31a 25 RUBENS 1628

TIZIANO 1559

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Erasmus Quellinus (1607-1678)Date: 1636-1637

Location: Madrid, Museo del PradoClient: Filippo IV di Spagna (1605-1655)Technique: Oil painting on canvas

Img 32Erasmus Quellinus was a flemish painter who worked in Rubens atelier. The painting used to be in the Real Academia di San Fernando in Madrid but originally was realized for the decoration of the Tower of the Parada, hunting pavillon for Philip IV of Spain.

Img 32The ornamental program is centred on stories on divine love. It was commited to Rubens who realize mainly drafts inspiring himself to Ovids Metamorphoses. The development of the paintings was made by pupils and partners among the others Jacob Jordaens, Cornelis de Vos, Erasmus Quellinus. The scene represents the moment when Europa turns back to the beach, the right hand is on the horn and the dress is blowing in the wind.Static pose, except for the wind in the the dress and hair.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Guido Reni (1575-1642)Date: 1638-40Location: London, collezione Denis Mahon. the National GalleryClient: Vladislao IV Vasa, king of Poland Technique: Oil painting on canvas

Img 33This is Renis third version of the Rape of Europa (1632-35 for king Charles I of England, lost, known only through engravings; another one for the collector don Diego Felipe de Guzman, today in Milan; the third one is probably a variation of the second one today in the Hermitage in S. Petersburg).

Img 33The work is focused on the central group, leaving the landscape context on the far back. The bull, decorated with a garland, is swimming but seems lifted up compared to water level. Europa also looks suspended on the water. The central moment of the Myth had been already repeated and codified by artistic traditions a very successful theme among the clients. The winged angel, interpreted as Eros (arch and arrows), crosses his glance with Europa. Reni stresses the girls enchanted, ecstatic, and mystical expression. Coherently she turns her look up and not back to her maids as told by the literary sources.

Img 33Its interesting to notice the position recalling the Santa Cecilia by Raffaello (Img 33a), an intense iconographic parallel in forms and meaning of the classic Myth and the Christian values connected to the rape of the soul towards God to reach celestial beatitude. Reni mixes and transforms sacred and profane in a sort of well done allegory of the salvation of human soul.

Title: Ecstasy of Santa CeciliaArtist: Raffaello (1483-1520)Date: 1514Location: Pinacoteca Nazionale, BolognaTechnique: Oil painting on wood transferred on canvas canvas

Img 33a

Img 34Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Bernardo Strozzi (1581/82-1644)Date: 1640-1644Location: Poznan (PL), Museum NarodoweType: Oil painting on canvas One of the more extimated works by Strozzi in Venice. It belongs to the Raczynski collection (catalogue, 1841). Its a late production of the artist (around 1640 1644), as shown by the reference to the great XVI c. tradition. In particular the inspiration is Paolo Veroneses work (Img 29-30), as demonstrated by the theme of the raped heroine by Jupiter - bull, justification for a debunk novel and lightly erotic.

Img 34The white dog, bottom to left, the group of angels and the look of Europa towards them recalls Caliari-Veronese. Finally the Princess is not stable on the back of the bull that prances towards the exterior of the picture as to invade the spectator space, giving more impulse to the movement of the animal.While the senxual and erotic character of the raped girl recalls the painting by Veronese in the Galleria Capitolina (Img 30), also known through plenty of replicas. Despite the figurative reference the moment of the episode is not the same. Here the proper moment of the rape is represented: Europa is being transported towards the sea by the bull and turns towards the maids while four angels surround her.

Img 29,30

STROZZI, 1640 -1644, Poland1580, Rm 1580, Ve - PAOLO CALIARI - VERONESE

Title: Landscape with rape of EuropaArtist: Claude Galle, named Lorrain (1600-1682)Date: 1655

Location: Mosca, Pushkin MuseumClient: papa Alessandro VII Chigi (1655-1667)Technique: Oil painting on canvas

Img 35The context of the mythological scene is an extraordinary natural landscape view with an elegiac atmosphere. The artist develops the mythological theme as a justification to treat and to celebrate the marine landscape, true protagonist of the canvas.

In the centre young Europa, has climbed on the bull adorned with garlands. The girls to the left, are probably working the same garlands.

Img 35Jupiter is bringing Europa to the sea, accompanied by two maids: the parade is clearly moving as the blowing dresses suggest. This detail is taken from the literary sources as well as from the figurative tradition that in 600 tend to represent the popular scene in a standardised way (recall of some classical elements: girls position on the bull and/or the veil blowing in the wind).

But here, as in other pictures, the same details are represented in the moment when the girl is still on the land, differently from the literary sources.

Img 35

To the right there are bulls grazing, perhaps the herd looked after Mercury- shepherd. There are also more human figures some lying in the shade of the beeches recalling Virgil (70-19 BC.)s bucolic verses (Bucoliche, 38 BC.).

ROMETitle: Rape of EuropaArtist: Mattia Preti (1613-1699)Date: 1640-66

Location: Rome, Galleria PallaviciniClient: Filippo III ColonnaTecnique: Oil painting on canvas

Img 36This painting was part of a series of works dedicated by the painter to love rape by gods.

It was ordered by Filippo III Colonna for the marriage of Margherita Colonna with the Duke Giulio Cesare Rospigliosi.

ROMEThe scene shows the proper instant when Europa is raped and brought to the sea by the bull-Jupiter.

Img 36The girl, sitting on a side, holds with her left hand a horn while above her there are two angels flying, recurrent motif of the XVII c. figurative tradition. The scene is completed by the maids as witnesses of the rape, who in vain try to pull the bulls tail.

Moreover the bull is pulled in the sea by one of the angels by the horns very dynamic and excited scene.

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Guido Cagnacci (1601-1663)Date: 1650

Location: Marano di Castenaso (Bologna) , Collezione Molinari PradelliTecnique: Oil painting on canvas (115,5 x 94,5 cm)

Img 37This painting seem to have as a model the work by di Guido Reni (Img 33) adding more sensuality to scene, inspired by northern artists as Goltzius (Img 30a).

Img 30a 33RENI 1638 GOLTZIUS 1590

This peculiar interpretation of the story of Jupiter and Europa is the strong sensual attitude, a unicum compared to the iconographic tradition of the Myth

Img 37Europa is the absolute protagonist of the picture represented as a proper classic heroine:hair blowing in the wind, the light dress leaving her breast uncovered, her inspired attitude, sitting on the bull, with a domesticated look, adorned of roses (the same on her dress).

Theme as opportunity for technical experiments:Modern style, very far from traditional academic pattern.

Img 38Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Valentin Serov Date: 1910

Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas

Very peculiar geometric diagonal movement composition, very high horizon line: Elongated forms to stress dynamism.Even the horizon is on movement, with moving waves and the dolphins accompany the movement of Zeus for a stronger dynamism.Experimental work also on colours: red bull and special blue-violet colour for the see, very expressionist. Flower motifs and simple shapes recall Liberty Style.

Theme as opportunity for technical experiments for all artists.Simple signs, close to Cubism.

Img 39Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Henri MatisseDate: 1929

Location: National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australia

Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas

Contemporary times have seen the representation of the Myth reflecting political and cultural changes of the continent.

In the period between the wars the Myth has been repudiating fascist movements and their attempt to rape Europa, intended as bloody conquest of the continent imposing the image of a white and Aryan Europa.More recently the Myth has represented new European unity and the integrated idea of eastern and western territories, separated by the Cold War in the 50s. There are Europes exhibiting stars in a circle representing many nations and different flags.

1933: year of Hitlers conquest of power in Germany

Img 40

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Max Beckmann Date: 1933

Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Max Beckmann presents Europa laying down on a dark bull, dark as the Nazi shirt (symbol of power and arrogance) and expressing the cry against violence on her face.So called degenerated artist

Critique of war and violence, the bull is black and full of red blood

Img 40aTitle: Rape of EuropaArtist: Hugo Claus (1929-2008)Date: ?

Location: Tecnique: Paint on paper

Art sustaining and celebrating polical movements.

Img 41Title: Aryan Europa Artist: Werner PeynerDate: 1937

Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Europa is blonde and Aryan.

Propaganda subject:two bulls represent the two continents, Africa (black) and Europa (red, referring to French Socialism) wearing a fashionable hat.

Img 42Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Arthur JohnsonDate: 1935

Location: Tecnique: Drawing for a magazine coverReference to Mussolini who has sacrificed some of his positions in Europe for his interests in Ethiopia.

Celebration of political and cultural unity.

Img 43Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: /Date: /

Location: Typology: Print

The geographical map of Europe represents the background of the group Europe and the bull, almost static, triumphal, celebrating the continent and unity dress with flags and symbols.

Celebration of political and cultural unity

Img 44Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: /Date: 2000

Location: Typology: Coin

Dynamic trip, adventure, projection to the future?

Great today social and cultural transformations have brought to representations where Europa is not anymore a victim or acquiescent.

Img 45

Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: UrsulaDate: 1987

Location: Tecnique: Oil painting on canvas Here Europa in the center of the image, acts as the protagonist. At the same time her hairstyle, the bulls pattern and the context recall a world where the exotic is mixed to the global world and Europa is not anymore the center of the planet.

In 2006, after having focused exclusively on the Abu Ghraib series for over 14 months, Botero returned to the themes of his early life such as the family and maternity, and Europe - basic themes .

Img 46Title: Rape of EuropaArtist: Fernando BoteroDate: 2007

Location: Tecnique: Bronze sculpture

Same cultural movement is at the base of international, extra-european representations from Japan to Latin America. New symbol of universality, free interpretation through single cultures spread around the world in a world where many people have moved to Europe as in the past they moved from Europe to the New World.

Interesting cultural hybridsEuropa is not scared to move from eastern to western lands to discovered new worlds bringing a new culture. Its figure reminds us that people have always transmigrated and that people movements always bring important exchanges and cultural and social innovation.

http://www.inos.it/ mainly

http://www.treccani.it/scuola/tesine/viaggio_e_mito/15.html Luisa Passerini, Il mito dEuropa. Radici antiche per nuovi simboli, Firenze, Giunti, 2002.

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