book (2) Φυσική

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Transcript of book (2) Φυσική

  • 2008-2010

  • :

    1-

    4 , ,

    :

    5-

    20 .

    5 11

    :

    21-

    43 &

    22 23 25 33 37

    43-

    47

    44 45

    48-

    56 ,

    57-

    67 2

    57 61

    :

    61-

    89 ( )

    69 70 73 75 78 80 81

  • 1

    1. ;

    .

    .. xA = +3m, x = -2m -

    .

    2. ;

    ,

    .

    x & x .

    .. , -

    :

    x = x - x = (3 (-2))m = 5m.

    , :

    xA = xA - xA = (-2 3)m = -5m.

    ( ).

    3. ;

    () .

    :

    : m/s

    -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 (m)

  • 2

    km/h.

    , t = 2s,

    :

    :

    :

    , , , ,

    (.., , , , ).

    . ,

    . , -

    ,

    4. ;

    s, -

    . .

    100m 50 .

    s = 150m.

    5. .

    , , , ...

    ;

    -

    (s) (t) , :

  • 3

    s1 = 200m t1 = 100s.

    t2 = 50s 400m t3 = 150s. :

    S = (200+400)m = 600m

    t = (100+50+150)s = 300s.

    :

    :

    : :

    .

    . ( )

    -

    .

  • 4

    1. ,

    -

    x1 =

    4m, x2 = 2m,

    t1 = 4s. x3 = 6m.

    t2 = 5s. , t3 = 10s x4 = -2m.

    . .

    . ;

    . .

    . ;

    2. 10km 15min.

    . ;

    . t =10min

    ;

    . ,

    . ;

    -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (m)

  • 5

    1. .

    ( ). ,

    .

    x t .

    (1)

    x = x x, :

    (2)

    x () t

    .

    :

    | | (3)

    ( ),

    .

    . = -10m/s.

    x = 50m ( , . ). t =

    40s:

    x = t = -400m s = 400m.

    x = x + t = -350m.

    x x -

    .

    :

    (1) (2) .

    .

    ,

    .

  • 6

    2.

    - (x t) -

    ( x)

    ( t).

    t, x,

    .

    ( t = 0)

    :

    -

    ,

    .

    -

    , x.

    (0) , -

    , .

    ( t = 0)

    , ,

    :

    ,

    .

    , -

    .

    -0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5

    -0.5

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    2

    2.5

    3

    3.5

    t (s)

    v (m/s)

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    20

    22

    24

    26

    28

    t (s)

    x (m)

    x

    x

    t

    t

  • 7

    5m/s,

    . t = 0,

    x = -10m, .,

    :

    x = -10 + 5t

    , t1 = 2s,

    t2 = 4s .

    - .

    x t ( ,

    ):

    t = (3-1)s = 2s, :

    = x = 10m

    ,

    S = 10m.

    2s 4s

    0 10m

    -0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

    -14-12-10

    -8-6-4-2

    2468

    1012141618

    t (s)

    x (m)

    -0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5-0.5

    0.51

    1.52

    2.53

    3.54

    4.55

    5.56

    6.57

    7.58

    8.59

    9.5

    t (s)

    v (m/s)

  • 8

    1: . /.

  • 9

    1. x = 50m,

    = 15m/s.

    . t = 30s,

    .

    . ;

    . =

    -5m/s;

    2. (x = 0)

    to = 0 = 2m/s.

    . t = 5s;

    . 20m ,

    ;

    . , , ;

    3. 20

    . t1 = 10s

    1 = -2m/s. t2 = 5s 2 = 6m/s.

    . 10s ;

    . ;

    . , (. .);

    . ;

    4. . 4m/s

    x = -10m.

    . t1 = 2s, t2 = 2,5s t3 = 5s.

    . .

    . .

  • 10

    . , .

    5. , :

    (t = 0) x = 0.

    t1 = 5s x1 = 10m.

    t2 = 7s. x3 =

    4m, t3 = 10s

    . (x-t) .

    . tA(0 5s), t(5s 7s),

    t(7s 10s);

    . .

    . ;

    6.

    - .

    .

    ,

    .

    i)

    ; (

    ).

    ii)

    t = 0;

    iii) ;

    , :

    . ( t )

    .

    . t = 4s.

    0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

    2468

    10121416182022242628

    t (s)

    x (m)

  • 11

    1. ( ;)

    , .

    . ,

    ( ) .

    .. , -

    = 2m/s -

    = -

    1m/s2.

    -

    . -

    ,

    = -

    4m/s =

    -4m/s2 . -

    ( )

    m/s2 ( S.I.)

    2. - .

    ,

    . (

    ), -

    .

    , -

    , . -

    .

    (+)

  • 12

    ,

    :

    (4)

    ,

    t.

    (4).

    ,

    , (4) :

    | | | | | |

    , -

    , (-)

    , .

    , , -

    :

    (5)

    :

    (6)

    , (5 & 6) x, -

    .

    ,

    ,

    , :

    | |

    | | (7)

  • 13

    (-) .

    .

    , -

    , :

    ; !

    , , :

    | | | | | | | | | |

    | |

    ;

    (7) ,

    !

    | |

    | | | |

    | |

    | |

    | | (

    | |

    | |)

    , :

    | |

    .

    1. 30m/s.

    4m/s2. t = 2s, :

    = | | ||t = (30-42)m/s =

    22m/s

    :

    s =||t ||t2 =

    = (302- 44)m = 52m.

    :

    | |

    | |

    :

    | |

  • 14

    2. x =

    2m, = 15m/s = -3m/s2.

    -

    ,

    :

    = + t

    = [15 +(-3)2+m/s

    = 9m/s

    :

    x = x + t + t2 = *2+152 + (-3)4+m = 26m.

    :

    x = t + t2 = *152 + (-3)4+m = 24m.

    , , -

    :

    s = | | t - ||t2 = *152 - 34+m = 24m

    3. , x = 0

    to = 0 = - 4m/s = 1m/s2.

    t1 =

    2s, -

    :

    1 = + t

    1 = (-4 + 12)m/s

    1 = -2m/s.

    () 2m/s.

    t2 = 4s, :

    2 = (-4+14)m/s = 0, .

    t3 = 6s:

    3 = (-4+16)m/s = 2m/s. ,

    2m/s. ( ).

    -8 -6 0

  • 15

    :

    x = x + t + t2.

    :

    x1 = (-42 + 14)m = -6m

    x2 = (-44+ 116)m = -8m

    x3 = (-46+ 136)m = -6m.

    :

    x = x3 x = (- 6 0)m = -6 m.

    , :

    x = t + t2

    = (-46 + 162)m = -6m.

    3. .

    . ,

    , .

    , . , -

    .

    .. = 2m/s2 = 0, -

    -

    . ( 2s

    4m/s).

    , -

    ,

    ( )

    ( -

    ). ( 2).

    2: . /

    (m/s)

    t(s) (m/s) t(s)

    0 0 0 0 4 2 4 0 = 4 2-0 = 2 8 4 8 4 = 4 4-2 = 2

    12 6 12 8 = 4 6-4 = 2 16 8 16 12 = 4 8-6 = 2 20 10 20 16 = 4 10-8 = 2 24 12 24 20 = 4 12-10 = 2

  • 16

    -

    ,

    .

    , -

    .

    :

    -

    ,

    . , , .

    1 2 3 4 5

    -4

    -3

    -2

    -1

    1

    2

    3

    4

    t (s)

    (m/s^2)>0

  • 17

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    55

    60

    65

    70

    75

    t (s)

    x (m)

    : .

    ;

    , .

    ().

    , , -

    (

    )

  • 18

    1. = 2m/s2.

    t = 0 x = 4m = 3m/s:

    . ; ( ).

    . t = 2s;

    . ;

    . ;

    2. = -2m/s2.

    t = 0 x = 0, = 4m/s:

    . ; ( ).

    . t = 1s;

    . t;

    . ;

    3. = 2m/s2.

    t = 0 = -5