Bible Book

Bible 1 Bible The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism or Christianity. Different religious groups include different books within their canons, in different orders, and sometimes divide or combine books, or incorporate additional material into canonical books. Christian Bibles range from the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon to the eighty-one books of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church canon. The Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, contains twenty-four books divided into three parts; the five books of the Torah ("teaching" or "law"), the Nevi'im ("prophets"), and the Ketuvim ("writings"). The first part of Christian Bibles is the Old Testament, which contains, at minimum, the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible divided into thirty-nine books and ordered differently than the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic Church and Eastern Christian churches also hold certain deuterocanonical books and passages to be part of the Old Testament canon. The second part is the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books; the four Canonical gospels, Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one Epistles or letters and the Book of Revelation. By the 2nd century BCE Jewish groups had called the Bible books "holy," and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" (τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια, tà biblía tà ágia) or "Holy Scriptures" (Αγία Γραφή, Agía Graphḗ). Many Christians consider the whole canonical text of the Bible to be divinely inspired. The oldest surviving complete Christian Bibles are Greek manuscripts from the 4th century. The oldest Tanakh manuscript in Hebrew and Aramaic dates to the 10th century CE, [1] but an early 4rth-century Septuagint translation is found in the Codex Vaticanus. The Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne [2] and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse. The Bible has estimated annual sales of 25 million copies, [3][4] and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West where it was the first mass printed book.


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The Gutenberg Bible, the first printed Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰβιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is acanonical collection of textsconsidered sacred in Judaism orChristianity. Different religious groupsinclude different books within theircanons, in different orders, andsometimes divide or combine books, orincorporate additional material intocanonical books. Christian Biblesrange from the sixty-six books of theProtestant canon to the eighty-onebooks of the Ethiopian OrthodoxChurch canon.

The Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, containstwenty-four books divided into three parts; the five books of the Torah ("teaching" or "law"), the Nevi'im("prophets"), and the Ketuvim ("writings"). The first part of Christian Bibles is the Old Testament, which contains, atminimum, the twenty-four books of the Hebrew Bible divided into thirty-nine books and ordered differently than theHebrew Bible. The Catholic Church and Eastern Christian churches also hold certain deuterocanonical books andpassages to be part of the Old Testament canon. The second part is the New Testament, containing twenty-sevenbooks; the four Canonical gospels, Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one Epistles or letters and the Book of Revelation.

By the 2nd century BCE Jewish groups had called the Bible books "holy," and Christians now commonly call theOld and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" (τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια, tà biblía tà ágia) or "HolyScriptures" (Αγία Γραφή, Agía Graphḗ). Many Christians consider the whole canonical text of the Bible to bedivinely inspired. The oldest surviving complete Christian Bibles are Greek manuscripts from the 4th century. Theoldest Tanakh manuscript in Hebrew and Aramaic dates to the 10th century CE,[1] but an early 4rth-centurySeptuagint translation is found in the Codex Vaticanus.The Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and into verses in the 16th century byFrench printer Robert Estienne[2] and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse. The Bible has estimatedannual sales of 25 million copies,[3][4] and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in theWest where it was the first mass printed book.

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An American family Bible dating to1859.

The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in MedievalLatin and Late Latin and ultimately from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία ta biblia "thebooks" (singular βιβλίον biblion).[5]

Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greekand Late Latin is neuter plural (gen. bibliorum). It gradually came to be regardedas a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so theword was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.[6] Latinbiblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia,"the holy books".[7]

The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and cameto be used as the ordinary word for "book". It is the diminutive of βύβλος bublos,"Egyptian papyrus", possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea portByblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported toGreece. The Greek ta biblia (lit. "little papyrus books")[8] was "an expression

Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books (the Septuagint).[9][10] Christian use of the term can be traced toca. 223 CE.[5] The biblical scholar F.F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer (in his Homilies onMatthew, delivered between 386 and 388) to use the Greek phrase ta biblia ("the books") to describe both the Oldand New Testaments together.[11]

Hebrew Bible

The Nash Papyrus (2nd century BCE) contains aportion of a pre-Masoretic Text, specifically the

Ten Commandments and the Shema Yisraelprayer.

The Masoretic Text is the authoritative Hebrew text of the HebrewBible. While the Masoretic Text defines the books of the Jewish canon,it also defines the precise letter-text of these biblical books, with theirvocalization and accentuation.

The oldest extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date fromapproximately the 9th century CE,[12] and the Aleppo Codex (once theoldest complete copy of the Masoretic Text, but now missing its Torahsection) dates from the 10th century.

Tanakh (Hebrew: תנ"ך) reflects the threefold division of the HebrewScriptures, Torah ("Teaching"), Nevi'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim("Writings").


The Torah (תּוֹרָה) is also known as the "Five Books of Moses" or thePentateuch, meaning "five scroll-cases".[13] The Hebrew names of thebooks are derived from the first words in the respective texts.

The Torah comprises the following five books:• Genesis, Bereshith (בראשית)• Exodus, Shemot (שמות)• Leviticus, Vayikra (ויקרא)• Numbers, Bamidbar (במדבר)• Deuteronomy, Devarim (דברים)

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The first eleven chapters of Genesis provide accounts of the creation (or ordering) of the world and the history ofGod's early relationship with humanity. The remaining thirty-nine chapters of Genesis provide an account of God'scovenant with the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (also called Israel) and Jacob's children, the"Children of Israel", especially Joseph. It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in thecity of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt. Theremaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs. He leadsthe Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai andtheir wanderings in the desert until a new generation was ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah ends with thedeath of Moses.[14]

The Torah contains the commandments of God, revealed at Mount Sinai (although there is some debate amongtraditional scholars as to whether these were all written down at one time, or over a period of time during the 40years of the wanderings in the desert, while several modern Jewish movements reject the idea of a literal revelation,and critical scholars believe that many of these laws developed later in Jewish history).[15][16][17][18] Thesecommandments provide the basis for Jewish religious law. Tradition states that there are 613 commandments (taryagmitzvot).

Nevi'imNevi'im (Hebrew: נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Tanakh, between the Torah andKetuvim. It contains two sub-groups, the Former Prophets (Nevi'im Rishonim נביאים ראשונים, the narrative books ofJoshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Nevi'im Aharonim נביאים אחרונים, the books of Isaiah,Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets).The Nevi'im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel andJudah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically,struggles between believers in "the LORD God"[19] and believers in foreign gods,[20][21] and the criticism of unethicaland unjust behavior of Israelite elites and rulers;[22][23][24] in which prophets played a crucial and leading role. Itends with the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians followed by the conquest of the Kingdom of Judahby the Babylonians and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Former Prophets

The Former Prophets are the books Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings. They contain narratives that beginimmediately after the death of Moses with the divine appointment of Joshua as his successor, who then leads thepeople of Israel into the Promised Land, and end with the release from imprisonment of the last king of Judah.Treating Samuel and Kings as single books, they cover:• Joshua’s conquest of the land of Canaan (in the Book of Joshua),• the struggle of the people to possess the land (in the Book of Judges),• the people's request to God to give them a king so that they can occupy the land in the face of their enemies (in

the books of 1st & 2nd Samuel)•• the possession of the land under the divinely appointed kings of the House of David, ending in conquest and

foreign exile (1st and 2nd Kings)

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The Book of Joshua (Yehoshua יהושע) contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua.After Moses' death, Joshua, by virtue of his previous appointment as Moses' successor, receives from God thecommand to cross the Jordan River.The book consists of three parts:•• the history of the conquest of the land (1-12).• allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites

(13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes.•• the farewell addresses of Joshua, with an account of his death (23, 24).


The Book of Judges (Shoftim שופטים) consists of three distinct parts:•• the introduction (1:1-3:10 and 3:12) giving a summary of the book of Joshua• the main text (3:11-16:31), discussing the five Great Judges, Abimelech, and providing glosses for a few minor

Judges•• appendices (17:1-21:25), giving two stories set in the time of the Judges, but not discussing the Judges



The Books of Samuel (Shmu'el שמואל) consists of five parts:• the period of God's rejection of Eli, Samuel's birth, and subsequent judgment (1 Samuel 1:1-7:17)• the life of Saul prior to meeting David (1 Samuel 8:1-15:35)•• Saul's interaction with David (1 Samuel 16:1-2 Samuel 1:27)•• David's reign and the rebellions he suffers (2 Samuel 2:1-20:22)•• an appendix of material concerning David in no particular order, and out of sequence with the rest of the text (2

Samuel 22:1-24:25)A conclusion of sorts appears at 1 Kings 1-2, concerning Solomon enacting a final revenge on those who did whatDavid perceived as wrongdoing, and having a similar narrative style. While the subject matter in the Book(s) ofSamuel is also covered by the narrative in Chronicles, it is noticeable that the section (2 Sam. 11:2-12:29) containingan account of the matter of Bathsheba is omitted in the corresponding passage in 1 Chr. 20.


The Books of Kings (Melakhim מלכים) contains accounts of the kings of the ancient Kingdom of Israel and theKingdom of Judah, and the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon until the subjugationof the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians.

Latter Prophets

The Latter Prophets are divided into two groups, the "major" prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, and the twelveminor prophets, collected into a single book.


The 66 chapters of Isaiah (Yeshayahu [ישעיהו]) consist primarily of prophecies of the judgments awaiting nationsthat are persecuting Judah. These nations include Babylon, Assyria, Philistia, Moab, Syria, Israel (the northernkingdom), Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, and Phoenicia. The prophecies concerning them can be summarized as sayingthat Yahweh is the God of the whole earth, and that nations which think of themselves as secure in their own powermight well be conquered by other nations, at God's command.

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Chapter 6 describes Isaiah's call to be a prophet of God. Chapters 35-39 provide material about King Hezekiah.Chapters 24-34, while too complex to characterize easily, are primarily concerned with prophecies of a messiah, aperson anointed or given power by God, and of the messiah's kingdom, where justice and righteousness will reign.This section is seen by Jews as describing an king, a descendant of their great king, David, who will make Judah agreat kingdom and Jerusalem a truly holy city.The prophecy continues with what can be characterized as a "book of comfort"[25] which begins in chapter 40 andcompletes the writing. In the first eight chapters of this book of comfort, Isaiah prophesies the deliverance of theJews from the hands of the Babylonians and restoration of Israel as a unified nation in the land promised to them byGod. Isaiah reaffirms that the Jews are indeed the chosen people of God in chapter 44 and that Yahweh is the onlyGod for the Jews as he will show his power over the gods of Babylon in due time in chapter 46. In chapter 45:1 thePersian ruler Cyrus is named as the messiah who will overthrow the Babylonians and allow the return of Israel totheir original land. The remaining chapters of the book contain prophecies of the future glory of Zion under the ruleof a righteous servant (52 & 54). Chapter 53 contains a poetic prophecy about this servant which is generallyconsidered by Christians to refer to Jesus, although Jews generally interpret it as a reference to God's people.Although there is still the mention of judgment of false worshippers and idolaters (65 & 66), the book ends with amessage of hope of a righteous ruler who extends salvation to his righteous subjects living in the Lord's kingdom onearth.


The Book of Jeremiah (Yirmiyahu [ירמיהו]) can be divided into twenty-three subsections, and its contents organizedinto five sub-sections:•• the introduction, ch. 1•• scorn for the sins of Israel, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.)

ch. 14-17:18; (6.) ch. 17:19-ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24•• a general review of all nations, foreseeing their destruction, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with an

historical appendix of three sections, (1.) ch. 26; (2.) ch. 27; (3.) ch. 28, 29•• two sections picturing the hopes of better times, (1.) ch. 30, 31; (2.) ch. 32,33; to which is added an historical

appendix in three sections, (1.) ch. 34:1-7; (2.) ch. 34:8-22; (3.) ch. 351.1. the conclusion, in two sections, (1.) ch. 36; (2.) ch. 45.In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three sections, viz., ch. 37-39; 40-43; and 44. Theprincipal messianic prophecies are found in 23:1-8; 31:31-40; and 33:14-26.Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in them of the same words, phrases, and imagery.They cover the period of about 30 years. They are not in chronological order.


The Book of Ezekiel (Yehezq'el [יחזקאל]) contains three distinct sections.• the Judgment on Israel - Ezekiel makes a series of denunciations against his fellow Judeans ( 3:22-24 [26]),

warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in opposition to the words of the false prophets (4:1-3 [27]).The symbolic acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem would be reduced are described in Chapters 4and 5 [28], show his intimate acquaintance with the levitical legislation. (See, for example, Exodus 22:30 [29];Deuteronomy 14:21 [30]; Leviticus 5:2 [31]; 7:18,24 [32]; 17:15 [33]; 19:7 [34]; 22:8 [35])

• prophecies against various neighboring nations, the Ammonites ( Ezek. 25:1-7 [36]), the Moabites ( 25:8-11 [37]),the Edomites ( 25:12-14 [38]), the Philistines ( 25:15-17 [39]), Tyre and Sidon ( 26-28 [40]), and against Egypt(29-32 [41])

• prophecies delivered after the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar II: the triumphs of Israel and of the kingdom of God on earth ( Ezek. 33-39 [42] ); Messianic times, and the establishment and prosperity of the

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kingdom of God ( 40-48 [43]).

Twelve Minor Prophets

The Twelve, Trei Asar (תרי עשר), also called the Twelve Minor Prophets• Hosea, Hoshea (הושע)• Joel, Yoel (יואל)• Amos, Amos (עמוס)• Obadiah, Ovadyah (עבדיה)• Jonah, Yonah (יונה)• Micah, Mikhah (מיכה)• Nahum, Nahum (נחום)• Habakkuk, Havakuk (חבקוק)• Zephaniah, Tsefanya (צפניה)• Haggai, Khagay (חגי)• Zechariah, Zekharyah (זכריה)• Malachi, Malakhi (מלאכי)

KetuvimKetuvim or Kəṯûḇîm (in Biblical Hebrew: כְּתוּבִים "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh. TheKetuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach HaKodesh, but with one level less authority than that ofprophecy.[44]

The poetic books

In Masoretic manuscripts (and some printed editions), Psalms, Proverbs and Job are presented in a specialtwo-column form emphasizing the parallel stitches in the verses, which are a function of their poetry. Collectively,these three books are known as Sifrei Emet (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields Emet אמ"ת,which is also the Hebrew for "truth").These three books are also the only ones in Tanakh with a special system of cantillation notes that are designed toemphasize parallel stichs within verses. However, the beginning and end of the book of Job are in the normal prosesystem.

The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot)

The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book of Ruth, the Book of Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Book ofEsther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (Five Megillot). These are the latest books collected anddesignated as "authoritative" in the Jewish canon even though they were not complete until the 2nd century CE.[45]

Other books

Besides the three poetic books and the five scrolls, the remaining books in Ketuvim are Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah andChronicles. Although there is no formal grouping for these books in the Jewish tradition, they nevertheless share anumber of distinguishing characteristics:•• Their narratives all openly describe relatively late events (i.e. the Babylonian captivity and the subsequent

restoration of Zion).•• The Talmudic tradition ascribes late authorship to all of them.• Two of them (Daniel and Ezra) are the only books in Tanakh with significant portions in Aramaic.

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Order of the books

The following list presents the books of Ketuvim in the order they appear in most printed editions. It also dividesthem into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of Sifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot.The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet)• Tehillim (Psalms) תְהִלִּים• Mishlei (Book of Proverbs) מִשְלֵי• Iyyôbh (Book of Job) אִיּוֹבThe Five Megillot (Hamesh Megillot)• Shīr Hashshīrīm (Song of Songs) or (Song of Solomon) שִׁיר הַשׁשִׁירִים (Passover)• Rūth (Book of Ruth) רוּת (Shābhû‘ôth)• Eikhah (Lamentations) איכה (Ninth of Av) [Also called Kinnot in Hebrew.]• Qōheleth (Ecclesiastes) קהלת (Sukkôth)• Estēr (Book of Esther) אֶסְתֵר (Pûrîm)Other books• Dānî’ēl (Book of Daniel) דָּנִיֵּאל• ‘Ezrā (Book of Ezra-Book of Nehemiah) עזרא• Divrei ha-Yamim (Chronicles) דברי הימיםThe Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra14b-15a) gives their order as Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations of Jeremiah,Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles.[46]

In Tiberian Masoretic codices, including the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanishmanuscripts as well, the order is Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes,Lamentations of Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Ezra.[47]


The Ketuvim is the last of the three portions of the Tanakh to have been accepted as biblical canon. While the Torahmay have been considered canon by Israel as early as the 5th century BCE and the Former and Latter Prophets werecanonized by the 2nd century BCE, the Ketuvim was not a fixed canon until the 2nd century of the Common Era.[48]

Evidence suggests, however, that the people of Israel were adding what would become the Ketuvim to their holyliterature shortly after the canonization of the prophets. As early as 132 BCE references suggest that the Ketuvimwas starting to take shape, although it lacked a formal title.[49] References in the four Gospels as well as other booksof the New Testament that many of these texts were both commonly known and counted as having some degree ofreligious authority early in the 1st century CE.Many scholars believe that the limits of the Ketuvim as canonized scripture were determined by the Council ofJamnia c. 90 CE. Against Apion, the writing of Josephus in 95 CE, treated the text of the Hebrew Bible as a closedcanon to which "... no one has ventured either to add, or to remove, or to alter a syllable..."[50] For a long timefollowing this date the divine inspiration of Esther, the Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes was often under scrutiny.[51]

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Original languagesThe Tanakh was mainly written in biblical Hebrew, with some portions (Ezra 4:8–6:18 and 7:12–26,Jeremiah 10:11, Daniel 2:4–7:28) in biblical Aramaic, a sister language which became the lingua franca of theSemitic world.[52]

SeptuagintThe Septuagint, or LXX, is a translation of the Hebrew scriptures and some related texts into Koine Greek, begun inthe late 3rd century BCE and completed by 132 BCE,[53][54][55] initially in Alexandria, but in time elsewhere aswell.[56] It is not altogether clear which was translated when, or where; some may even have been translated twice,into different versions, and then revised.[57]

As the work of translation progressed the canon of the Greek Bible expanded. The Torah always maintained itspre-eminence as the basis of the canon but the collection of prophetic writings, based on the Nevi'im, had varioushagiographical works incorporated into it. In addition, some newer books were included in the Septuagint, amongthese are the Maccabees and the Wisdom of Ben Sira. The Septuagint version of some Biblical books, like Danieland Esther, are longer than those in the Jewish canon.[58] Some of these apocryphal books (e.g. the Wisdom ofSolomon, and the second book of Maccabees) were not translated, but composed directly in Greek.Since Late Antiquity, once attributed to a hypothetical late 1st-century Council of Jamnia, mainstream RabbinicJudaism rejected the Septuagint as valid Jewish scriptural texts. Several reasons have been given for this. First, somemistranslations were claimed. Second, the Hebrew source texts used for the Septuagint differed from the Masoretictradition of Hebrew texts, which was chosen as canonical by the Jewish rabbis.[59] Third, the rabbis wanted todistinguish their tradition from the newly emerging tradition of Christianity.[55][60] Finally, the rabbis claimed for theHebrew language a divine authority, in contrast to Aramaic or Greek - even though these languages were the linguafranca of Jews during this period (and Aramaic would eventually be given the same holy language status asHebrew).[61]

The Septuagint is the basis for the Old Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Old Armenian, Old Georgian and Coptic versions ofthe Christian Old Testament.[62] The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches use most of the books of theSeptuagint, while Protestant churches usually do not. After the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant Biblesbegan to follow the Jewish canon and exclude the additional texts, which came to be called Biblical apocrypha. TheApocrypha are included under a separate heading in the King James Version of the Bible, the basis for the RevisedStandard Version.[63]

Incorporations from TheodotionIn most ancient copies of the Bible which contain the Septuagint version of the Old Testament, the Book of Daniel isnot the original Septuagint version, but instead is a copy of Theodotion's translation from the Hebrew, which moreclosely resembles the Masoretic text. The Septuagint version was discarded in favour of Theodotion's version in the2nd to 3rd centuries CE. In Greek-speaking areas, this happened near the end of the 2nd century, and inLatin-speaking areas (at least in North Africa), it occurred in the middle of the 3rd century. History does not recordthe reason for this, and St. Jerome reports, in the preface to the Vulgate version of Daniel, "This thing 'just'happened."[64] One of two Old Greek texts of the Book of Daniel has been recently rediscovered and work isongoing in reconstructing the original form of the book.[65]

The canonical Ezra-Nehemiah is known in the Septuagint as "Esdras B", and 1 Esdras is "Esdras A". 1 Esdras is avery similar text to the books of Ezra-Nehemiah, and the two are widely thought by scholars to be derived from thesame original text. It has been proposed, and is thought highly likely by scholars, that "Esdras B" – the canonicalEzra-Nehemiah – is Theodotion's version of this material, and "Esdras A" is the version which was previously in theSeptuagint on its own.[64]

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Final formSome texts are found in the Septuagint but are not present in the Hebrew. These additional books are Tobit, Judith,Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah (which later became chapter 6 ofBaruch in the Vulgate), additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Beland the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes,including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151.Some books that are set apart in the Masoretic text are grouped together. For example the Books of Samuel and theBooks of Kings are in the LXX one book in four parts called Βασιλειῶν ("Of Reigns"). In LXX, the Books ofChronicles supplement Reigns and it is called Paralipomenon (Παραλειπομένων—things left out). The Septuagintorganizes the minor prophets as twelve parts of one Book of Twelve.[65]

The OrthodoxOld Testament [56][66][67]


ConventionalEnglish name


Γένεσις Génesis Genesis

Ἔξοδος Éxodos Exodus

Λευϊτικόν Leuitikón Leviticus

Ἀριθμοί Arithmoí Numbers

Δευτερονόμιον Deuteronómion Deuteronomy


Ἰησοῦς Nαυῆ Iêsous Nauê Joshua

Κριταί Kritaí Judges

Ῥούθ Roúth Ruth

Βασιλειῶν Αʹ[68] I Reigns I Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Βʹ II Reigns II Samuel

Βασιλειῶν Γʹ III Reigns I Kings

Βασιλειῶν Δʹ IV Reigns II Kings

Παραλειπομένων Αʹ I Paralipomenon[69] I Chronicles

Παραλειπομένων Βʹ II Paralipomenon II Chronicles

Ἔσδρας Αʹ I Esdras 1 Esdras;

Ἔσδρας Βʹ II Esdras Ezra-Nehemiah

Τωβίτ[70] Tobit Tobit or Tobias

Ἰουδίθ Ioudith Judith

Ἐσθήρ Esther Esther with additions

Μακκαβαίων Αʹ I Makkabees 1 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Βʹ II Makkabees 2 Maccabees

Μακκαβαίων Γʹ III Makkabees 3 Maccabees


Ψαλμοί Psalms Psalms

Ψαλμός ΡΝΑʹ Psalm 151 Psalm 151

Προσευχὴ Μανάσση Prayer of Manasseh Prayer of Manasseh

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Ἰώβ Iōb Job

Παροιμίαι Proverbs Proverbs

Ἐκκλησιαστής Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes

Ἆσμα Ἀσμάτων Song of Songs Song of Solomon or Canticles

Σοφία Σαλoμῶντος Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom

Σοφία Ἰησοῦ Σειράχ Wisdom of Jesus the son of Seirach Sirach or Ecclesiasticus

Ψαλμοί Σαλoμῶντος Psalms of Solomon Psalms of Solomon[71]


Δώδεκα The Twelve Minor Prophets

Ὡσηέ Αʹ I. Osëe Hosea

Ἀμώς Βʹ II. Ämōs Amos

Μιχαίας Γʹ III. Michaias Micah

Ἰωήλ Δʹ IV. Ioel Joel

Ὀβδίου Εʹ[72] V. Obdias Obadiah

Ἰωνᾶς Ϛ' VI. Ionas Jonah

Ναούμ Ζʹ VII. Naoum Nahum

Ἀμβακούμ Ηʹ VIII. Ambakum Habakkuk

Σοφονίας Θʹ IX. Sophonias Zephaniah

Ἀγγαῖος Ιʹ X. Ängaios Haggai

Ζαχαρίας ΙΑʹ XI. Zacharias Zachariah

Ἄγγελος ΙΒʹ XII. Messenger Malachi

Ἠσαΐας Hesaias Isaiah

Ἱερεμίας Hieremias Jeremiah

Βαρούχ Baruch Baruch

Θρῆνοι Lamentations Lamentations

Ἐπιστολή Ιερεμίου Epistle of Jeremiah Letter of Jeremiah

Ἰεζεκιήλ Iezekiêl Ezekiel

Δανιήλ Daniêl Daniel with additions


Μακκαβαίων Δ' Παράρτημα IV Makkabees 4 Maccabees[73]

Christian BiblesA Christian Bible is a set of books that a Christian denomination regards as divinely inspired and thus constitutingscripture. Although the Early Church primarily used the Septuagint or the Targums among Aramaic speakers, theapostles did not leave a defined set of new scriptures; instead the canon of the New Testament developed over time.Groups within Christianity include differing books as part of their sacred writings, most prominent among which arethe biblical apocrypha or deuterocanonical books.Significant versions of the English Christian Bible include the Douay-Rheims Bible, the Revised Standard Version, the Authorized King James Version, the English Standard Version, the New King James Version, and the New

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International Version.

Old TestamentThe books which make up the Christian Old Testament differ between the Catholic, Orthodox and Protestantschurches, with the Protestant movement accepting only those books contained in the Hebrew Bible, while Catholicsand Orthodox have wider canons. A few groups consider particular translations to be divinely inspired, notably theGreek Septuagint, the Aramaic Peshitta, and the English King James Version.

Apocryphal or deuterocanonical books

In Eastern Christianity, translations based on the Septuagint still prevail. The Septuagint was generally abandoned infavour of the 10th-century Masoretic Text as the basis for translations of the Old Testament into Western languages.Some modern Western translations since the 14th century make use of the Septuagint to clarify passages in theMasoretic Text, where the Septuagint may preserve a variant reading of the Hebrew text. They also sometimes adoptvariants that appear in other texts e.g. those discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls.[74][75]

A number of books which are part of the Peshitta or Greek Septuagint but are not found in the Hebrew (Rabbinic)Bible (i.e., among the protocanonical books) are often referred to as deuterocanonical books by Roman Catholicsreferring to a later secondary (i.e. deutero) canon, that canon as fixed definitively by the Council of Trent1545-1563.[76][77] It includes 46 books for the Old Testament (45 if Jeremiah and Lamentations are counted as one)and 27 for the New.[78]

Most Protestants term these books as apocrypha. Modern Protestant traditions do not accept the deuterocanonicalbooks as canonical, although Protestant Bibles included them in Apocrypha sections until the 1820s. However,Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches include these books as part of their Old Testament.The Roman Catholic Church recognizes:[79]

•• Tobit•• Judith•• 1 Maccabees•• 2 Maccabees•• Wisdom• Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus)•• Baruch• The Letter of Jeremiah (Baruch Chapter 6)• Greek Additions to Esther (Book of Esther, chapters 10:4 – 12:6)• The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children verses 1–68 (Book of Daniel, chapter 3, verses

24–90)• Susanna (Book of Daniel, chapter 13)• Bel and the Dragon (Book of Daniel, chapter 14)In addition to those, the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches recognize the following:•• 3 Maccabees•• 1 Esdras•• Prayer of Manasseh•• Psalm 151Russian and Georgian Orthodox Churches include:• 2 Esdras i.e., Latin Esdras in the Russian and Georgian BiblesThere is also 4 Maccabees which is only accepted as canonical in the Georgian Church, but was included by St. Jerome in an appendix to the Vulgate, and is an appendix to the Greek Orthodox Bible, and it is therefore sometimes

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included in collections of the Apocrypha.The Syriac Orthodox tradition includes:• Psalms 151–155• The Apocalypse of Baruch•• The Letter of BaruchThe Ethiopian Biblical canon includes:•• Jubilees•• Enoch• 1–3 Meqabyanand some other books.The Anglican Church uses some of the Apocryphal books liturgically. Therefore, editions of the Bible intended foruse in the Anglican Church include the Deuterocanonical books accepted by the Catholic Church, plus 1 Esdras, 2Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh, which were in the Vulgate appendix.

Role in Christian theology

The Old Testament has always been central to the life of the Christian church. Bible scholar N.T. Wright says "Jesushimself was profoundly shaped by the scriptures."[80] He adds that the earliest Christians also searched those samescriptures in their effort to understand the earthly life of Jesus. They regarded the ancient Israelites' scriptures ashaving reached a climactic fulfillment in Jesus himself, generating the "new covenant" prophesied by Jeremiah.[81]

New TestamentThe New Testament is a collection of 27 books[82] of 4 different genres of Christian literature (Gospels, one accountof the Acts of the Apostles, Epistles and an Apocalypse). Jesus is its central figure. The New Testament presupposesthe inspiration of the Old Testament[83] (2 Timothy 3:16). Nearly all Christians recognize the New Testament ascanonical scripture. These books can be grouped into:

The Gospels

•• Synoptic Gospels

•• Gospel According to Matthew•• Gospel According to Mark•• Gospel According to Luke

•• Gospel According to John•• Acts of the Apostles

Pauline Epistles

•• Epistle to the Romans•• First Epistle to the Corinthians•• Second Epistle to the Corinthians•• Epistle to the Galatians•• Epistle to the Ephesians•• Epistle to the Philippians•• Epistle to the Colossians•• First Epistle to the Thessalonians•• Second Epistle to the Thessalonians

Pastoral epistles

•• First Epistle to Timothy•• Second Epistle to Timothy•• Epistle to Titus•• Epistle to Philemon•• Epistle to the Hebrews

General epistles, also called Catholic epistles

•• Epistle of James•• First Epistle of Peter•• Second Epistle of Peter•• First Epistle of John•• Second Epistle of John•• Third Epistle of John•• Epistle of Jude

Revelation, or the Apocalypse

The New Testament books are ordered differently in the Catholic/Protestant tradition, the Slavonic tradition, theSyriac tradition and the Ethiopian tradition.

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Original language

The mainstream consensus is that the New Testament was written in a form of Koine Greek,[84][85] which was thecommon language of the Eastern Mediterranean[86][87][88][89] from the Conquests of Alexander the Great (335–323BC) until the evolution of Byzantine Greek (c. 600).

Historic editions

The Codex Gigas from the 13th century, held atthe Royal Library in Sweden.

The autographs, the Greek manuscripts written by the original authors,have not survived.[90] When ancient scribes copied earlier books, theywrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correcttheir text—especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word orline—and to comment about the text. When later scribes were copyingthe copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to beincluded as part of the text. Over time, different regions evolveddifferent versions, each with its own assemblage of omissions andadditions.[91]

The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament aresometimes called the Alexandrian text-type (generally minimalist), theByzantine text-type (generally maximalist), and the Western text-type (occasionally wild). Together they comprisemost of the ancient manuscripts.

Development of the Christian canonsThe Old Testament canon entered into Christian use in the Greek Septuagint translations and original books, andtheir differing lists of texts. In addition to the Septuagint, Christianity subsequently added various writings thatwould become the New Testament. Somewhat different lists of accepted works continued to develop in antiquity. Inthe 4th century a series of synods produced a list of texts equal to the 39, 46(51),54, or 57 book canon of the OldTestament and to the 27-book canon of the New Testament that would be subsequently used to today, most notablythe Synod of Hippo in AD 393. Also c. 400, Jerome produced a definitive Latin edition of the Bible (see Vulgate),the canon of which, at the insistence of the Pope, was in accord with the earlier Synods. With the benefit of hindsightit can be said that this process effectively set the New Testament canon, although there are examples of othercanonical lists in use after this time. A definitive list did not come from an Ecumenical Council until the Council ofTrent (1545–63).[92]

During the Protestant Reformation, certain reformers proposed different canonical lists to those currently in use.Though not without debate, see Antilegomena, the list of New Testament books would come to remain the same;however, the Old Testament texts present in the Septuagint but not included in the Jewish canon fell out of favor. Intime they would come to be removed from most Protestant canons. Hence, in a Catholic context, these texts arereferred to as deuterocanonical books, whereas in a Protestant context they are referred to as the Apocrypha, whichmeans "hidden", the label applied to all texts excluded from the biblical canon but which were in the Septuagint. Itshould also be noted that Catholics and Protestants both describe certain other books, such as the Acts of Peter, asapocryphal.Thus, the Protestant Old Testament of today has a 39-book canon—the number of books (though not the content) varies from the Jewish Tanakh only because of a different method of division—while the Roman Catholic Church recognizes 46 books (51 books with some books combined into 46 books) as the canonical Old Testament. The Eastern Orthodox Churches recognise 3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Prayer of Manasseh and Psalm 151 in addition to the Catholic canon. Some include 2 Esdras. The Anglican Church also recognises a longer canon. The term "Hebrew Scriptures" is often used as being synonymous with the Protestant Old Testament, since the surviving scriptures in Hebrew include only those books, while Catholics and Orthodox include additional texts that have not survived in

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Hebrew. Both Catholics and Protestants have the same 27-book New Testament Canon.[93]

The New Testament writers assumed the inspiration of the Old Testament, probably earliest stated in 2 Timothy3:16, "All scripture is given by inspiration of God".[8]

Ethiopian Orthodox canon

The Canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is wider than the canons used by most other Christianchurches. There are 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible.[94] The Ethiopian Old Testament Canon includes thebooks found in the Septuagint accepted by other Orthodox Christians, in addition to Enoch and Jubilees which areancient Jewish books that only survived in Ge'ez but are quoted in the New Testament , also Greek Ezra First and theApocalypse of Ezra, 3 books of Meqabyan, and Psalm 151 at the end of the Psalter. The three books of Meqabyanare not to be confused with the books of Maccabees. The order of the other books is somewhat different from othergroups', as well. The Old Testament follows the Septuagint order for the Minor Prophets rather than the Jewishorder.

Divine inspirationThe Second Epistle of Timothy says that "All scripture is inspired of God." (Timothy 2 3:16-3:17)[95] Christiansbelieve that the Bible is the inspired word of God, that God, through the Holy Spirit, intervened and influenced thewords, message, and collation of the Bible. For many Christians the Bible is also infallible, and is incapable of errorin matters of faith and practice, but not necessarily in historic or scientific matters. A related, but distinguishablebelief is that the Bible is the inerrant word of God, without error in any aspect, spoken by God and written down inits perfect form by humans. Within these broad beliefs there are many schools of hermeneutics. "Bible scholars claimthat discussions about the Bible must be put into its context within church history and then into the context ofcontemporary culture."[81] Fundamentalist Christians are associated with the doctrine of biblical literalism, where theBible is not only inerrant, but the meaning of the text is clear to the average reader.[96]

Belief in sacred texts is attested to in Jewish antiquity,[97][98] and this belief can also be seen in the earliest ofChristian writings. Various texts of the Bible mention divine agency in relation to its writings.[99] In their book AGeneral Introduction to the Bible, Norman Geisler and William Nix wrote: "The process of inspiration is a mysteryof the providence of God, but the result of this process is a verbal, plenary, inerrant, and authoritative record."[100]

Most evangelical biblical scholars[101][102][103] associate inspiration with only the original text; for example someAmerican Protestants adhere to the 1978 Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy which asserted that inspirationapplied only to the autographic text of Scripture.[104] Among adherents of Biblical literalism, a minority, such as theKing-James-Only Movement, extend the claim of inerrancy only to a particular translation.

Versions and translations

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A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display inMalmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ThisBible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for

reading aloud in a monastery.

The original texts of the Tanakh were mainly in Hebrew, with someportions in Aramaic. In addition to the authoritative Masoretic Text,Jews still refer to the Septuagint, the translation of the Hebrew Bibleinto Greek, and the Targum Onkelos, an Aramaic version of the Bible.There are several different ancient versions of the Tanakh in Hebrew,mostly differing by spelling, and the traditional Jewish version is basedon the version known as Aleppo Codex. Even in this version there arewords which are traditionally read differently from written, because theoral tradition is considered more fundamental than the written one, andpresumably mistakes had been made in copying the text over thegenerations.

The primary biblical text for early Christians was the Septuagint. Inaddition, they translated the Hebrew Bible into several other languages. Translations were made into Syriac, Coptic,Ge'ez and Latin, among other languages. The Latin translations were historically the most important for the Churchin the West, while the Greek-speaking East continued to use the Septuagint translations of the Old Testament andhad no need to translate the New Testament.

The earliest Latin translation was the Old Latin text, or Vetus Latina, which, from internal evidence, seems to havebeen made by several authors over a period of time. It was based on the Septuagint, and thus included books not inthe Hebrew Bible.Pope Damasus I assembled the first list of books of the Bible at the Council of Rome in AD 382. He commissionedSaint Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin.This translation became known as the Latin Vulgate Bible and in 1546 at the Council of Trent was declared by theRoman Catholic Church to be the only authentic and official Bible in the Latin Rite.Since the Protestant Reformation, Bible translations for many languages have been made. The Bible continues to betranslated to new languages, largely by Christian organisations such as Wycliffe Bible Translators, New TribesMission and the Bible society.

Bible translations, worldwide (as of 2011)[105]

Number Statistic

6,800 Approximate number of languages spoken in the world today

1,500 Number of translations into new languages currently in progress

1,223 Number of languages with a translation of the New Testament

471 Number of languages with a translation of the Bible (Protestant Canon)

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Biblical studiesBiblical criticism refers to the investigation of the Bible as a text, and addresses questions such as authorship, datesof composition, and authorial intention. It is not the same as criticism of the Bible, which is an assertion against theBible being a source of information or ethical guidance, or observations that the Bible may have translationerrors.[106]

Higher criticismIn the 17th century Thomas Hobbes collected the current evidence to conclude outright that Moses could not havewritten the bulk of the Torah. Shortly afterwards the philosopher Baruch Spinoza published a unified criticalanalysis, arguing that the problematic passages were not isolated cases that could be explained away one by one, butpervasive throughout the five books, concluding that it was "clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was notwritten by Moses . . ."[107][108] Despite determined opposition from Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, theviews of Hobbes and Spinoza gained increasing acceptance amongst scholars.

Archaeological and historical researchBiblical archaeology is the archaeology that relates to and sheds light upon the Hebrew Scriptures and the ChristianGreek Scriptures (or "New Testament"). It is used to help determine the lifestyle and practices of people living inbiblical times. There are a wide range of interpretations in the field of biblical archaeology. One broad divisionincludes biblical maximalism which generally takes the view that most of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible isbased on history although it is presented through the religious viewpoint of its time. It is considered the opposite ofbiblical minimalism which considers the Bible a purely post-exilic (5th century BCE and later) composition. Evenamong those scholars who adhere to biblical minimalism, the Bible is a historical document containing first-handinformation on the Hellenistic and Roman eras, and there is universal scholarly consensus that the events of the 6thcentury BCE Babylonian captivity have a basis in history.The historicity of the biblical account of the history of ancient Israel and Judah of the 10th to 7th-centuries BCE isdisputed in scholarship. The biblical account of the 8th to 7th centuries BCE is widely, but not universally, acceptedas historical, while the verdict on the earliest period of the United Monarchy (10th-century BCE) and the historicityof David is unclear. Archaeological evidence providing information on this period, such as the Tel Dan Stele, canpotentially be decisive. The biblical account of events of the Exodus from Egypt in the Torah, and the migration tothe Promised Land and the period of Judges are not considered historical in scholarship.[109][110] Regarding the NewTestament, the setting being the Roman Empire in the 1st century CE, the historical context is well established.There has been some debate on the historicity of Jesus, but the mainstream opinion is that Jesus was one of severalknown historical itinerant preachers in 1st-century Roman Judea, teaching in the context of the religious upheavalsand sectarianism of Second Temple Judaism.

CriticismIn modern times, the view that the Bible should be accepted as historically accurate and as a reliable guide tomorality has been questioned by many mainstream academics in the field of biblical criticism. Most Christian groupsclaim that the Bible is inspired by God, and some oppose interpretations of the Bible that are not traditional or "plainreading". Some groups within the most conservative Protestant circles believe that the Authorized King JamesVersion is the only accurate English translation of the Bible, and accept it as infallible. They are generally referred toas "King James Only". Many within Christian fundamentalism—as well as much of Orthodox Judaism—stronglysupport the idea that the Bible is a historically accurate record of actual events and a primary source of moralguidance.

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In addition to concerns about morality, inerrancy, or historicity, there remain some questions of which books shouldbe included in the Bible (see canon of scripture). Jews discount the New Testament, most Christians deny thelegitimacy of the New Testament apocrypha, and a view sometimes referred to as Jesusism does not affirm thescriptural authority of any biblical text other than the teachings of Jesus in the Gospels.

Endnotes[1] Davies, Philip R. (2008). Memories of ancient Israel (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=M1rS4Kce_PMC& pg=PA7&

hl=en#v=onepage& q& f=false). Westminster John Knox Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-664-23288-7. .[2] "Where did the chapter and verse numbers of the Bible originate?" (http:/ / www. catholic. com/ quickquestions/

where-did-the-chapter-and-verse-numbers-of-the-bible-originate). CA. .[3] Radosh, Daniel. "The Good Book Business" (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ archive/ 2006/ 12/ 18/ 061218fa_fact1). Condé Nast. . Retrieved

28 March 2012.[4] Ash, Russell (2001). Top 10 of Everything 2002. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-8043-3.[5] Harper, Douglas. "bible" (http:/ / www. etymonline. com/ index. php?term=bible). Online Etymology Dictionary. .[6] "The Catholic Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 02543a. htm). . Retrieved 2010-04-23.[7] Biblion, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/

ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=#19917).[8] Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Nashville: Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7.[9] "From Hebrew Bible to Christian Bible" by Mark Hamilton (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ religion/ first/ scriptures.

html) on PBS's site From Jesus to Christ: The First Christians (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ religion/ ).[10] etymology of the word "Bible" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ search?q=Bible).[11] [[F.F. Bruce Bruce, Frederick (1988). The Canon of Scripture. Downers Grove, Illinois, U.S.: IVP Academic. p. 214. ISBN 083081258X.[12] A 7th century fragment containing the Song of the Sea (Exodus 13:19-16:1) is one of the few surviving texts from the "silent era" of Hebrew

biblical texts between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Aleppo Codex. See "Rare scroll fragment to be unveiled," Jerusalem Post, May 21, 2007(http:/ / fr. jpost. com/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1178708654713& pagename=JPost/ JPArticle/ ShowFull).

[13] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=CakJchHfN1QC& pg=PA647& lpg=PA647& dq=Pentateuch+ from+ Greek+ meaning+ "five+scroll-cases& source=bl& ots=iUzv6_UPBw& sig=itoLPZH_dUSbPWww1gnM1PJfk3Q& hl=en& sa=X&ei=BmZoUNa6IZS08ATC1oGIBw& ved=0CEMQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=Pentateuch from Greek meaning "five scroll-cases& f=false)The Restored New Testament: A New Translation with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas, Mary, and Judas by WillisBarnstone - W. W. Norton & Company - page 647

[14] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AzZlANCOIRgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=inauthor:"Seymour+ Rossel"& source=bl&ots=H0fv2a4pWG& sig=NQIme41Zh-HHQP6XRxIoeYletNE& hl=en& sa=X& ei=ZddoUKjaLY-o8QT2zYCgDg&ved=0CDYQuwUwATgK#v=onepage& q& f=false) The Torah: Portion by Portion By Seymour Rossel - Torah Aura Productions, 2007 -page 355

[15] Mordecai Kaplan 1934 Judaism as a Civilization MacMillan Press[16] Elliot N. Dorff 1979 Conservative Judaism: Our Ancestors to Our Descendants (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=diqTpD-UbW0C&

lpg=PA98& pg=PA98#v=onepage& q& f=false). United Synagogue. p. 98-99 (114-115 in 1978 edition)[17] Milton Steinberg 1947 Basic Judaism (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=iBu5Tpc4DtcC& lpg=PA27& pg=PA27&

dq=isbn:0156106981#v=onepage& q& f=false) Harcourt Brace, p.27-28 ISBN 0-15-610698-1[18] Gilbert Rosenthal 1973 Four paths to One God Bloch Publishing pp. 116-128, 180-192, 238-242[19][19] 1Kings.18:24;1Kings.18:37-39 9[20] George Savran "I and II Kings" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Each king is judged either

good or bad in black-and-white terms, according to whether or not he "did right" or "did evil" in the sight of the Lord. This evaluation is notreflective of the well-being of the nation, of the king's success or failure in war, or of the moral climate of the times, but rather the state ofcultic worship during his reign. Those kings who shun idolatry and enact religious reforms are singled out for praise, and those who encouragepagan practices are denounced." 146

[21] Yehezkel Kaufmann "Israel In Canaan" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "Thefight against Baal was initiated by the prophets" 54

[22] Yehezkel Kaufmann "The Age of Prophecy" in Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People edited by Leo Schwartz, The Modern Library. "The immediate occasion of the rise of the new prophecy was the political and social ruin caused by the wars with Israel's northerly neighbor, Aram, which continued for more than a century. They raged intensely during the reign of Ahab, and did not end until the time of Jeroboam II (784-744). While the nation as a whole was impoverished, a few — apparently of the royal officialdom — grew wealthy as a result of the national calamity. Many of the people were compelled to sell their houses and lands, with the result that a sharp social cleavage arose: on the one hand a mass of propertyless indigents, on the other a small circle of the rich. A series of disasters struck the nation — drought, famine, plagues, death and captivity (Amos 4: 6-11), but the greatest disaster of all was the social disintegration due to the cleavage between the poor masses and the wealthy, dissolute upper class. The decay affected both Judah and Israel....High minded men were appalled at this development. Was this the people whom YHWH had brought out of Egypt, to whom He had given the land and a law of justice and right? it

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seemed as if the land was about to be inherited by the rich, who would squander its substance in drunken revelry. it was this dissolution thatbrought the prophetic denunciations to white heat." 57-58

[23] Abraham Joshua Heschel 1955 The Prophets Harper and Row: "What manner of man is the prophet? A student of philosophy who runs fromthe discourses of the great metaphysicians to the orations of the prophets may feel as if he were going from the realm of the sublime to an areaof trivialities. Instead of dealing with the timeless issues of being and becoming, of matter and form, of definitions and demonstrations, he isthrown into orations about widows and orphans, about the corruption of judges and affairs of the market place. Instead of showing us a waythrough the elegant mansions of the mind, the prophets take us to the slums. The world is a proud place, full of beauty, but the prophets arescandalized, and rave as if the whole world were a slum. They make much ado about paltry things, lavishing excessive language upon triflingsubjects. What if somewhere in ancient Palestine poor people have not been treated properly by the rich? .... Indeed, the sorts of crimes andeven the amount of delinquency that fill the prophets of Israel with dismay do not go beyond that which we regard as normal, as typicalingredients of social dynamics. To us a single act of injustice — cheating in business, exploitation of the poor- is slight; to the prophets, adisaster. To us an injustice is injurious to the welfare of the people; to the prophets it is a deathblow to existence; to us an episode; to them, acatastrophe, a threat to the world." 3-4

[24] Joel Rosenberg "I and II Samuel" in The Literary Guide to the Bible edited by Robert Alter and Frank Kermode. "Samuel is thus a work ofnational self-criticism. It recognizes that Israel would not have survived, either politically or culturally, without the steadying presence of adynastic royal house. But it makes both that house and its subjects answerable to firm standards of prophetic justice — not those of cultprophets or professional ecstatics, but of morally upright prophetic leaders in the tradition of Moses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon, and others ..."141

[25] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=VeOwyTae71cC& pg=PA328& lpg=PA328& dq=the+ book+ of+ comfort+ isaiah& source=bl&ots=VOmO772O7q& sig=0bohL7s3-xxgidnD16IThNl0vKo& hl=en& sa=X& ei=8eZqUPWpM-WC2wXH4oEg&ved=0CEsQ6AEwBjgU#v=onepage& q=the book of comfort isaiah& f=false) Ancient Israelite And Early Jewish Literature By TheodoorChristiaan Vriezen, A. S. Van Der Woude - BRILL, 2005 - page 328

[26] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=ezekiel%203:22-24;& version=49;[27] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=ezekiel%204:1-3;& version=49;[28] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=ezekiel%204-5;& version=49;[29] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Exodus%2022:30;& version=49;[30] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Deut%2014:21;& version=49;[31] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Lev%205:2;& version=49;[32] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Lev%207:18,24;& version=49;[33] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Lev%2017:15;& version=49;[34] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Lev%2019:7;& version=49;[35] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Lev%2022:8;& version=49;[36] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2025:1-7;& version=49;[37] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%208-11;& version=49;[38] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2012-14;& version=49;[39] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2015-17;& version=49;[40] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2026-28;& version=49;[41] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2029-32;& version=49;[42] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2033-39;& version=49;[43] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Ezekiel%2040;48;& version=49;[44] Neusner, Jacob, The Talmud Law, Theology, Narrative: A Sourcebook. University Press of America, 2005[45][45] Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament - the Hebrew Bible in its Context. Oxford University Press. 2009; p. 5[46] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=9NUejG2IGPMC& printsec=frontcover#v=onepage& q& f=false) The Babylonian Talmud, Vol. 7 of

9: Tract Baba Bathra (Last Gate) translated by Michael L. Rodkinson - first published 1918 - published 2008 by Forgotten Books - page 53[47] (http:/ / www. beitemet. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=10:ketuvim& catid=39:about-the-bible& Itemid=57&

fontstyle=f-smaller) Ketuvim 30 כְּתוּבִים July 2008[48] Coogan, Michael. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context. Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 5[49] Henshaw, T. The Writings: The third division of the Old Testament canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, pp. 16–17[50] Lightfoot, Neil R. How We Got the Bible, 3rd edition, rev. and expanded. Baker Book House Company. 2003, pp. 154–155.[51] Henshaw, T. The Writings: The third division of the Old Testament canon. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1963, p. 17[52][52] Sir Godfrey Driver. "Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible." Web: 30 November 2009[53] Life after death: a history of the afterlife in the religions of the West (2004) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=owd9zig7i1oC&

pg=PA369), Anchor Bible Reference Library, Alan F. Segal, p.363[54] Gilles Dorival, Marguerite Harl, and Olivier Munnich, La Bible grecque des Septante: Du judaïsme hellénistique au christianisme ancien

(Paris: Cerfs, 1988), p.111[55][55] "[...] die griechische Bibelübersetzung, die einem innerjüdischen Bedürfnis entsprang [...] [von den] Rabbinen zuerst gerühmt (..) Später

jedoch, als manche ungenaue Übertragung des hebräischen Textes in der Septuaginta und Übersetzungsfehler die Grundlage für hellenistischeIrrlehren abgaben, lehte man die Septuaginta ab." Verband der Deutschen Juden (Hrsg.), neu hrsg. von Walter Homolka, Walter Jacob, ToviaBen Chorin: Die Lehren des Judentums nach den Quellen; München, Knesebeck, 1999, Bd.3, S. 43ff

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[56] Karen H. Jobes and Moises Silva (2001). Invitation to the Septuagint (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=OysSAQAAIAAJ& q).Paternoster Press. ISBN 1-84227-061-3. .

[57] Joel Kalvesmaki, The Septuagint (http:/ / www. kalvesmaki. com/ LXX/ )[58] Rick Grant Jones, Various Religious Topics, " Books of the Septuagint (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. geocities.

com/ Heartland/ Pines/ 7224/ Rick/ Septuagint/ sp_books. html& date=2009-10-25+ 07:45:33)," (Accessed 2006.9.5).[59] "The translation, which shows at times a peculiar ignorance of Hebrew usage, was evidently made from a codex which differed widely in

places from the text crystallized by the Masorah." "Bible Translations - The Septuagint" (http:/ / www. jewishencyclopedia. com/ articles/3269-bible-translations). . Retrieved 10 February 2012.

[60] "Two things, however, rendered the Septuagint unwelcome in the long run to the Jews. Its divergence from the accepted text (afterwardcalled the Masoretic) was too evident; and it therefore could not serve as a basis for theological discussion or for homiletic interpretation. Thisdistrust was accentuated by the fact that it had been adopted as Sacred Scripture by the new faith [Christianity] [...] In course of time it cameto be the canonical Greek Bible [...] It became part of the Bible of the Christian Church." "Bible Translations - The Septuagint" (http:/ / www.jewishencyclopedia. com/ articles/ 3269-bible-translations). . Retrieved 10 February 2012.

[61] Mishnah Sotah (7:2-4 and 8:1), among many others, discusses the sacredness of Hebrew, as opposed to Aramaic or Greek. This iscomparable to the authority claimed for the original Arabic Koran according to Islamic teaching. As a result of this teaching, translations ofthe Torah into Koine Greek by early Jewish Rabbis have survived as rare fragments only.

[62] Ernst Würthwein, The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Errol F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. Eerdmans, 1995.[63] "NETS: Electronic Edition" (http:/ / ccat. sas. upenn. edu/ nets/ edition/ ). 2011-02-11. . Retrieved 2012-08-13.[64] This article incorporates text from the 1903 Encyclopaedia Biblica article "TEXT AND VERSIONS", a publication now in the public

domain.[65] Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004.[66] Timothy McLay, The Use of the Septuagint in New Testament Research ISBN 0-8028-6091-5. — The current standard introduction on the

NT & LXX.[67][67] The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. This table reflects the canon of the Old Testament as used currently in Orthodoxy.[68] Βασιλειῶν (Basileiōn) is the genitive plural of Βασιλεῖα (Basileia).[69] That is, Things set aside from Ἔσδρας Αʹ.[70][70] also called Τωβείτ or Τωβίθ in some sources.[71] Not in Orthodox Canon, but originally included in the LXX. http:/ / ccat. sas. upenn. edu/ nets/ edition/[72] Obdiou is genitive from "The vision of Obdias," which opens the book.[73][73] Originally placed after 3 Maccabees and before Psalms, but placed in an appendix of the Orthodox Canon[74] The Masoretic Text and the Dead Sea Scrolls (http:/ / www. biblicalarchaeology. org/ daily/ biblical-topics/ bible-versions-and-translations/

the-masoretic-text-and-the-dead-sea-scrolls/ ) - Retrieved 26 December 2012.[75] Dead Sea Scrolls (http:/ / www. documentacatholicaomnia. eu/ 03d/ sine-data,_Absens,_Dead_Sea_Scrolls_[Texts_And_Translations],_EN.

pdf)[76] Council of Trent: Decretum de Canonicis Scripturis "Decree Concerning the Canonical Scriptures" (http:/ / www. bible-researcher. com/

trent1. html), from the Council's fourth session, of 4 April 1546: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, The Fourth Session, Celebratedon the eighth day of the month of April, in the year 1546, English translation by James Waterworth (London 1848).

[77] The Council of Trent confirmed the identical list/canon of sacred scriptures already anciently approved by the Synod of Hippo (Synod of393), Councils of Carthage (The Council of Carthage, 28 August 397), and Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel), Session 11, 4February 1442 (http:/ / www. papalencyclicals. net/ Councils/ ecum17. htm) —[Bull of union with the Copts] seventh paragraph down.

[78] Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, n. 120. ——Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, Latin text copyright ©1994, 1997 Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano. English translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church for the United States ofAmerica copyright © 1994, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.—Libreria Editrice Vaticana. English translation of the Catechism of theCatholic Church: Modifications from the Editio Typica copyright © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.—Libreria EditriceVaticana. United States Catholic Conference, 3211 Fourth Street, NE, Washington, DC 20017-1194 ISBN 1-57455-109-4.

[79] Canon of Trent: List of the Canonical Scriptures.

But if anyone receive not, as sacred and canonical, the said books entire with all their parts, as they havebeen used to be read in the Catholic Church, and as they are contained in the old Latin vulgate edition;and knowingly and deliberately contemn the traditions aforesaid; let him be anathema.—Decretum deCanonicis Scripturis, Council of Trent, 8 April 1546

[80] Wright, N.T. The Last Word:, page 3 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=id2_m0j804YC& lpg=PP1& dq=isbn:0060872616&pg=PA3#v=onepage& q=profoundly shaped& f=false) HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618

[81] Wright, N.T. The Last Word: Scripture and the Authority of God—Getting Beyond the Bible Wars. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN0-06-087261-6 / 9780060872618

[82] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=m2Lz7iwklhAC& pg=PA439& lpg=PA439& dq=The+ New+ Testament+ is+ a+ collection+ of+27+ books& source=bl& ots=Vip6fgXsM0& sig=OqAJAg42gVbZtqk3dJPznkT8imI& hl=en& sa=X& ei=dmNWUK_cGo-m8gSr34GQCg&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=The New Testament is a collection of 27 books& f=false) What the Bible is All About Visual Editionby Henrietta C. Mears - Gospel Light Publications, Feb 5, 2007 - page 438-439

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[83] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=O5BHAAAAYAAJ& pg=PA343& lpg=PA343& dq=The+ New+ Testament+ presupposes+ the+inspiration+ of+ the+ Old+ Testament& source=bl& ots=97gNck-NWl& sig=rzLPlPu0s8vFu2uNyFxd0BYppng& hl=en& sa=X&ei=oWRWUISzCISg8gSo0IH4Bw& ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=The New Testament presupposes the inspiration of the OldTestament& f=false) Inspiration and Inerrancy: A History and a Defense By Henry Preserved Smith - R. Clarke, 1893 - page 343

[84][84] Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland The text of the New Testament: an introduction to the critical 1995 p52 "The New Testament was written inKoine Greek, the Greek of daily conversation. The fact that from the first all the New Testament writings were written in Greek isconclusively demonstrated by their citations from the Old Testament, .."

[85][85] Archibald Macbride Hunter Introducing the New Testament 1972 p9 "How came the twenty-seven books of the New Testament to begathered together and made authoritative Christian scripture? 1. All the New Testament books were originally written in Greek. On the face ofit this may surprise us."

[86][86] Wenham The elements of New Testament Greek -p xxv Jeremy Duff, John William Wenham - 2005 "This is the language of the NewTestament. By the time of Jesus the Romans had become the dominant military and political force, but the Greek language remained the'common language' of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond, and Greek ..."

[87][87] Daniel B. Wallace Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament 1997[88][88] Henry St. John Thackeray Grammar of New Testament Greek ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Blass, 1911 "By far the most predominant element in

the language of the New Testament is the Greek of common speech which was disseminated in the East by the Macedonian conquest, in theform which it had gradually assumed under the wider development ..."

[89][89] David E. Aune The Blackwell companion to the New Testament 2009 p61 CHAPTER 4 New Testament Greek Christophe Rico "In thisshort overview of the Greek language of the New Testament we will focus on those topics that are of greatest importance for the averagereader, that is, those with important ..."

[90] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Ze16lRIzIzcC& pg=PA9& lpg=PA9& dq=The+ autographs,+ the+ Greek+ manuscripts+ written+by+ the+ original+ authors,+ have+ not+ survived& source=bl& ots=zsb8T0Wp78& sig=sKzOavYaAcLmApZwhmiHxSxLrlw& hl=en&sa=X& ei=jG5WUILfDIPI9gTx44CABw& ved=0CEsQ6AEwBg#v=onepage& q=The autographs, the Greek manuscripts written by theoriginal authors, have not survived& f=false) Manuscripts and the Text of the New Testament: An Introduction for English Readers by KeithElliott, Ian Moir - Continuum International Publishing Group, Nov 20, 2000 - page 9

[91] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cxN1wn_fO5YC& pg=PA152& lpg=PA152& dq=When+ ancient+ scribes+ copied+ earlier+books,+ they+ wrote+ notes+ on+ the+ margins+ of+ the+ page+ (marginal+ glosses)+ to+ correct+ their+ text�especially+ if+ a+ scribe+accidentally+ omitted+ a+ word+ or+ line�and+ to+ comment+ about+ the+ text& source=bl& ots=1-pyD8FDbY&sig=Qxx7t7IqIsAJL9VgY1sKQY1BL_A& hl=en& sa=X& ei=k21WUIX4AoXo8QTzq4Fg& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q=Whenancient scribes copied earlier books, they wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correct their text�especially if a scribeaccidentally omitted a word or line�and to comment about the text& f=false) God-Trail of Evidence: The Quest for the Truth By Dwo -iUniverse, Jul 12, 2011 - page 152 - ISBN 978-1-4502-9429-4 {sc}

[92] Catholic Encyclopedia: Canon of the New Testament (http:/ / www. newadvent. org/ cathen/ 03274a. htm): "The idea of a complete andclear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history. The Canon ofthe New Testament, like that of the Old, is the result of a development, of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters, both withinand without the Church, and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations, and which did not reach its final term until the dogmaticdefinition of the Tridentine Council."

[93] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=gxEONS0FFlsC& pg=PA103& lpg=PA103& dq=Both+ Catholics+ and+ Protestants+ have+ the+same+ 27-book+ New+ Testament+ Canon& source=bl& ots=t_K6gKrJKM& sig=4VIpxeGItb4s5eAyqcVZM5YzYUU& hl=en& sa=X&ei=RvBtUIWiK6PY2gX0j4DIAQ& ved=0CFsQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage& q=Both Catholics and Protestants have the same 27-book NewTestament Canon& f=false) Encyclopedia of Catholicism By Frank K. Flinn | Infobase Publishing, Jan 1, 2007 | page 103

[94] "The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church" (http:/ / www. ethiopianorthodox. org/ english/ canonical/ books. html) Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20101105112040/ http:/ / ethiopianorthodox. org/ english/ canonical/ books.html) from the original on 5 November 2010. . Retrieved 2010-11-19.

[95] Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 49–50.[96] Beyond Biblical Literalism and Inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the Hermeneutic Interpretation of Scripture], John Bartkowski,

Sociology of Religion, 57, 1996.[97] Philo of Alexandria, De vita Moysis 3.23.[98] Josephus, Contra Apion 1.8.[99] "Basis for belief of Inspiration Biblegateway" (http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=2 Sam 23:2,2 Tim 3:16,Luke 1:70,Heb

3:7,10:15-16,1 Peter 1:11,Mark 12:36,2 Peter 1:20-21,Acts 1:16,Acts 3:18,Acts 28:25;& version=50). . Retrieved2010-04-23.

[100] Norman L. Geisler, William E. Nix. A General Introduction to the Bible. Moody Publishers, 1986, p.86. ISBN 0-8024-2916-5[101] For example, see Leroy Zuck, Roy B. Zuck. Basic Bible Interpretation. Chariot Victor Pub, 1991,p.68. ISBN 0-89693-819-0[102] Roy B. Zuck, Donald Campbell. Basic Bible Interpretation. Victor, 2002. ISBN 0-7814-3877-2[103] Norman L. Geisler. Inerrancy. Zondervan, 1980, p.294. ISBN 0-310-39281-0[104] International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (1978) (PDF). The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (http:/ / www. churchcouncil. org/

ccpdfdocs/ 01_Biblical_Inerrancy_A& D. pdf). International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. .

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[105] Wycliffe Bible Translators, Inc. (WBT) Translation Statistics. 2011: Wycliffe Bible Translators (http:/ / www. wycliffe. org/ About/Statistics. aspx) (updated 17 April 2012)

[106] "Expondo Os Erros Da Sociedade Bíblica Internacional" (http:/ / www. baptistlink. com/ creationists/ expondoerrossbinvi. htm) . Retrieved 2012-01-13.

[107] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=xtq2ZyKf-YQC& pg=PA65& lpg=PA65& dq=clearer+ than+ the+ sun+ at+ noon+ that+ the+Pentateuch+ was+ not+ written+ by+ Moses& source=bl& ots=20Bz7dfslQ& sig=rsPuYGb80r-lWjCFAtW0U8q7LaY& hl=en& sa=X&ei=7W9WUJu7DIrW9QT5vYGgBA& ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage& q=clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not writtenby Moses& f=false) In the Beginning: Hijacking of the Religion of God , Volume 1 by Sami M. El-Soudani, Nabawia J. El-Soudani - XlibrisCorporation, Jan 1, 2009 - page 65

[108] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=gvrcHyusPbMC& pg=PA121& lpg=PA121& dq=clearer+ than+ the+ sun+ at+ noon+ that+ the+Pentateuch+ was+ not+ written+ by+ Moses& source=bl& ots=tIddvOc2Nv& sig=lHzsQ_BeqBPGxjK2Z0g94THacK0& hl=en& sa=X&ei=o3BWUMr3IInc9ATGx4HoBw& ved=0CEcQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not writtenby Moses& f=false) Ten More Amazing Discoveries By George Potter - Cedar Fort, Oct 1, 2005 - page 121

[109] Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Silberman. The Bible Unearthed.[110] Dever, William. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?.

References and further reading• Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3.• Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. New York, NY: Avenel Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-34582-X.• Berlin, Adele, Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fishbane. The Jewish Study Bible (http:/ / www. newjewishbooks.

org/ 0195297512/ ). Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.• Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient

Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2338-1.• Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (August 2002). "Review: "The Bible Unearthed": A Rejoinder".

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 327: 63–73. JSTOR 1357859• Herzog, Ze'ev (29 October 1999). Deconstructing the walls of Jericho (http:/ / mideastfacts. org/ facts/ index.

php?option=com_content& task=view& id=32& Itemid=34). Ha'aretz• Dever, William G. (March/April 2007). "Losing Faith: Who Did and Who Didn’t, How Scholarship Affects

Scholars" (http:/ / creationontheweb. com/ images/ pdfs/ other/ 5106losingfaith. pdf). Biblical ArchaeologyReview 33 (2): 54

• Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from? Grand Rapids, MI: WilliamB. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8.

• Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why New York, NY:HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-073817-0.

• Geisler, Norman (editor). Inerrancy. Sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. ZondervanPublishing House, 1980, ISBN 0-310-39281-0.

• Head, Tom. The Absolute Beginner's Guide to the Bible. Indianapolis, IN: Que Publishing, 2005. ISBN0-7897-3419-2

• Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning (http:/ / www. newjewishbooks. org/ ITB/ ). New York University Press,2004. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4

• Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, The Church, and Authority. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.• Lindsell, Harold. The Battle for the Bible. Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. ISBN 0-310-27681-0• Masalha, Nur, The Bible and Zionism: Invented Traditions, Archaeology and Post-Colonialism in

Palestine-Israel. London, Zed Books, 2007.• McDonald, Lee M. and Sanders, James A., eds. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers (1 January 2002).

662p. ISBN 1-56563-517-5 ISBN 978-1565635173• Miller, John W. The Origins of the Bible: Rethinking Canon History Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1994. ISBN

0-8091-3522-1.• Riches, John. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-285343-0

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• Siku. The Manga Bible: From Genesis to Revelation. Galilee Trade (15 January 2008). 224p. ISBN0-385-52431-5 ISBN 978-0385524315

• Taylor, Hawley O. "Mathematics and Prophecy." Modern Science and Christian Faith. Wheaton: Van Kampen,1948, pp. 175–83.

• Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, s.vv. "Book of Ezekiel," p. 580 and "prophecy," p. 1410. Chicago: Moody BiblePress, 1986.

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Article Sources and ContributorsBible  Source:  Contributors: ***Ria777, -Ril-, 100percentkrazy,,, 1exec1, 1frances, 41523, 613 The Evil, 6SJ7, 999, A.J.A., A4, ACW, ADM, AHitler, ALM scientist, AP1787, AakashRaheja, Aaron Brenneman, Abeg92, Aboverepine, Abrech, Academic Challenger, Aceofspade00, Acroterion, Actorderick, Adam sk, Adam00, Adambro, Adamski24, Addshore, Adriaan 1, AdultSwim, Afaprof01, AgainErick, Agathman, Agazfatboy, Ahoerstemeier, Airborne84, Aitias, Ajm500, Akamad, Alai, Alan Au, Alan Liefting, Alastair Haines, Alessio.aguirre, AlexKul, Alexb102072, AlexiusHoratius, Alexxpatterson, Alice Mudgarden, All Worlds, Allanarmentrout, Allstarecho, Alpha774, Alphachimp, Alteripse, Alvinrune, Amandajm, Amberrock, Amccune, AmiDaniel, AmiiKaay, Amillar, Amit300, Andre Engels, AndreNatas, AndreasJS, Andrevruas, Andrew c, AndrewNJ, Andrewpmk, Andrewredd, Andxs, Andycjp, Angel FX, Angela, Angeldeb82, Angellover, Anger22, Angusmclellan, AnonMoos, Anonymous from the 21st century, Ans-mo, Antandrus, Antiwikki, AntonBryl, AntonioMartin, Anupam, Aphaia, Aqccorp, Araignee, ArbiterQ19, Arcturus, Ardonik, Aristophanes68, Arjun01, ArnoldBeckham, Arpingstone, Arrenlex, Asbestos, Ashley thomas80, Ashmoo, Asimov123, Astral, AstralisLux, Athrash, Atomic sparrow, Auntof6, Ausir, Australia boy, Auximines, AviN456, Aviv007, Awesome-Fedora, AxelBoldt, AylesburyDuck, Ayufanni, B, B Fizz, BD2412, BILLK2006, BMF81, BRG, Bachrach44, Bagatelle, Banaticus, Barbary lion, Bart133, Basilisk4u, Bass fishing physicist, Basswulf, Bazzargh, Bcameron54, Bcharles, Bconroy, Bddrey, Ben Ben, BenStevenson, Benbest, Benjamin Ben-Ze'ev, Benpmorgan, Benwinsor, Bepimela, Berny bernski, Berrylsb, Bevo, Biblewalks, Bicycle Bicycle, Big Hurt, Bigcatlovinggirl, Bigglesthegreat, Bikinibomb, BillC38, Billforfirstlady, Biscuittin, Bishonen, Bjpd, Blainster, Blanchardb, Blazn0azn, Bless sins, Blood Red Sandman, Bloodshed21, Bloodshedder, Blu Aardvark, Bluezy, Bobby H. Heffley, Bobguy7, Bobo192, Bogdangiusca, Bogey97, Boing! said Zebedee, Bookandcoffee, Boywiz, Bradeos Graphon, Brain40, Brandmeister (old), Brando130, Bratsche, BrettAllen, Brian Belmont, Brian Crawford, Brian Kendig, Brian0918, Brian8710, BrianHansen, Briancua, BrokenSegue, Bronks, Brusselsshrek, Bryan Derksen, Bryan Nguyen, Bryan121, Buchanan-Hermit, BuffaloChip97, Burnedthru, Burner0718, Busterfelix, Butros, Byrnes777, C-M, CA387, CALR, CBM, CConnla77, COGDEN, COGwriter, CWY2190, CWii, Cadaeib, Calabraxthis, Calaschysm, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Cameron Bruce, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Cap, Capeteco, Card, CarelessHair, Carl.bunderson, Carnildo, Carninia, Carpathy2009, Casdious, Cat Whisperer, Cate, Catrix12, Caylan12 06, Cbh, Cbrown1023, Cecilyheron, Cedrus-Libani, Century0, Cesiumfrog, Cfortunato, Chadashek, Changingtheworldonepageatatime, Charleschuck, Charlesingalls759, Cheechthecheechy, Cheezwiz45, Chensiyuan, Chihuahua0, Chillum, ChilternGiant, Chinneeb, Chris 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