Microwave Remote Sensing for probing planetary surface Science...

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Microwave Remote Sensing for probing planetary surface NISAR WORKSHOP 17 th -18 th November, 2014, SAC-Abad Suresh Raju C Space Physics Laboratory, VSSC-ISRO, Trivandrum-22 [email protected] Suresh Raju, et al., IEEE GSRL. V.10.,No.5, 2013

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  • Microwave Remote Sensing for probing

    planetary surface

    NISAR WORKSHOP

    17th-18th November, 2014, SAC-Abad

    Suresh Raju CSpace Physics Laboratory,

    VSSC-ISRO,Trivandrum-22

    [email protected]

    Suresh Raju, et al., IEEE GSRL. V.10.,No.5, 2013

  • Γ−+ )1( eTd o w n

    (3) Emission from the surface

    Satellite Radiometric Measurements & Emissivity Estimation –Earth & Planet

    upb T=T21 3

    =Γ transmisitivity of the atmosphere

    )ΓT(TΓTTT

    =edownskin

    downupb

    −−

    Γ+ eTs

    (1) Emission from the atmosphere(2) atmospheric emission reflected

    from the surface

  • Land surface microwave emissivity at 19,37 & 90 GHz

    Tinu, Suresh Raju, et al., IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sen. (2014)

  • Global land cover

    Polarization Difference (eV – eH) at 19 GHz and surface condition

  • TRMM‐TMI Emissivity map at 19 GHz (H) spatially merged with Ganga & Brahmaputra river systems for the post flooded period (sept.2010)

    BRAHMAPUTRA

    Nepal BhutanChina

    26°0'0"N

    GANGAIndia

    Bangladesh

    Myanmar (Burma)

    24°0'0"N

    22°0'0"N )( HV eeMyanmar (Burma)

    94°0'0"E92°0'0"E90°0'0"E88°0'0"E86°0'0"E84°0'0"E82°0'0"E80°0'0"E78°0'0"E76°0'0"E

    20°0'0"N

    100)()(

    HV

    HV

    eeeeNPI

    NepalChina

    BhutanN

    India Bangladesh

    N

    N

    Myanma

    N

    N

    96°094°0'0"E92°0'0"E90°0'0"E88°0'0"E86°0'0"E84°0'0"E82°0'0"E80°0'0"E78°0'0"E

  • Microwave Remote Sensing Techniques

    Radar Equation- •Planck’s Blackbody radiation law

    σπ

    λ43)4(

    22

    R

    GtPrP =→

    PhysicalB TeT ⋅=

    −=

    1

    122

    3

    KThff

    echfB (Wm-2sr-1Hz-1)

    σ - Radar backscattering coefficient (dB)function of Target parameters & system

    parametersσ

    (K)

    e - function of Target & system parameters

    •Target parameters: Roughness -h, Dielectric property ( ), &temperature (T), geometric shape

    •System parameters: wavelength( ), Incidence angle( ), Polarization (p)

    ⋅= λθεσ ,,,, phR ),,,,(1

    ⋅−= λθε phRe

    λ θ

    ε

    R

    Pt

    Pr

    A combined measurements of the radar and radiometer, enables to separate out the effects of surface roughness.

    ACTIVE SENSING-Radar Passive SENSING-Radiometry

  • Projection of Science Plan & NISAR Data Utility1. Combined use of NISAR and microwave radiometric data

    land surface characterization Soil moisture and wet land study correlating with Precipitation

    and convection studies Flooded area mapping Microwave characterization Vegetation cover Surface and subsurface studies over desert/arid region

    2. Airborne NISAR Ground-truth and Cal-Val activity over Indian Tropical/Equatorial region

    Requirement:•NISAR and Microwave Radiometric data

    •Airborne Pre and post launch campaign of NISAR

    •Extension of NISAR to Radiometric observation mode also?

    (MAGELAN-for Venus mission)

  • Geology of Arabian peninsula

    Soil Type map – FAO 1994

    Emissivity 19 GHz (H ) – using TRMM (Dec 2011)

    Slide Number 1Slide Number 2Land surface microwave emissivity at 19,37 & 90 GHzSlide Number 4TRMM-TMI Emissivity map at 19 GHz (H) spatially merged with Ganga & Brahmaputra river systems for the post flooded period (sept.2010)Microwave Remote Sensing TechniquesSlide Number 7Slide Number 8