Ions in solids and solutions. CI 4.5 and revision of 5.1.

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Transcript of Ions in solids and solutions. CI 4.5 and revision of 5.1.

  • Slide 1
  • Ions in solids and solutions. CI 4.5 and revision of 5.1
  • Slide 2
  • Ions in ionic solids. + ++ + -- - -- Cl - Na +
  • Slide 3
  • Ions in solution. - + ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- O HH Most electronegative ++ -- O-O- H+H+ H+H+ Polar molecules Hydrated ions
  • Slide 4
  • Dissolving.
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  • - ++ -- - - - - + + + + ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- ++ -- Some bonds broken Some bonds made
  • Slide 6
  • -- - - + + + + - Some bonds broken Some bonds made
  • Slide 7
  • -- - - + + + - + Some bonds broken Some bonds made
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  • Dissolving. Some bonds broken Some bonds made Endothermic Exothermic
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  • + + + + - - - - - What is this? H LE H hyd(cat) -H LE H sol H hyd(an)
  • Slide 10
  • What is this? H LE H hyd(cat) -H LE H sol H hyd(an) + ++ + -- - --
  • Slide 11
  • Exo or endo? -H LE + ++ + -- - --
  • Slide 12
  • -- - - + + + + - What is this? H LE H hyd(cat) -H LE H sol H hyd(an)
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  • -- - - + + + + - Exo or endo? H hyd(an)
  • Slide 14
  • -- - - + + + - + What is this? H LE H hyd(cat) -H LE H sol H hyd(an)
  • Slide 15
  • -- - - + + + - + Exo or endo? H hyd(cat)
  • Slide 16
  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) -H LE + H hyd(cat) + H hyd(an) H solution =
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  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) H solution = Exo or endo? Endo
  • Slide 18
  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) H solution = Endo Wont dissolve
  • Slide 19
  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) H solution = Exo or endo? Exo
  • Slide 20
  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) H solution = Will dissolve Exo
  • Slide 21
  • Solute + solvent Gaseous ions Solution enthalpyenthalpy H solution -H LE H hyd(cat) H hyd(an) Slightly endo May dissolve
  • Slide 22
  • Entropy!
  • Slide 23
  • Finally. (Tables 5 and 7) IonIonic radius Water molecules attached Na + 2,8,8 0.098nm 5 Mg 2+ 2,8,8 15 Al 3+ 2,8,8 0.057nm 26 0.078nm + 2+