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SOLIDS: Strain is related to stress. For Hookean or linear elastic solids σ =E ε , where ε is strain E is Young’s modulus σ is stress (force/area). FLUIDS: Strain rate is related to shear stress. For Newtonian fluids τ = μ du/dy , where τ is shear stress, μ is viscosity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Transcript of SOLIDS: Strain is related to stress. For Hookean or linear elastic solids σ =E ε , where

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101SOLIDS: Strain is related to stress. For Hookean or linearelastic solids

σ=Eε, where

ε is strainE is Young’s modulus σ is stress (force/area)

FLUIDS: Strain rate is related to shear stress. For Newtonian fluids

τ = μ du/dy, where

τ is shear stress,μ is viscositydu/dy is velocity gradient

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Viscosity behaviorof fluids

Newtonian. Shear thickening. Shear thinning.

Thixotropic.Bingham plastic

Magnetorheological fluid

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

EQUATIONS

i

j

j

i

xu

xup

DtVD

Re1

0 V

t

Momentum

Continuity

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

BERNOULLI EQUATION

constgzvpt

2

21

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Dimensionless quantities

Reynolds Re LV/ν Inertial force/viscous force

Rossby Ro V/(2LΩ sin θ) Inertial force/Coriolis force

[Drag coefficient] Cd (ρ’-ρ)Lg/(ρ’V2) Drag force/inertial force

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101 Oceanography

Meteorology

Aeronautics

Biomedical fluid mechanics

Convective heat transfer

Turbulence

Acoustics

Powerless pump

Other. . .

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Oceanography

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Meteorology

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Biomedical fluids

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Aeronautics

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Turbulence

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Water delivery

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Acoustics

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101

RECORD FUEL PRICES PLACE STRESS ON OCEAN SHIPPING May 2, 2008 Shipping lines worldwide are struggling as crude oil prices topped an unprecedented US\$119 per barrel this week, in turn pushing marine bunker fuel prices up past \$552 per ton – a \$26 per ton increase since the end of March alone. Bunker prices have risen 87% since the beginning of 2007. Fuel costs represent as much as 50-60% of total ship operating costs, depending on the type of ship and service.

.

.

. With the cost of bunker fuel at \$552 per ton, with fuel consumption at 217 tons per day, and a 14 day voyage, a single round trip voyage for this one vessel would produce a fuel bill of \$3,353,952.

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101SkySails flies 100-500m abovesea surface

Largest offering 5000 m2

Estimated fuel saving Rotterdam/NY 27%

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500.101500.101

Convective cooling

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Engines

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Water jet cutter withinjected abrasive(40K psi)

Fluid Fluid mechanicsmechanics

500.101500.101Power generation fromocean waves