Comparing Abundances of Ti and other Dust-Enshrouded SN Explosion?)Abnormal Ratio of N H versus...

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Transcript of Comparing Abundances of Ti and other Dust-Enshrouded SN Explosion?)Abnormal Ratio of N H versus...

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Comparing Abundances of 44Ti and other Isotopes

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    4444TiTi γγ--rays fromrays from CasCas AA

    44Ti Ejected Mass ~0.8-2.5 10-4 M

    44Ti

    44Ca

    τ =85y, EC

    44Sc

    τ = 5.4 h, β+

    τ=85y (Ahmad et al. 2006)

    SPI Martin et al.'06

    IBIS Renaud et al. '06

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    4444Ti Yield of ccTi Yield of cc--SNe: UncertaintiesSNe: Uncertainties At Discovery Time of Cas A: 44Ti Lifetime Uncertainty Now: 44Ti Abundance Measurement on Cas A, Astrophysics

    Absolute Abundances are a Challenge! What about abundance ratios?

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Abundances in Stellar PhotospheresAbundances in Stellar Photospheres

    Asplund et al. 2005

    The Reference: Our Sun Solar Abundances are Difficult to Assess

    Main Components: X=0.7392, Y=0.2486, Z= 0.0122 (Asplund et al. 2004) But, e.g.:

    Metal Fraction Z/X: now 1.65%, was 2.75% (Anders & Grevesse 1989) C Abundance: down by 0.17 dex, overall more consistent now

    (Lodders 2003)

    Change of BASELINE for Nucleosynthesis-Yield Evaluations!

    re-analyzed (3D)

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    1D versus 3D Photosphere Models1D versus 3D Photosphere Models

    Convective Motion Inadequately Addressed in 1D "Microturbulence" Corrections Non-Matched Line Profiles

    3D Effects Granulation of Convection Cells Doppler Shifts of Lines are Depth-Dependent

    M. Asplund 2000; 2005;...

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Impact of 3D Models of the Solar PhotosphereImpact of 3D Models of the Solar Photosphere

    Intermediate-Mass Element Systematics: non-LTE Effects are Significant -> ~0.1-0.2 dex Uncertainty Granulation/3D Effects Uncertain (only LTE-Studies so far)

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Cas A: How Much Cas A: How Much 5656Ni?Ni? Cas A was NOT Seen as Bright SN

    No Historical "SN Report" – (except controversial:

    Flamsted 6thmag 16 Aug 1680) – Cas A = "sub-luminous" SN?

    Dust-Enshrouded SN Explosion? Abnormal Ratio of NH versus X-ray Scattering in ISM along LoS

    – Cas A Progenitor-Produced Dust Shell -> Occultation of SN Light

    – Destroyed by SN Shock -> Seen in NH Excess

    Indirect Cas A Brightness Estimate SN Light Echo

    – Krause et al. 2008, Cloud at 266 ly from Cas A – Similarity to SN1993J, i.e. Cas A = SN Type IIb

    – 56Ni Mass Estimated as 0.05...0.15 M

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    SN1987ASN1987A • Radioactivity as Energy Source of SN Light

    Energy Deposition and -Conversion Model Radioactivity Gamma-Rays and Positrons SN Envelope Composition and Dynamics History Light Curve Models, with M(56Ni/57Ni/44Ti) as Parameters -> Fit to Obs

    Observational Access Bolometric SN Light Optical Lines IR Lines

    – [FeI] at 24.05 μm – [FeII] at 25.99 μm

    Fransson & Kozma 2001

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    SN1987A: Amounts of SN1987A: Amounts of 5656Ni/Ni/5757Ni/Ni/4444TiTi

    Early Lightcurve M(56Ni)=0.071 M (Sunzeff&Bouchet'90) M(57Ni)=3.3 10-3 M (Fransson & Kozma 1993)

    Late IR Light Curve M(44Ti)=1.5 10-4 M (Kozma+ 2000)

    – (bolometric LC at

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Light Curve Models: DiscussionLight Curve Models: Discussion

    Basic Processes Radioactive Energy Deposits (gamma-rays, positrons)

    – gamma-ray deposit ~ gas density – positron deposit ~gas density & magnetic-field structure

    Inelastic Photon Scattering in Expanding Envelope – line opacities, line energy ~ expansion velocities

    Thermal / Collisional Excitations – collisional temperature

    Approximately: Local Energy Deposit & Dominating Photon Diffusion (t50 d)

    Caveats No thermodynamic equilibrium, Tcollisional < Tionization Line opacities are important Resonant scatterings are important 3D mixings of radioactivity are important Compositions of Envelope & Swept-Up ISM are important Anisotropy of E deposit & photon transport incurs limb brightenings

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    CoreCore--Collapse SN NucleosynthesisCollapse SN Nucleosynthesis Woosley & Weaver 1995

    44Ti Yields are Sensitive to Explosion Details Larger Variations/FLuctuations with Progenitor Mass Very Massive Progenitors >30 M : No 44Ti (BH formation), or Huge (Ekin>1052 erg, asymmetries) 44Ti Yields

    In Comparison, Most other Isotope Yields Behave More Smoothly with Progenitor Masses Are Less Sensitive to Explosion Details

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Aspherical SNe: Aspherical SNe: 4444Ti Enhancements?Ti Enhancements?

    Aspherical SN Explosions: Stronger Shock in Polar Region Higher Entropy behind Shock Increased 44Ti Synthesis

    – Nagataki 1998 – Mass Cut Choice

    from 0.07 M of 56Ni

    Maeda & Nomoto 2003

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Using SN Profiles to Obtain Using SN Profiles to Obtain 4444Ti and Ti and 5656NiNi Nuclear-Reaction Weighting with SN Structure & Dynamics

    Magkotsios et al. 2008; Parikh et al. / NARF Project

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    ““NormalNormal”” Core Collapse Supernovae (?)Core Collapse Supernovae (?)

    Consistency Check: Cas A vs. what we know about 44Ti…

    44Ti from SAD/Models/SN1987A/γ-Rays, vs. 56Ni Only Non-Spherical Models Reproduce Observed Ratios

    Non-spherical explosions?? (->GRB)

    Cas A

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Abundance InterrelationsAbundance Interrelations

    Ti Abundances Show (somewhat) Larger Scatter than Si and Ca Hint for rare-event synthesis?

    Sestito+ 2008

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Abundances in our GalaxyAbundances in our Galaxy

    Abundance Gradient within the Galaxy General Trend of a Decline with Galactocentric Radius Ti and Ca are Similar to Fe

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    SpatioSpatio--temporal temporal Evolution of the GalaxyEvolution of the Galaxy

    Radial Gradients Provide a Key Diagnostic of Evolution

    Prantzos & Boissier 1999, 2003

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Chemical Evolution of the GalaxyChemical Evolution of the Galaxy

    • Modeling Abundance Evolutions Star Formation History Source Yields Mixing and Infall Works for Some Elements, not for Others…

    Modeling Standard Abundances (same ingredients) Agreement is Good, ~Factor 2

    There are Missing Pieces… Nuclear Reactions? Stellar & SN Models? Matter Cycling / ISM Flows?

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Inverting the Argument: Inverting the Argument: What the Galaxy Tells Us About YieldsWhat the Galaxy Tells Us About Yields

    Fitting GCE-Model Predictions to Observation-Inferred Abundance Histories

    – assuming Star-Formation and Infall Histories and IMF are Fixed by Various Constraints (e.g. star & gas distributions, spatial abundance gradients)

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  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Ref.: Woosley & Weaver 1995 Yields for O, IM Elements (Ca) and Fe Group Fe/Zn/Ni ~ok Corrections Suggested for Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co

    Yield Consistency CheckYield Consistency Check

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    Ref.: Limongi & Chieffi 2003 Same as WW95: most ~ok

    Massive Stars & cc-SNe ~ok

    Corrections Suggested for SNIa Yields

    Yield Consistency CheckYield Consistency Check

  • Roland Diehl"The Origin of 44Ti", 15 Jan 2009

    ““AbnormalAbnormal”” Core Collapse Core Collapse SupernovaeSupernovae as as 4444Ca (=Ca (=4444Ti) Sources?Ti) Sources?

    44Ti vs. 56Ni: Models compared to Solar 44Ca/56Fe SN1987A & Cas A

    Only Non-Spherical Models Reproduce Observed 56Ni/44Ti Ratios

    Abundance Scatter: Somewhat Increased for Ti? Sky Regions with Most Massive Stars are 44Ti Source-Free (COMPTEL, INTEGRAL)

    Rare Events??

    The et al. 2006 Cas A is the ONLY Source Seen (Iyudin et al 1994)

    expectation

    -100 0 100 Longitude [o]

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