Interferometric observations of the nuclear dust in active ...€¦Interferometric observations of...

of 32/32
Interferometric observations of the nuclear dust in active galactic nuclei Obscured AGN Across Cosmic Time Konrad R. W. Tristram Collaborators: K. Meisenheimer, M. Schartmann (MPIA), W. Jaffe, D. Raban (Sterrewacht Leiden), Bill Cotton (NRAO)
  • date post

    23-Oct-2019
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Interferometric observations of the nuclear dust in active ...€¦Interferometric observations of...

  • Interferometric observationsof the nuclear dust inactive galactic nuclei

    Obscured AGN Across Cosmic Time

    Konrad R. W. Tristram

    Collaborators:K. Meisenheimer, M. Schartmann (MPIA),

    W. Jaffe, D. Raban (Sterrewacht Leiden), Bill Cotton (NRAO)

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 2

    • Torus size: ~ 1 pcAngular sizes for the nearest AGN: < 20 mas

    continuous torus modelλ=10 μm, i=60°

    Schartmann (2005)

    Introduction: Which instrument?

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 3

    • Torus size: ~ 1 pcAngular sizes for the nearest AGN: < 20 mas

    • Need MIR instruments with highest resolution!Find this only at the VLTI: MIDI

    VLT with the ResidenciaFebruary 2005

    Introduction: Which instrument?

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 4

    • Torus size: ~ 1 pcAngular sizes for the nearest AGN: < 20 mas

    • Need MIR instruments with highest resolution!Find this only at the VLTI: MIDI

    • MIDI– Dispersed fringes in the

    N-band (8 to 13 μm)– NaCl prism (R ~ 30)– Grism (R ~ 240)

    MIDI in the VLTI lab

    Introduction: Which instrument?

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 5

    • Essentially Young’s experiment

    O

    δ

    S

    P

    r1r2

    H1 H2D

    I

    Introduction: MIR interferometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 6

    • Essentially Young’s experiment

    • Correlated flux Fcor:flux in fringes

    • Resolution:λφ

    2 BL=

    The VLTI interferometer

    BL

    Introduction: MIR interferometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 7

    List of all AGN observed to date:

    GTO5.0 JyCircinus

    GTO0.6 JyNGC 1365

    GTO0.4 JyNGC 7469

    GTO0.3 JyMCG -05-23-016

    GTO0.6 JyIC 4329A

    TimeFlux (10 µm)Name

    GTO

    GTO

    OT

    GTO

    SDT / OT

    0.6 JyNGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    13.0 JyNGC 1068 (M77)

    0.3 Jy

    0.4 Jy

    0.5 Jy

    3C 273

    Mrk 1239

    NGC 3783

    Introduction: Target list

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 8

    List of all AGN observed to date:

    GTO5.0 JyCircinus

    GTO0.6 JyNGC 1365

    GTO0.4 JyNGC 7469

    GTO0.3 JyMCG -05-23-016

    GTO0.6 JyIC 4329A

    TimeFlux (10 µm)Name

    GTO

    GTO

    OT

    GTO

    SDT / OT

    0.6 JyNGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    13.0 JyNGC 1068 (M77)

    0.3 Jy

    0.4 Jy

    0.5 Jy

    3C 273

    Mrk 1239

    NGC 3783

    Introduction: Target list

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 9

    • Spiral galaxy SA(s)b, i = 65°

    • Seyfert type 2

    • 4 × 106 M nucleus

    • Distance ~4 Mpc50 mas ~ 1 pc

    • Circumnuclear starburst

    2MASS J, H, Ks colour mosaic

    Circinus: General properties

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 10

    Period 72, 04-02 (U3-U2)Period 73, 04-06 (U3-U2)Period 74, 05-02 (U3-U4)Period 75, 05-05 (U2-U3)Period 77, 06-05 (U2-U3)

    -80-60-40-2020406080

    u in m

    -80

    -60

    -40

    -20

    20

    40

    60

    80 v in mU2-U4GTO observations from P72 to P77:• 21 fringe tracks

    • 16 photometries

    Circinus: UV coverage

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 11

    8 9 10 11 12 13Wavelength λ in μm

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25To

    tal f

    lux

    F tot

    in J

    y

    Circinus: Total flux

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 12

    GTO observations from P72 to P77:

    Period 72, 04-02 (U3-U2)Period 73, 04-06 (U3-U2)Period 74, 05-02 (U3-U4)Period 75, 05-05 (U2-U3)Period 77, 06-05 (U2-U3)

    -80-60-40-2020406080

    u in m

    -80

    -60

    -40

    -20

    20

    40

    60

    80 v in mU2-U4

    • 21 fringe tracks

    • 16 photometries

    Circinus: UV coverage

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 13

    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0Circinus, observed 2005-02-28

    8 9 10 11 12 13Wavelength λ [μm]

    Cor

    rela

    ted

    flux

    F cor

    [Jy]

    PA = 44.6°, BL = 49.3 mPA = 53.6°, BL = 51.0 mPA = 56.6°, BL = 51.6 mPA = 88.4°, BL = 58.1 mPA = 120.0°, BL = 62.0 mPA = 130.5°, BL = 62.4 m

    Circinus: Correlated flux

    ozon

    e ba

    nd

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 14

    334 KT1 =Temperature:

    298 KT2 = Temperature:

    1.18τ1 =Silicate depth:

    2.21τ2 =Silicate depth:

    Position angle:Covering factor:

    Axis ratio:Size:Covering factor:

    Axis ratio:Size:

    61°α =0.20f2 =

    0.97r2 =97 masΔ2 =1.0f1 =

    0.21r1 =21 masΔ1 =

    Flux distribution

    200 100 0 -100 -200RA in mas

    -200

    -100

    0

    100

    200

    λ = 11.0 μm

    DE

    C in

    mas

    Two blackbody Gaussians:

    Log of model flux distribution at 11µm Tristram et al.

    Circinus: Gaussian fit

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 15

    Flux distribution

    200 100 0 -100 -200RA in mas

    -200

    -100

    0

    100

    200

    λ = 11.0 μm

    DE

    C in

    mas

    334 KT1 =Temperature:

    298 KT2 = Temperature:

    1.18τ1 =Silicate depth:

    2.21τ2 =Silicate depth:

    Position angle:Covering factor:

    Axis ratio:Size:Covering factor:

    Axis ratio:Size:

    61°α =0.20f2 =

    0.97r2 =97 masΔ2 =1.0f1 =

    0.21r1 =21 masΔ1 =

    Two blackbody Gaussians:

    Log of model flux distribution at 11µm Tristram et al.

    Circinus: Clumpiness

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 16

    Hydrodynamicaltorus model

    Schartmann et al.

    Simulations of AGN tori

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 17

    Hydrodynamicaltorus model

    Schartmann et al.

    Simulations of AGN tori

    Brightness distribution (in logarithmic scaling, axis in pc):

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 18

    Known geometry

    1’’~ 20 pc

    O[III]

    Wilson et al. 2000

    Circinus: Geometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 19

    Expected torus configuration

    Circinus: Geometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 20

    0.4 pc

    2.0 pc

    RA in mas

    DEC in mas

    -50-25255075

    -75

    -50

    -25

    25

    50

    75

    -75

    Greenhill et al. 2000

    Circinus: Geometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 21

    NGC 1068: General properties

    • Messier M77

    • barred spiral galaxy (R)SA(rs)b, i = 51°

    • Seyfert type 2

    • 1 × 107 M nucleus

    • Distance ~14 Mpc14 mas ~ 1 pc

    SDSS (http://www.wikisky.org)

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 22

    NGC 1068: UV coverage

    OT observations in period P76:

    • grism

    • 15 fringe tracks

    Period 76, 05-11

    150 100 50 -50 -100 -150

    -150

    -100

    -50

    50

    100

    150

    u in m

    v in m

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 23

    NGC 1068: Modelling

    -50-252550

    -50

    -25

    25

    50

    1.4 pc

    3.9 pc

    2 blackbody Gaussians:

    Raban et al.

    0°α ≈Position angle:

    −42°α1 =Position angle:700 KT1 ≈Temperature:

    300 KT2 ≈Temperature:

    5τ1 ≈Silicate depth:

    4τ2 ≈Silicate depth:Axis ratio:Size:

    Axis ratio:

    Size:

    0.75r2 =57 masΔ2 =

    0.34r1 =

    20 masΔ1 =

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 24

    NGC 1068: Modelling

    -50-252550

    -50

    -25

    25

    50

    1.4 pc

    3.9 pc

    2 blackbody Gaussians:

    Raban et al.

    0°α ≈Position angle:

    −42°α1 =Position angle:700 KT1 ≈Temperature:

    300 KT2 ≈Temperature:

    5τ1 ≈Silicate depth:

    4τ2 ≈Silicate depth:Axis ratio:Size:

    Axis ratio:

    Size:

    0.75r2 =57 masΔ2 =

    0.34r1 =

    20 masΔ1 =

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 25

    NGC 1068: Geometry

    Gallimore et al.2004

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 26

    Centaurus A: Properties

    • elliptical galaxy• recent merger• dust lane, edge-on• FR 1 radio galaxy• narrow line RG• 6 × 107 M nucleus• distance ~4 Mpc

    50 mas ~ 1 pc

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 27

    Centaurus A: UV coverage

    GTO observations in P74 and P75:

    -80 -60 -40 -20 20 40 60 80

    -80

    -60

    -40

    -20

    20

    40

    60

    80Period 74, 05-02 (U3-U4)Period 75, 05-05 (U2-U3)

    u in m

    v in m

    • 4 independent visibility points

    • problems with photometry

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 28

    Centaurus A: Fluxes

    8 9 10 11 12 130.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0Fl

    ux in

    F [J

    y]

    PA~108°, BL~60.3mPA~ 37°, BL~45.3m

    Total Photometry

    Wavelength λ [μm]

    N

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 29

    Centaurus A: Results

    Horiuchi et al. 2006 Meisenheimer et al. 2007

    C1/C2C2

    C2/C3C3

    Core

    CJ2

    CJ1

    40 20 0 -20Right Ascension (mas)

    4020

    0-2

    0R

    elat

    ive

    Dec

    linat

    ion

    (mas

    )

    10 mas

    127°

    ± 9°

    50° jet axis

    0.19 pc

    baselineorientation

    Feb

    28

    May 2

    6

    N

    E

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 30

    Other targets: Mrk 1239, MCG -05-..

    8 9 10 11 12 13wavelength λ [μm]

    0.0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1.0

    8 9 10 11 12 13wavelength λ [μm]

    0.0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1.0correlated flux Fcortotal flux Ftottotal flux Ftot

    correlated flux Fcor

    Mrk 1239 (Seyfert 1)MCG -05-23-016 (Seyfert 2)oz

    one

    band

    ozon

    e ba

    nd

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 31

    Conclusions

    • Circinus & NGC 1068:– dusty tori perpendicular to ionisation cone– trace maser locations

    • Centaurus A– dust disk – synchrotron source

    • Weaker targets:– hardly resolved

    VLT on Cerro Paranal, May 2005

  • 06.06.2007 Konrad R. Tristram Page 32

    Prospects

    • Long baselines for unresolved targets• Shorter baselines for

    highly resolved targets• Look at the phases

    imaging• Comparison to simula-

    tions• Extension of sample

    One of the galaxies tobe observed: NGC 1365