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:

OUTLINE

-

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(nutrients) ,

, , , .

.

,

.

,

,

(nutrients)1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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(nutrients)

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(nutrients)

(9,3Kcal/g)

(nutrients)

/

(nutrients)

( pH,

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.

, Mn

(nutrients)

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1.000.000 .

(nutrients)

(, , )

(nutrients)

.

10% .

2,5

(nutrients)

(dietary fiber)

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- (FOS)

bifidobacteria.

1g 4

1g 4

4,1 5,2

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3. -

1.

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1.

2.

3.

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5.

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GC ( ) HPLC ( )

: EGSS 10% Chromosorb P (100 - 200 mesh)

1.8 m . : 1800C : 30 ml/: FID

1.

2. C16:0 11.18%

3. C16:1 0.83%

4. C18:0 2.49%

5. C18:1 75.60%

6. C18:2 8.55%

7. C20:0 0.44%

8. C18:3 0.89%

(Gas Chromatography, GC)

- (High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, HPLC-MS

Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, LC-MS)

HPLC, .

. :

((High Performance Liquid ChromatographyHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography, , HPLCHPLC))

2020

HPLC GC :

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) GC,

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HPLC GC

(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)

2121

HPLC :

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HPLC

HPLC LC

(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)

2222

HPLC, , :

1. 2. 3. - - UV-Vis MS4. ..

(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)

2323

Kjeldahl

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Kjeldahl

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(ICP)

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.

, ( HACCP , .....) "".

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.

Lactobacillus .

.

1.

.

E. coli .

37 C. E. coli Enterobacter aerogenes.

44 - 44,5 C.

, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Serratia .

E. coli.

-.

.

Salmonella, Shigella E. coli , .

Enterobacteriaceae . Enterobacteriaceae Echerichia Enterobacter - Proteus Serratia, Salmonella Shigella.

Enterococcus Streptococcus faecalis Streptococcus faecum . E. coli.

2.

x10 x45. 106 .

. , .

3. DEFT

DEFT (Direct Epifluorescence Filter Technique).

- . . .

.

4.

.

. . petri .

.

, , malt extract agar potato/dextrose agar . -. .

(.. BBE (= bacteroides esculin bile) gentamicin).

, . cooked-meat 43 45 oC C. perfringens.

(resuscitation media) , , , . .

, (.. Chapman agar, S. aureus ).

, sodium tellurite ( ), lithium chloride, sodium pyruvate, . (.. Baird-Parker S. aureus ).

5.

()

() petri . . , .

) . . , .

() Miles Misra (20 l) , . .

6.

, . . ( , resazurin), chloride triphenyltetrazolium, . .

7. (GLC)

. , methylfuran, 2-methylpropanol 3-methylbutanol Aspergillus Penicillium GLC.

(SCFA) GLC .

8. ATP (= )

ATP .

.

(LumacBiocounter). ATP ATP , .

Luciferin + Luciferase + ATP Mg++

Luciferin - Luciferase - AMP + PP + O 2

Oxyluciferin - Luciferase - AMP + H2O

Oxyluciferin + Luciferase + AMP + hi(560 nm) ( )

9.

.

ELISA . , .

10. DNA/RNA

. , .

(probes) DNA RNA.

DNA DNA . DNA DNA .

11. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

, (PCR) . DNA. DNA (primer).

DNA. 30 40 .

3. -

.

:

&

&

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2013,

http://portal.efet.gr/images/efet_res/docs/ektaktes/egxeiridio_ekt_anagkon.pdf

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1. (processed foods)

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2.

( minimal processed foods)

(functional foods).

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(processed foods)

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( minimal processed foods) (functional

foods).

59

60

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(Prebiotics)

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- (FOS-Fructooligosacharides) ,

in vivo

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, , , -, - , -

(synbiotics),

.

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