›ƒµ¹‚ µ‰„®ƒµ‰½,...

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Απαντήσεις των ερωτήσεων, λύσεις των ασκήσεων και συνοπτική θεωρία, όλων των κεφαλαίων της Φυσικής Κατεύθυνσης Β Λυκείου

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    1:

    1.1: 1) , 2) ;

    : , Gay-Lussac, ( ). , , . , .

    1.2: :

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    .

    : , , ( ). , , Charles. , . .

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    1.3: :

    :

    1) ) p/v = .

    2) ) p/ = .

    3) ) v/ = .

    ) pV = .

    1.4: . ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    ;

    :

    : V

    m . ( ),

    , , . , .

    1.5: p-V , (1) (2) . n1 n2 moles , :

    ) n1 = n2

    ) n1 > n2

    ) n1 < n2

    : , , (

    ). x

    ay .

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    a , ( y, p) .

    , : V

    nRTp

    nRT a .

    (1), :

    V

    RTnp 1

    (2), :

    V

    RTnp 2

    (1) (2),

    RTn1 RTn2 .

    , :

    RTn1 212 nnRTn

    , .

    1.6: ;

    ) .

    ) .

    ) pV/T .

    ) .

    :

    ) .

    ) .

    ) . : T

    pVnRnRTpV .

    , : .n , R . , nR, ,

    T

    pV.

    ) . , , .

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    1.7: pV ;

    : n : RT

    pVn

    , , n . n , . ,

    pV , RT R

    , .

    ( pV T )

    . , , RT

    pVn ,

    pV .

    : .

    1.8: n1 n2 . ; (n1 > n2).

    : : axy ( ).

    , , ( V). , y V x .

    , : Tp

    nRV . ,

    p

    nR.

    21 nn , :

    21 nn p

    Rn

    p

    RnRnRn 2121

    mol 1n

    mol 2n . , .

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    1.9: ) ) ;

    : ) , , . ) , ( ) ( ), (.. , ). , , , .

    1.10: ;

    ) .

    ) .

    ) , .

    ) , .

    : ) . : Tkum 2

    3

    2

    1 2.

    , .

    ) .

    : V

    umNp

    2

    3

    1 .

    ) . , ,

    : m

    kTu

    3 .

    ) . .

    1.11: . , . :

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    .

    : . (

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    Boltzmann ), : Tkum 2

    3

    2

    1 2.

    , .

    1.12:

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    .

    : ,

    V

    umNp

    2

    3

    1

    :

    ) . .

    ) . .

    ) . V

    m .

    ) .

    1.13: .

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    ) .

    .

    : , m

    kTu

    3 , :

    , , . , .

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    1.16: 27 C 1atm. 60 C. ;

    , Charles.

    atmp 11 KT 300273271 (

    ), Charles :

    11 kTp (1)

    , () ,

    KCT 360273878727602 , :

    22 kTp (2)

    (1) (2), :

    atmK

    Katm

    T

    Tpp

    T

    T

    p

    p

    kT

    kT

    p

    p2,1

    360

    3331

    1

    212

    2

    1

    2

    1

    2

    1

    2

    1

    : 2/mN ,

    ( )/10013,11 25 mNatm ,

    , .

    , , 2/mN

    atm :

    25

    25

    1

    212 /1022,1

    360

    333/10013,1

    1

    mNK

    Katm

    mNatm

    T

    Tpp

    ,

    C K, ( 273K ) .

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    1.17: . , . 27 C 0,20 m3. -3 C. ;

    , , . , Gay-Lussac.

    , KT 300273271 32,0 mV :

    11 kTV (1)

    , (

    ), KT 27027332 , :

    22 kTV (2)

    (1) (2) ,

    2V :

    33

    1

    212

    2

    1

    2

    1

    2

    1

    2

    1 18,0300

    2702,0m

    K

    Km

    T

    TVV

    T

    T

    V

    V

    kT

    kT

    V

    V

    1.18: 4m4m3m. 27 C 1atm. mol . : 1atm = 1,013x105N/m2, R = 8,314J / mol K.

    : 348mV .

    , mol:

    CKmolJ

    matm

    RT

    pVnnRTpV

    27)/314,8(

    481 3 (1)

    :

    2/mN .

    atm : 25 /10013,11 mNatm . ,

    atm1 , 25 /10013,1 mN .

    . :

    KT 300273272

    , (1) :

    molKKmolJ

    mmNn 1950

    300)/314,8(

    48/10013,1 325

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    : R, : R=8,314J/molK R=0,082Latm/molK. ; . :

    N/m2 R=8,314J/molK

    m3

    atm R=0,082Latm/molK

    L ()

    1.19: . 1atm . 1/3 . .

    , . , , . Boyle. :

    : atmp 1 1VV , Boyle

    :

    kVp 11 (1)

    2pp 3/12 VV , :

    kVp 22 (2)

    (1) (2) :

    atmatmp

    pV

    Vp

    V

    VppVpVp

    Vp

    Vp

    k

    k

    Vp

    Vp

    313

    33/

    1

    2

    1

    1

    11

    2

    1122211

    22

    11

    22

    11

    1.20: 2x10-5 mol V=0,25m3 27C. . : R = 8,314J / mol K,1atm =1,013x105N/m2.

    , . , :

    KT 30027327 . :

    2

    3

    5

    /2,025,0

    300)/314,8(102mN

    m

    KKmolJmol

    V

    nRTpnRTpV

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    2/mN , , R

    KmolJ / 3m ( 1.18).

    1.21: . . 0,4m3, 300 1atm. 0,1m3 600 . .

    : atmp 11 , KT 3001 3

    1 4,0 mV .

    :

    2p , KT 6002 3

    2 1,0 mV . ,

    , (Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac). , ( ).

    :

    111 nRTVp (1)

    :

    222 nRTVp (2)

    , mol ( ), n. , :

    atmpKm

    Kmatm

    TV

    TVpp

    nRT

    nRT

    Vp

    Vp8

    3001,0

    6004,0123

    3

    12

    2112

    2

    1

    22

    11

    1.22: ( ), 13x10-15 atm. 1L (300). R = 0,082L atm / mol K, NA = 6,023x1023 /mol.

    mol :

    molKKmolatmL

    Latm

    RT

    pVnnRTpV 15

    15

    1053,0300)/082,0(

    11013

    R ( 1.18).

    , :

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    1 mol

    0,5310-15 mol =;

    :

    mol

    NmolN A 82315

    15

    1018,310023,61053,01

    1053,0

    1.23: 185 C 1atm (1atm = 1,013x105N/m2 ). 44x10-3 kg / mol R = 8,314J / mol K.

    :

    nRTpV

    , mol n : M

    mn ,

    m . , :

    RTM

    mpV

    , ,

    V

    m . , ,

    . :

    3325

    /17,1300)/314,8(

    /1044)/10013,1(mkg

    KKmolJ

    molkgmN

    RT

    pM

    RTpMRTV

    mpMRTmpVMRT

    M

    mpV

    1.24: . =f(), .

    1.23, :

    RT

    pM

    ( - , ). , :

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    )273(

    R

    pM

    , . :

    =0C 273

    R

    pM

    = -273C

    0

    , :

    1.25: =27 C p=103N/m2 8x10-4 kg/m3. . R = 8,314J / mol K.

    :

    molkgmN

    KKmolJmkg

    p

    RTM

    RTpMRTV

    mpMRTmpVMRT

    M

    mpV

    /102/10

    )27327()/314,8()/108( 323

    34

    1.26: mol s.t.p. . , , p-V, p-T V-T.

    ( ),

    (s.t.p.), : atmpA 1 , KTA 273 LVA 4,22 .

    (

    ). , : KTB 273 . ,

    pM/273

    R

    -273 0

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    , : atmpB 2 .

    , Boyle ( ), :

    LVLVVVpVpVpVp BABBAAABBAA 2,112/4,222/2

    ,