Διπλωματική Εργασία Χιούμορ

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Transcript of Διπλωματική Εργασία Χιούμορ

  • 0

    :

    :

    :

    :

    : A.M: 264

    . ,

    . ,

    . ,

    , 2012

  • 1

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    , . ,

    . , .

    .

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    .

  • 2

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    12 ,

    2

    - 12

    . : )

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  • 3

    Abstract

    The aim of this thesis was to study counselors humor during counseling

    sessions. The character of this research was qualitative, focused on phenomenological

    methodology. We sought to study the phenomenon considering the way participants

    experience and interpret it. The means we attempt to study the subject was by

    interviewing 12 counselors, virtual text context analysis derived from 2 videotaped

    counseling group meetings and semi structure interviews at 12 members of the

    counseling team and the leader. The main findings are: a) counselors utilize the

    benefits of humor to achieve specific counseling aims b) counselors humor takes

    place spontaneously, as an element of his personality, counselors didnt received the

    necessary training to implement humor as a specific therapeutic technique either as a

    humor integrated intervention, c) clients deal positively counselors humor and

    finally, d) depending on the time of the counseling process counselors use of humor

    varies as to type, frequency and direction.

    Keywords: counselling, humour, clients, counselors humour

  • 4

    .

    , (Franzini, 2001 Sultanof,

    1992Gladding, 1999)

    .

    (Goldin & Bordan et al. 1999).

    .

    , (Cundall, 2007

    Greenwald, 1975)

    .

    ,

    ,

    (Killinger, 1987 Foster & Reid, 1983). ,

    ,

    (Jefrey, 2009).

    ,

    (,

    2009, & , 2012).

    ,

    .

  • 5

    .

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 6

    .................................................................................................................... 1

    ....................................................................................................................... 2

    Abstract .......................................................................................................................... 3

    ....................................................................................................................... 4

    1 - ........................................... 9

    1.1 ...................................................................................... 10

    1.2 ............................................................... 12

    1.3 .................................................................................................. 17

    1.4 ....................................... 22

    1.5 ............................................................... 27

    2: ..................................................... 31

    2.1 - (tension arousal-relief theories) .... 34

    2.1.1 .................................................................... 35

    2.2 (Superiority Theory) .................................................. 42

    2.3 (Incongruity Theory) ........................ 46

    2.3.1 / (Reversal Theories - Play

    Theories) ...................................................................................................................... 51

  • 7

    3: .............................................................. 54

    3.1 ............................................................... 54

    3.2 .. 61

    3.2.1 ........................................................................... 62

    3.2.2 ................................................ 66

    3.2.3 ............................................................... 69

    3.3 ............................................................................. 72

    3.4 .......... 77

    ................................................................................................ 83

    4.1 .................................................................................... 83

    4.2 ............................................................................ 85

    4.3 ............................................................................................................... 87

    4.4 ............................................................................................. 90

    4.4.1 .......................................................................................................... 90

    4.4.2 ........................................................................................... 93

    4.4.3 .................................. 95

    4.5 ..................................................... 98

    4.5.1 .................................................................................................. 98

    4.5.2 ....................................................................................................... 98

    4.5.3 ..................................................... 100

    4.5.4 ............................ 101

    4.6 .......................................... 102

    4.7 .......................................................................................... 103

  • 8

    5: ............................................... 105

    5.1 ........................................................................................................ 105

    5.2

    .......................................................................................... 120

    5.3 ......................................................................... 124

    5.4 1 ................................................................. 128

    6: - - - ..... 129

    6.1 - ................................................................................... 129

    6.3 ..................................................................................... 137

    6.4 ..................................................................... 138

    ............................................................................................................. 139

    1 ........................................................................................................ 150

    2 ........................................................................................................ 157

    3 ........................................................................................................ 160

  • 9

    1 -

    ; .

    .

    (Martin, 2007).

    . ,

    .

    ; ,

    .

    :

    1. ;

    2. ;

    3.

    ;

    4.

    ;

    5. ;

  • 10

    1.1

    .

    20

    ,

    (, 2004).

    , .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    , , ,

    , .

    ,

    (BAC, 1984, . . Mc Leod, 2003 . 30)

    , Burks Stefflre (1979)

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Feltham Dryden (1993)

    ,

  • 11

    , ,

    , .

    , ,

    ,

    (Mc Leod, 2005).

    ,

    .

    , (, 2004, . 18, Mc Leod, 2003 .

    220 )

  • 12

    1.2

    :

    .

    S.Freud

    humour humor umor

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ( , ,

    ). .

    ,

    , .

    (, & , 2012).

    2 .

    :

    , ,

    , ,

    , ,

    ( & 2005).

    .

  • 13

    ,

    .

    16

    .

    Thomas Hobbes (1558- 1679), Immanuel Kant (1724-1804),

    Arthur Sopenhauer (1788-1860), Anri Bergson (1858-1954). 18

    ,

    . 20

    ( , 2010).

    , , ,

    . ,

    .

    Chapman Foot (1975)

    ,

    . , ,

    . , ,

    .

    Raskin (1985, .2) Semantic Mechanism of Humor

    , , ,

    ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    , ,

    , , .

    ,

    .

  • 14

    Fry (1994)

    ,

    , ,

    . , ,

    ( OJha & Holmes, 2010).

    . , Martin (2001)

    , , ,

    ,

    .

    O Dubberley (1988)

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    Mc Ghee (1979 .6 . . Loizou 2006)

    , .

    , (Ausubel et al., 1980)

    ,

    . Rollo May (. . Sultanoff, 1994) :

    ,

  • 15

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    Reiger (2004 . . , 2008)

    ,

    ,

    .

    Freud, (1972)

    ,

    .

    Martin, (2007)

    .

    , , . ,

    - . ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    (Mc

    Ghee, 1979 o. . Ojha & Holmes, 2010).

    ,

    ,

    (Romero & Cruthirds, 2006).

    Mallet, (1995)

    .

  • 16

    ,

    ,

    .

    , (,

    2010).

    .

    , .

    ,

    (Fine, 1984, .84).

    (Romero & Cruthirds, 2006)

    . ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    (, 2010).

  • 17

    1.3

    .

    .

    ( , ),

    (, ) ( , ).

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    , ,

    (, 2001).

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    , , . ,

    / - ,

    (ibid, 2001).

    ,

    . (2001)

    .

    ( & 2005).

  • 18

    . ,

    . , ,

    .

    . , , ,

    ... ,

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    Long Graesser (1988)

    :

    1. :

    .

    . :

    : !.

    2. : ,

    .

    3. :

    .

    .

    (Cartsburg, 2007).

    4. :

    , . (

    ; !!).

    5. :

    . ,

    ,

    .

  • 19

    6. :

    .

    , .

    7. :

    ,

    .

    .

    8. : , ,

    .

    .

    9. :

    ,

    .

    10. : ,

    , (.

    ).

    11. :

    , (..

    ; - )

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    (adaptive)

    ,

  • 20

    .

    ()

    () (Kuiper & Leite, 2010, , 2010).

    , (affiliative humor)

    ,

    (Kuiper, & Leite, 2010). ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    (Romero & Cruthirds, 2006).

    ,

    ,( Kalliny,

    Cruthirds, & Minor, 2006).

    (X, 2010).

    (self-enhancing humor)

    .

    . ,

    .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    (maladaptive)

    ()

    (-).

  • 21

    (),

    ( -).

    , (aggressive humor)

    , ,

    (Kuiper & Leite, 2010).

    , ,

    (Kalliny, Cruthirds & Minor,

    2006).

    .

    (Saroglou, & Scariot, 2002).

    (Romero & Cruthirds,

    2006).

    ( , 2010).

    (self- defeating

    humor)

    (Kuiper & Leite, 2010).

    ,( Kalliny, Cruthirds &

    Minor, 2006). ,

    (Romero & Cruthirds, 2006).

    (, 2010).

    , ,

    (Saroglou, & Scariot,

    2002).

  • 22

    1.4

    .

    :

    - ?

    , , .

    , , , ,

    , , ,

    .

    .

    - ,

    , .

    , ,

    . (Mc Ghee, 1974 . 2010).

    Lawrence (1915)

    ,

    , ,

    . Mc Ghee (1979)

    ,

    . ,

    .

  • 23

    (Van de Water,

    1939). Shultz (1972 . . Loizou, 2006)

    . ,

    .

    ,

    . Sanford & Eder (1984)

    . ,

    , ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    (Ziv, 2010).

    Ericson Feldstein (2007)

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    (Lakoff 1975, Mc Gee 1976,1979)

    ,

    ,

    (. Robinson & Smith- Lovin 2001).

    , ,

    (Sacks 1974 .. Robinson & Smith-

    Lovin 2001 . 128).

  • 24

    . (Chupchick &

    Leventhal 1974)

    . (Lundell, 1993)

    . , Dovidio et al. (1988),

    .

    Kramarae (1981)

    ,

    (Franzini, 1996).

    Crawford (2003)

    .

    .

    . ,

    ,

    (Crawford 1995, 2003).

    , ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    .

    (Masten, 1986, Kauck &Thomas, 1972 . 2010).

  • 25

    ,

    (Aspenger, 1944 Wing, 1996 . Lyons & Fitzgerald, 2004).

    , Vasudevi et al. 2002

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    (Vasudevi et al., 2002 Bell et al., 1986 . . Suits et al., 2011).

    .

    Wicker et al., (1981)

    .

    -

    , .

    Ziv (1988)

    .

    (Kruger, 1996).

    (, 2010).

    .

    , ,

    , ,

    .

    .

    (Shanon, 1963). Obrdlik (1942)

    (Haig, 1988).

  • 26

    . ,

    ,

    , (Kruger, 1996).

    ,

    ,

    (Haig 1988).

    . Wimer Beins (2008)

    .

    .

    .

    . ,

    (Wimer &

    Beins 2008).

    ,

    .

  • 27

    1.5

    ..;

    .

    :

    1. ,

    2. , ,

    ,

    3. ,

    . ,

    . Alice Isen (2003)

    .

    , ,

    ,

    (Lyubomirisky, King & Diener, 2005 . Martin 2007).

    ,

    , ,

    .

    .

  • 28

    ,

    (Boverie et al., 1994).

    .

    . , Shiota (2004, . Martin,

    2007)

    . ,

    (Bressler, Martin & Balshine, 2006 o. . Kuiper, Leite, 2010). ,

    ,

    .

    (Martin, 2007).

    .

    .

    (Ziv, 2010).

    O Mulkay (1988),

    .

    .

    .

    (Robinson & Smith- Lovin, 2001).

  • 29

    ,

    .

    ,

    (Ziv 2010).

    ,

    ,

    .

    . Vinton (1989)

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    . ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    , Boverie et al., (1994)

    ,

    . Krohe (1987, . 32)

    , ,

    .

    Humphreys, (1990)

    ,

  • 30

    .

  • 31

    2:

    .

    .

    : -!! !

    .

    .

    , Kieth- Speigel, (1972 . . Foster 1978)

    .

    .

    : () , ()

    ,()

    ,()

    , ()

    ()

    ()

    () ,

    , ,

    ,

    (Foster, 1978).

  • 32

    Morreall, (1982)

    . ,

    - .

    , (superiority theories)

    .

    , ,

    .

    (incongruity theories),

    - ,

    - , (play theories),

    .

    .

    -

    (relief theories)

    Freud,

    ,

    (Mio & Graesser,

    1991).

    .

    ,

    .

    , .

    (Smuts, 2006).

    .

    ,

  • 33

    .

    .

  • 34

    2.1 - (tension arousal-relief theories)

    ;

    - .

    . Herbert

    Spencer Sigmund Freud.

    .

    (Smuts, 2006 Krikmann,

    2006).

    Freud

    ,

    (Krikmann, 2006).

    .

    Spencer (1860)

    (Smuts, 2006).

    .

    . ,

    . .

    ,

    .

    (Morreall, 1982).

  • 35

    ,

    . .

    .

    (ibid, 1982). ,

    .

    Spencer

    (Smuts, 2006).

    Daniel Berlyne (1960)

    . ,

    .

    .

    Berlyne (1960)

    .

    (Martin, 2007).

    Freud .

    2.1.1

    S.Freud

    Sigmund Freud,

    , .

  • 36

    ,

    , ,

    (Newirth,

    2006).

    .

    ,

    ,

    (Martin, 2007, Freud, 1972).

    . ,

    .

    (alcohol+ holidays= alcocholidays).

    ( ).

    ,

    .

    (, 2009, Freud, 1972).

    ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    ,

    .

  • 37

    .

    , . ,

    .

    .

    , (),

    (, , )

    (Freud 1972 Martin 2007).

    . ,

    . (,

    2010).

    Freud

    .

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    (Freud, 1972):

    1.

    2.

    3.

    .

  • 38

    , , ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    , .

    ,

    . Freud ,

    (Freud

    1972 Martin, 2007).

    .

    .

    . ,

    . .

    (Berry, 2004Freud, 1972 Goldin & Bordan, 1999)

    , , .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    Freud

    (id) ,

    .

  • 39

    , ,

    (Weisenberg, Tepper & Schwarzwald, 1995).

    Freud

    : !

    ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    (Erickson

    &Feldstein 2006)

    Humor

    .

    :

    .

    .

    , .

  • 40

    ,

    . (Newirth, 2006).

    ,

    . , , , ,

    , , .

    Freud

    , ,

    . ,

    .

    Freud

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    . .

    (Martin, 2007).

    .

    ( & , 2005).

    ,

  • 41

    ,

    (Freud, 1972).

    Freud .

    Lacan

    ,

    . Blanco

    (Newirth, 2006).

  • 42

    2.2 (Superiority Theory)

    ;

    ,

    . Freud

    (Martin, 2007).

    , Hobbes (Berger, 1993).

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    (Ferguson & Ford,

    2008).

    ,

    , .

    ,

    , . ,

    , ,

    (Ferguson, & Ford, 2008 , 2010).

    Hobbes 17

    .

  • 43

    (Ferguson & Ford, 2008).

    (,

    2010).

    (Martin, 2007).

    Gruner (2000)

    . Hobbes

    , o

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    (Gruner, 2000 . 9).

    .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    , , (Martin, 2007).

    Gruner (2000)

    .

    .

  • 44

    . .

    (, 2010).

    .

    , Mindess (1970)

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Obrdlik (1942, . Franzini 2001)

    .

    Freud

    .

    ,

    .

    . ,

    , (Martin, 2007).

  • 45

    . Mc Dougall (1922 .

    . Martin 2007),

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 46

    2.3 (Incongruity Theory)

    ;

    -

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    (,2)

    .

    ,

    (Smuts,

    2006).

    Immanuel Kant ,

    ,

    .

    (Attardo, 1994, . 396).

    O Arthur Schopenhauer

    ,

    . ,

  • 47

    .

    Schopenhauer (1818, ,13)

    (Smuts, 2006).

    ,

    - .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    , (Morreall, 1982).

    ,

    ,

    (Morreall, 1982 2010) .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    ,

    (, 2009).

    Koestler

    - (bisociation)

    . - , ,

    (Krikman, 2006).

  • 48

    .

    (Martin, 2007).

    :

    Riley .

    . . Riley

    ;

    ,

    . Riley , .

    , .

    -

    .

    .

    Beatitie (1776), Freud (1960), Shultz(1970), Suls(1972)

    (Shultz 1976).

    . ,

    (Morreall, 1981).

    .

    (Suls, 1983),

    (Rothbart, 1976)

    ,

    ,

    .

    , ,

    . (,

    , ) ,

    .

  • 49

    ,

    (Morreall, 1981 Rothbart, 1976).

    Cundall (2007)

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    , .

    , Shultz (1976)

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    , , .

    .

    .

    (, 2010).

    Veale (2004)

    , ,

    .

    .

  • 50

    Suls (1972,1983 . Martin 2007)

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    . ,

    . ,

    .

    2: Suls (1972) Martin, (2007 . 65)

    ;

    .

    ;

    =

    =

  • 51

    .

    .

    2.3.1 / (Reversal Theories -

    Play Theories) ,

    . () ,

    . .

    - ;

    - . - , , ...

    .

    .

    Max Eastman (1936)

    . ,

    , ,

    , , ,

    (Martin,

    2007 Smuts 2006).

    Berlyne (1969), Gruner (1997)

    Michael Apter (1982, 2001 . . Martin, 2007)

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 52

    Apter (1991)

    .

    (paratelic),

    , ,

    .

    (telic) - -,

    .

    Apter (1982)

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    . (synergy)

    .

    ,

    .

    Wyer Collins (1992 . . Martin, 2007),

    . ,

    .

    . ,

    .

  • 53

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    (Martin, 2007).

  • 54

    3:

    3.1

    :

    :

    ;

    .

    : ()

    , ()

    , , ()

    ,

    , ()

    , ()

    (Martin, 2007).

    Haig (1986) Therapeutic Uses of Humor

    . ,

    . Johnston (1990) ,

    .

    .

  • 55

    Goldin et al., (2006)

    ,

    .

    (Martens, 2004).

    Frakes (1999)

    ,

    Rutherford, (1994)

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (Kuhn et al., 2010).

    (Gladding, 1995).

    Johnston, (1990)

    ,

    (Epstein, 1998)

    . Schnarch (1990) ,

    .

    , Rutherford (1994)

    .

    .

    (Gladding, 1995). ,

  • 56

    (Haig, 1986Goldin & Bordan 1999).

    ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    (Haig, 1986).

    ,

    .

    (Gladding, 1995).

    ,

    (Rutherford, 1994).

    ,

    (Martens, 2004).

    (Goldin et al., 2006).

    (Dimmer et al., 1990).

    .

    (Haig, 1986).

  • 57

    .

    .

    . ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    Epstein (1998)

    , .

    , Goldin et al. (2006)

    ,

    (Goldin et al.,

    2006Glading, 1995).

    Sultanoff (2000)

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    (Frakes, 1999Martin, 2007).

    .

    ,

    (Rutherford, 1994).

  • 58

    ,

    (Johnston, 1990Glading, 1995 ).

    ,

    (Dupey et al., 2001) .

    (Rutherford, 1994 Frakes, 1999).

    .

    ,

    .

    (Johnston, 1990).

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    Kaplan

    (Goldin et al. 2006). ,

    .

    ,

  • 59

    ,

    (Goldin & Bordan, 1999).

    (Martin, 2007).

    (Haig, 1986).

    .

    .

    ,

    (Gladding, 1995).

    . Kennedy (1991)

    . ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Bollas (1983 . . Kennedy, 1991)

  • 60

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    (Martens, 2004),

    (Walter et al., 2007).

  • 61

    3.2

    , - , !

    , , . ,

    , ,

    . ,

    (Berry, 2004)

    Gladding (1995), o

    , .

    (Martin, 2007):

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

  • 62

    3.2.1 -,

    - ; - ;;

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    (Martin, 2007).

    ,

    Albert Ellis,

    (Provocative Therapy) Frank Farelly, Natural Hight Therapy OConnells.

    Albert Ellis, ,

    , ,

    .

    .

  • 63

    / ,

    . Ellis 1977

    . Johnston (1990) , Ellis

    .

    ,

    ,

    . Ellis

    ,

    . ,

    (Martin, 2007 )

    (Provocative Therapy) Frank Farelly.

    . , ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    , , ,

  • 64

    , , .

    . Farelly (1974)

    ,

    , .

    .

    , Natural

    High Therapy .

    O Connells Carl Jung

    Alfred Adler. ,

    ,

    .

    - (self

    actualization).

    , ,

    ,

    ,

    (Franzini, 2001, Martin, 2007).

    .

    (OConnell 1981 . . Franzini, 2001).

    .

    (OConnell 1975b . . ibid, 2001).

    ,

    , (OConnell 1975a . ibid,

    2001).

    -

    (humordrama)

    . O Connell (1977 . Prerost, 1983),

  • 65

    .

  • 66

    3.2.2

    - , .

    - , . .

    ,

    .

    , (Smith, 1973)

    (Weisenberg et al., 1995) .

    ,

    , . ,

    . ,

    . ,

    Prerost (1983) (Humorous

    Imagery Situation Technique).

    .

    (systematic desensitization),

    ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

  • 67

    ,

    . , Smith, (1973)

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (distraction).

    .

    Weisenberg, Tepper Schwarzwald (1995),

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    Prerost (1983)

    / ,

    , .

    .

    (Humorous Imagery

    Situation Technique) .

    ,

    . ,

  • 68

    , .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    , (Prerost, 1989).

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    ,

    (ibid, 1989).

    .

  • 69

    3.2.3 , !

    - .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    . Greenwald (1975)

    , .

    .

    Marci et al., (2004)

    ,

    .

    . ,

    , .

    (Martin, 2001).

    (Berry, 2004).

    ,

  • 70

    . ,

    ,

    , (Martin, 2007).

    Bachelor Horvath (1999),

    ,

    .

    ,

    , .

    . ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    , (Greenwald,

    1975).

    .

    . McGhee (1979

    . Rutherford 1994),

    .

    , o Sultanoff (1994)

    .

  • 71

    ,

    .

    Franzini (2001)

    .

    :

    , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • 72

    3.3

    .

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    , ,

    (Ryenes et

    al. 1978).

    Kubie (1971)

    ,

    .

    (Martin, 2007).

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    (Frakes, 1999).

    .

    ,

  • 73

    , ,

    .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    , .

    (Berry, 2004 Martin, 2007)

    Foster (1978)

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    Kubie (1971) ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    (Haig,1988Foster, 1978).

    ,

  • 74

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    Marcus (1990)

    ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    , ,

    . ,

    ,

    , .

    Berry (2004)

    , .

    .

    Kubie,

    .

    .

    .

  • 75

    . Kulman Foster

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    Percie

    , ,

    .

    Foster (1978)

    .

    1 ,

    ,

    .

    2

    .

    .

    3

    - ,

    .

  • 76

    4

    ,

    .

    , 5

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 77

    3.4

    -

    - . . !

    .

    , .

    , .

    Killinger (1987 . . Martin, 2007)

    ,

    .

    ,

    -,

    .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    - , .

    Killinger

    . ,

    ,

    . ,

  • 78

    . ,

    (Cundall, 2007).

    .

    ,

    .

    , Foster Reid (1983)

    , .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    (Foster &

    Reid, 1983).

    Golan, Rosenhein Jaffe (1988)

    .

    :

    , .

    ,

    .

    : ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

  • 79

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    Medgell (1984, . . Martin, 2007)

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    , .

    .

    , Abel (2002),

    ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    (Abel, 2002).

  • 80

    , ,

    Ericson Feldstein (2007)

    94 12-15

    .

    , .

    .

    Falkenberg et al. (2010)

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    Newton Dowd (1990)

    .

    .

    .

    .

    Goldin, Bordan Araoz, et al. (2006)

    .

    .

    .

  • 81

    .

    Jefrey (2009)

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    , , , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Gregson (2009).

    .

    ,

    .

    . Gregson (2009)

    , ,

    .

    . ,

    . ,

    , ,

    .

    .

  • 82

    .

    (2009) , (2012)

    . ,

    (2005)

    (, -, ,

    -) .

    200 18-25 .

    .

    .

    - , .

    ,

    .

    :

    1. ;

    2. ;

    3.

    ;

    4.

    ;

    5.

    ;

  • 83

    4.1

    .

    .

    Denzin Lincoln (2005 . 3)

    .

    .

    , ,

    , , .

    .

    ,

    .

    , ,

    (Denzin & Lincoln 1998 ,

    2008).

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

  • 84

    .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    , .

    (Patton 1990Moustakas 1994).

    Giorgi Giorgi (2008, . 8)

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    (Patton, 1990 2008).

    ,

    . ,

    , (video)

    . , -

    .

  • 85

    4.2

    .

    (Cohen & Manion, 1994). Webb et al. (1966 .

    Mathison 1988), .

    ,

    ,

    .

    Denzin (1988)

    (Mathison, 1988 Robson, 2010 . 207).

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    .

    (, 2008).

    ,

    .

  • 86

    Robson (2010)

    .

    ,

    , ,

    . ,

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    (Cohen & Manion, 1994).

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    (Robson, 2010).

    ,

    .

    . ,

    ,

    (ibid, 2010).

    ,

    .

    , .

  • 87

    4.3

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . .

    . ,

    ,

    , -

    Gestalt .

    .

    (, 2008). ,

    (Patton, 1990 ).

    (Patton, 1990 . 169).

    .

  • 88

    (, 2008).

    ,

    .

    . ,

    , ,

    /

    .

    , ,

    .

    , .

    . ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    (Mason, 1996)

    (Robson, 2010).

  • 89

    .

    ,

    2011 2011

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    , .

  • 90

    4.4

    .

    4.4.1

    Paton (1990)

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    Cannel Kahn (1968 .

    Cohen & Manion, 2000, . 374) ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    (, 1996).

    ,

    ,

    (Rapley, 2004, . . Seale, Cobo, Gubrium&

    Silverman).

    Tuckman (1972 . Cohen

    &Manion, 2000)

    . ,

    ,

  • 91

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    (Fontana

    & Frey, .Denzin and Lincoln, 2005).

    ,

    (clockwork orange)

    . ,

    , .

    ,

    (ibid 2005, . 696).

    ,

    (Potter .. Richardson 1996).

    . Silverman Atcinson (1997

    .. Denzin & Lincoln, 2005)

    (interview society).

    ,

    . ,

    .

    (Rubin & Rubin 2005).

    , .

    (Denzin, 2001).

    .

  • 92

    : -

    - (semi-structure). -

    . ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    (Patton, 1990).

    -

    (Robson, 2010 . 321).

    ,

    . , ,

    . Silverman Atcinson (1997),

    ,

    (. Rapley, 2004 . . Seale, Cobo, Gubrium

    & Silverman).

    ,

    ,

    (, 1993).

  • 93

    , .

    , ,

    , ,

    .

    , , , ,

    (Wengraft, 2001).

    4.4.2

    -

    .

    .

    :

    /

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

  • 94

    . ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    . .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    V. .

    .

    .

    .

    .

  • 95

    4.4.3

    .

    .

    . (2008),

    , ,

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    Weber (. , 2005 .284)

    . ,

    .

    ,

    (, 2005).

    (, 2008).

    (1996)

    , ,

    , .

  • 96

    ,

    , ,

    ,

    .

    .

    (2008)

    . ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (2007, . 274),

    .

    , , , ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    Robson (2010) , ,

  • 97

    . ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    (Robson, 2010).

    ,

    . ,

    (Mason, 1996).

    ,

    . ,

    .

    .

    . ,

    (Moustakas, 1994 Giorgi

    &Giorgi, 2008).

  • 98

    4.5

    4.5.1

    ,

    .

    , .

    .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    4.5.2

    2011 2012.

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

  • 99

    .

    . , ,

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

  • 100

    .

    4.5.3

    ,

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    Shultz

    (1976,1995). ,

    :

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , .

    .

    (Greenwald, 1975, Ortiz, 2000)

    ,

    .

  • 101

    4.5.4 -

    2011.

    .

    .

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    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

  • 102

    4.6

    .

    . ,

    (Mason, 1996).

    (2008 . 272)

    .

    Mason (1996)

    .

    , , , .

    , .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    (, 2008).

    . Weber

  • 103

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    (Mason,

    1996).

    . ,

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    ,

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    ,

    .

    4.7

    ,

    . ,

    .

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    .

  • 104

    .

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  • 105

    5:

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  • 106

    ,

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  • 107

    7:

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  • 108

    (5,7)

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  • 109

    3,

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  • 110

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  • 111

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  • 112

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  • 113

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  • 114

    1

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  • 115

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  • 116

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  • 117

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  • 118

    .

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  • 119

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  • 120

    5:

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    . ,

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  • 121

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  • 122

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  • 123

    -

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  • 124

    1: ;. ..,

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    2], [ ] ,

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    .

    .

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    5.3

    .

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  • 125

    1

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  • 126

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    . ,

  • 127

    . ,

    .

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    . ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

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    .

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    .

  • 128

    5.4 1

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    . , ,

    ,

    .

    . ,

    ,

    .

    . :

    ,

    .

  • 129

    6: - - -

    6.1 -

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    , .

    .

    .

    Freud (1971)

    ,

    .

    Freud

    .

    .

    .

  • 130

    ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    , . ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    Martens (2004)

    . Ziv (2010)

    .

    Chapman (1976)

    . , Mc Ghee (1979)

    .

    (Bendor et al. 1993 Cogan et al. 1987)

    , ,

    (Gelkopf, Sigal & Kramer, 2001).

    ,

    ,

  • 131

    ,

    .

    H Rutherford (1994),

    ,

    .

    Goldin et al. (2006)

    . , Martin (2007)

    .

    ,

    .

    . Schnarch

    (1990)

    .

    .

    Schnarch (1990) .

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    (Borcherdt, 2002 Frakes, 1999)

  • 132

    .

    ,

    (Johnston, 1991 Gladding, 1995 Martin, 2007).

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    , Ellis (1977)

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    Martin (2007)

    .

  • 133

    .

    .

    ,

    , .

    ,

    , ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (Reynes & Allen, 1978 Haig, 1986 Goldin & Bordan, 1999Rutherford,

    1994Martin, 2001).

    (Ericson & Feldstein, 2007)

    .

  • 134

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    , .

    Gelkopf, Sigal Kramer, (2001)

    .

    , .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    Kennedy (1991)

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    .

  • 135

    ()

    ( ).

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    , .

    .

    .

    Frakes (1999)

    .

    . ,

    Kubie (1971) Marcus (1990)

    . ,

  • 136

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    Foster (1978)

    .

    ,

    , . ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    , .

    ,

    .

  • 137

    6.3

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    (had to be there to get it)

    (Cundall, 2007).

    . ,

    .

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

  • 138

    6.4

    .

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    , , ,

    , ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

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