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ΣημειώσειςΟικονομικής των Επιχειρήσεων

Transcript of £·¼µ¹ƒµ¹‚ ...

  • , 2003

  • 1.

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    , ,

    , ..

    1.1

    / 100% , ..

    /

    / >50%

    ,

    4 / >60%

    4 / 40%

    ,

    10%

    ,

    50

    . ,

    .

    - 1 -

  • 1.1. ( ,

    )

    .

    , ( ,

    )

    (effective competition), .

    .

    (Effective Competition)

    (effective competition)

    .

    .

    , (ineffective)

    .

    (risk).

    (internal) (external)

    :

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    - 2 -

  • .

    .

    .

    . 50%

    .

    2. (Performance Values)

    :

    . 1. (internal efficiency, X-efficiency).

    .

    : )

    )

    .

    .

    .

    cyinefficienX =

    2. (allocative efficiency).

    .

    .

    .

    3. - .

    - 3 -

  • .

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    . .

    , ..

    .

    :

    ( ) .

    ,

    .

    .

    (supernormal profits) .

    .

    .

    .

    - 4 -

  • , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    2.1

    PSR

    QLR

    D

    S

    Q

    P

    qSR

    MC

    PLR

    CS

    AC

    q

    P, C

    O qLR

    . :

    .

    .

    .

    .

    - 5 -

  • . .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    3. ( )

    .

    .

    . ,

    : TR pQ= ( )qfp = . .

    :

    (3.1) TC-pQ maxQ

    =

    R=MC.

    P=MC.

    - 6 -

  • :

    QP = (3.2)

    :

    ( ) 2QQQQpQTR === (3.3)

    (3.3) :

    QpQpQAR === (3.4)

    QQ

    TRMR 2== (3.5)

    .

    3.1

    MR AR=D

    B

    c0

    Q

    A

    MC

    P0 AC

    P, C

    O Q0

    - 7 -

  • 3.1

    . MC=MR,

    . P0

    Q0 .

    P0c0:

    00000 cPOQcBOPTCQPTCTR ==== (3.6)

    QQ

    TCACTC

    == .

    Q.

    MC

    .

    ,

    , .

    P=MC=AC.

    .

    Lerner (1934, RES)

    :

    ( )

    p

    MRMCM eP

    MCPLI 1=== (3.7)

    ep .

    c0.

    3.2

    .

    E .

    ,

    . -

    (X-efficiency)

    - 8 -

  • , . c0-c

    -

    .

    .

    p Q0 ,

    pc.

    3.2

    Qc

    c0

    c

    P

    P, C

    O Q0

    MR AR=D

    B

    TC=AC=MC A

    Q

    Q0

    . :

    ZBAcpBAcZBpCSW mmm =+=+= (3.8)

    ,

    p=AC=MC.

    c0 Qc .

    c0Qc

    - 9 -

  • .

    :

    0cZCSW cc == (3.9)

    (

    ) :

    BAccZBAccZWWW mc +=== 00 (3.10)

    cc0

    .

    (misallocation burden).

    .

    .

    Q.

    ( )( )

    ( ) ( ) TReTReLI21

    PQPP

    PQ

    QPLIPQ

    PQ

    QPLI

    21

    QQQPLIQP

    PPQPBAABA

    p.

    pM

    MM

    M

    1732

    21

    21

    21

    21

    21

    21

    ==

    ===

    =====

    (3.11)

    (

    )

    - 10 -

  • .

    (effect on equity).

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    4.

    30 Chamberlin.

    .

    .

    .

    4.1

    QSR O

    P, C

    ACPSR

    MC

    A

    Q

    CSR B

    ARSR=DSR

    MRSR QLR

    MC

    P, C

    QLR O

    AC

    MRLR ARLR=DLR

    Min AC B

    PLR

    Q

    A

    :

    - 11 -

  • .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    4.1

    .

    .

    MR=MC,

    PSR QSR .

    PSRBCSR.

    .

    .

    MR=MC, PLR QLR

    .

    .

    .

    .

    (idle capacity)

    .

    QLRQLR.

    - 12 -

  • q

    .

    ,

    .

    p202000 =2012505 q,qC ==

    :

    .

    AR.

    :

    q,p 050100 =

    TR (1) ( ) 2050100050100 q,qqq,pq ===

    :

    (2) 22 012505050100 q,qq,qCTR ==

    1 (2) R=MC. ,

    100 760012509502505100 ==+= qq,q,q, (3)

    :

    (4) 10036760012507605760050760100 22 .,, ==

    , :

    62760050100 == ,p (5)

    :

    61062

    7600250562 ,,pMCp

    M =LI == (6)

    - 13 -

  • p=MC.

    267107509505002509502505050100

    .qq,q,q,q,q,

    ==+=+=

    (7)

    :

    372671050100 == .,p (8)

    , :

    ( )( ) 3386255072162377602671

    21

    21 ..pqW ==== (9)

    5.

    .

    . ,

    .

    1

    2 :

    1

    2

    2

    1Qp

    pQ

    eD = (5.1)

    2 1.

    .

    - 14 -

  • , .

    :

    . .

    .

    . .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    . :

    :

    :

    1.

    1.

    - 15 -

  • 2.

    3.

    .

    ,

    .

    6.

    .

    .

    . ,

    .

    Schumpeter (1943)

    : () (invention)

    , () (innovation)

    ()

    (diffusion) .

    13 ,

    5 50 .

    .

    .

    .

    (process innovation) (product innovation)

    .

    (autonomous)

    - 16 -

  • (induced).

    .

    .

    6.1

    .

    .

    .

    . (&)

    . : ,

    ;

    ; ,

    ;

    .

    .

    (patent or licensing systems).

    . &

    . (W)

    (CS)

    ().

    - 17 -

  • :

    CSW += (6.1)

    :

    (6.2) Siii 11 ++=

    i i

    , i-1

    i

    (spillovers)

    .

    0 .

    i

    .

    Si 1

    11 >+ Sii

    11 ii

    - 18 -

  • ,

    .

    6.2 &

    .

    &.

    &

    .

    (RR) (MRR)

    6.1.

    &.

    .

    , .

    6.1

    AR=D

    B

    c

    c1

    ARR

    MRR

    C, (%)

    O R1

    E&A ()

    - 19 -

  • &

    .

    .

    .

    6.3. &

    &. Arrow (1962)

    &

    .

    . :

    -. Arrow

    . ,

    , - .

    , &

    . ,

    (6.3) BMAMM I =

    ,

    6.2, c0

    MR=MC. mQ , . P . :

    mP cm

  • (6.4) 00 >== cABPcPI mmBMAMM

    6.2

    Qc Qm

    P, C

    O Qm

    B Pm

    TC=AC=MC

    A c

    AR=D MR

    c0

    Pm=c1

    Q

    ,

    Qc c.

    (royalties) r .

    c1-c0.

    mQ .

    r.

    mP

    ( 011 ccACrACn )AC +=+= . &

    :

    (6.5) mC IcP >= 0

    - 21 -

  • &

    .

    - ( 6.3)

    c0

    MR=MC. Qm , . .

    :