Συστήματα αναφοράς στη Γεωδαισία

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Transcript of Συστήματα αναφοράς στη Γεωδαισία

  1. 1. 1 / : ,10.12.2012
  2. 2. 2 : 1. ...............................3 2. ................................................................... .3 3. 3.1 ......................................................................... .6 3.2 ............................................. .8 3.3 ......................... .8 3.4 3D ...................... .10 3.5 .............................. .14 3.6 ..................... .16 3.7 ................................ .18 3.8 ....................... .21 3.9 ................................. .21 3.10 ..................... .22 3.11 ........................................................................ .22 3.12 ... .23 3.12.1 87. .24 3.12.2 () .25 3.12.3 ED 50 ( uropean Datum 1950 ) .26 3.13 4. ................................................................... .26 4.1 ................................. .26 4.2 ............................. .28 4.3 () 1980 (GRS80).... .28 4.4 1984 (WGS 84).......... .29 5. ........................................... .30 6. ..................................................................... .31 1.
  3. 3. 3 , , (), () . , . (...) . , , . , , . 2. , , , . . (900-800 ..) . , 580-500 .. . ( ). , , . (384-322 .) , , , , , -. (276-192 ..) , . (.1.1) ( ) , , 7 12 , .
  4. 4. 4 5000 , . - , . 1.1. , 3 .. . 6267 km 7380 km , = 157.7 m = 185 m, 2% + 15.5% (6371 km). , 1670 .., Picard (1620-1683)
  5. 5. 5 6372km +0.01% Rm. Newton . , (1672) I. Richer, 2.8mm Gayenne ( , . , 5 ) , 15 Newton . , , , Newton (1643- 1727) Huygens (1629-1695) ( ) 1/230 1/578, 1/298. Baeyer Bessel , - (1831-1833), Bessel (1840) , a=6378397,155m f=1/299.153. . 19 20 , ( - , ) . : Helmert (1907) =6378200m f=1/298.3 J.F. Hayford (1909) =6378388m f=1/297.0. , . (IUGG) (1924) Hayford . ( Datum 1950, E.D.50), Potsdam. GRS 1967, GRS 1980 =6378137 m f=1/298.257. 1950, ,
  6. 6. 6 , , , - , . 3. 3.1 , . ..., / . , , ( ) . . , , . , , , () , . , .
  7. 7. 7 , (), ... ..., . , () ( ). , , : ) , () (). ) .. , (, ). ) (, , , ). . , (, , , ), , ( ) . , , , , ( () ), . , . (.. ) , , . . , 87 ( 87). , .
  8. 8. 8 3.2 . ( ), () . . . 17 , . 3.3 . y. x y . P x y , ( ) (x,y) P.
  9. 9. 9 3.3.1 (, ) (. 3.3.1), P () oy. . : X = sin Y = cos 3.4 3d
  10. 10. 10 . . () . . 2, P X (), Y () Z (). 3.4.2. 3.4.2. ()
  11. 11. 11 , , (. 3.4.3). 3.4.3. : = cos Y= sin Z = Z
  12. 12. 12 P r, , . (4.3). 3.4.4 X = r cos cos Y = r sin cos Z = r sin , ( R) .
  13. 13. 13 4.5 P, (a f), () : ( ) ( ). P(X,Y,Z,t), P t , , , . (. mm/ ). 3.5 , -
  14. 14. 14 , , - , . 3 (2 1 ), 6 (3 3 ). : (,,), (,,h) (x,y) 0 . . ( ) . , , ( ), . , ( ) , ..., ( ), . , , , . (3 , 1 ) DATUM, , .
  15. 15. 15 . () () (), () (). , 10 ( ). . GPS, (ITRS) . , , () . (), . ( ) . . 3.6
  16. 16. 16 , , Greenwich . , ( ) , , , Greenwich . P ... X,Y,Z, () - (,) P ( P ) - h. . P (0 -90 ) (0 - -90 ). () Greenwich P. Greenwich 0 -360 . () (h) ..., . 3.6.1 P
  17. 17. 17 : (3) (3) , (3), (1) (2) a f. : () , , ( , .) . : a) ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame), , , 1900-1906, Greenwich, . (1500) , / (VLBI, SLR GPS). b) WGS84 (World Geodetic System 1984), GPS , () GPS . 1994 ITRF ITRF. GRS 80, () . 3.7 , , . ( ) , ( ),
  18. 18. 18 , . ( GRS 80) , ( ). : 1. (o,o,ho) ( ) .. 2. 3. (a,f) . DATUM . (,) () , , , . =, = = () , , . ho=Ho , . . , () . ( ) - 1ppm.
  19. 19. 19 (, ) , . . ... , . () , . ( ), ..., (,) (.. , ) - () (,) ( (,) (x,y). () (o ) ... ( ) (h), . (x,y, Ho ) . . , . . ,,.
  20. 20. 20 . () ,,h. () ( H0 ) . . x,y, ( ), H . () (h=H +N), . 3.8 ( ) . ( ) , . - . WGS 84, GPS, . () .
  21. 21. 21 3.9 C, . . ,,C ,, H . 0.1, . . 3.10 , () , - , , . , . x y - ( y x ). , , . (X,Y,Z) , (,y) ( x,y) ( ) . 3.11
  22. 22. 22 () (,,) , . , - , . , , , . - . .. . , / - . . , ( ) . , , , , . () (,,h) (,,). 3.12
  23. 23. 23 87 , , . 1990, (), , . . 3.12.1 87 () . : =38 04 33"8107 =23 55 51"0095 h=481,743m N=7,000m. (GRS 80) - : =+199,652m = - 74,759m = -246,055m
  24. 24. 24 , . . ( ) () =24 0=0.9996, /. 3.12.2 () 1889 . =37 5820",1000 =0 0 00",0000 = 359 46 13",1000 ( ) = 0m (. h=Ho) =23 4258"815 Greenwich. Bessel. ( ) () . .
  25. 25. 25 , Hatt, ( 130 ) 3030. 3 . 3.12.3 ED 50 (European Datum 1950) ED50 (European Datum 1950) Potsdam ayford. , 6 . =21 =27 =0.9996. . 4. ITRS ITRF WGS 84, GPS . 4.1 (ITRS) , IERS, , , , (ITRS) (ITRF). ITRS (IUGG General Assembly, Vienna, 1991):
  26. 26. 26 1. , , 2. IERS. 3. (m), (S.) IERS (IRP), IERS (IRM). ITRS, ITRF, , (, ) . (, ) GRS 80 . ITRF ( ) , . ITRF 2008 (2008.0). () , . () 1cm, mm. () , : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Doppler GPS
  27. 27. 27 1984 (WGS 1984), RS TRF 89, ITRF89 , . 4.2 (ETRS89) , ED50 (European Datum 1950), ED77. 1987 IUGG (IAG) EUREF (European Reference Frame). () , GIS . 1990 EUREF ETRS89 : "... EUREF ITRS 1989.0, European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRF 1989). ETRF 2007.5. ETRS89 ITRS, IERS. I