TMHMA FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS ALGORIJMOU GIA THN EPILOGH ˝-LEPTONIWN SE...

download TMHMA FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS ALGORIJMOU GIA THN EPILOGH ˝-LEPTONIWN SE SUNJHKES UYHLHS FWTEINOTHTAS DESMHS STON EPITAQUNTH LHC DIPLWMATIKH ERGASIA MARINA

of 106

  • date post

    30-Apr-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    214
  • download

    2

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of TMHMA FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS FUSIKHS SQEDIASMOS ENOS ALGORIJMOU GIA THN EPILOGH ˝-LEPTONIWN SE...

  • -

    LHC

    2015

  • -

    LHC

    2015

  • LHC - 200 - CMS. , , - . CMS - , L1 trig-ger, . -. L1. Monte Carlo 140 -. - 50 kHz - o 55%.

    i

  • i

    1 11.1 . . . . . . . 11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    1.4.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.4.2 - . . . . 11

    2 182.1 CERN . . . . . . . . . 182.2 - LHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    2.3.1 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.3.2 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    3 LHC 343.1 High Luminosity LHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.2 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    3.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

    4 454.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    4.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    ii

  • 4.1.2 , pile-up 494.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524.3 CMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    4.3.1 . . . . 564.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    4.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . 604.4.3 . . . . . 624.4.4 -jets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    5 - L1-trigger 685.1 Monte Carlo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685.2 h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    i

    iv

    viii

    iii

  • 1

    1.1

    20o . () [1].

    17 : . : . :up (u), down (d), charm (c), strange (s), top (t) bottom (b) : (e), () () (e, , ). : 0.5 MeV/c2 105 MeV/c2 1.8 GeV/c2,. , , 1 10 eV . , . , , , .

    : , , . (QuantumGravity) . . :

    1

  • 1.

    , W Z , - ( ) . Higgs [2] 4 2012, CERN. Higgs - Higgs. , 1.1.

    1.1: : , Higgs .

    1.2

    [3], , , , . .

    2

  • 1.

    , . , . .

    [4], Bruno Pontecorvo 1969. , e ( ). ,. e , , .1 2. , e 1 , 2 :(

    |e(t)

    |(t)) = ( cos sin sin cos

    )(|1(t)

    |2(t)

    ) (1.1) e L :

    Pee = P = 1 sin2 2 sin2 km2L/E (1.2)

    k = 1.27 m2 = m22 m21 eV 2 ( c = 1), E MeV L m.

    , , . :

    e, e : m < 2.2 eV, : m < 170 keV , : m < 15.5 MeV

    1933 Fritz Zwicky Coma. Virial , , Coma , . , ,

    3

  • 1.

    , (Cosmic Microwave Background).

    . , MACHOs (Massive compact halo ob-ject) . MACHOs , . , , . , - MACHOs. , , WIMPS, . , , . -, , ... .

    - 4.9% , 26,8%. 68,3% . 5% .

    1.2: Coma 1.3: Hubble

    4

  • 1.

    . (- ) , - . , - .

    -

    . , , , . .

    19 :

    3 : g3,g,g s = (g23/4), EM e =g sin W sin2 W = (g)2/(g2 + (g)2)

    9

    4 Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa

    (Vacuum expectation value of Higgs), ( m0h - quarticcoupling), .

    Higgs

    : - mEV 103 GeV Planck MPl = G1/2N 1019 GeV . . 1032 , .

    5

  • 1.

    (Micro black hole) Planck, MPl =

    ~c/G 1.2209 1019 GeV/c2 ( G:

    Newton, ~: Planck, c: ), , W Z 10, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 Planck. .

    Higgs

    Higgs mH0 . - mf Higgs ,fHff , f Yukawa f Higgs :

    m2H m2H0 |f |2

    822UV + ... (1.3)

    UV ultra-violet momentum cutoff. UV , TeV , Planck MP = 1019 GeV , . , UV GUT . Higgs Higgs MGUT . Higgs 125 GeV , . S, 2:

    m2H = 2s

    162[2UV + ...] (1.4)

    s = |f |2, , . , , . , .

    1.3

    . TeV

    6

  • 1.

    . , , , - Planck. , (Beyond the Stan-dard Model theories), . .

    1.3.1

    [5] (Supersymmetry SUSY) , - Poincare, . , N Q Q.

    Q|Fermion = |Boson , Q|Boson = |Fermion (1.5)

    , N = 1 . :

    {Q, Q} = 2P (1.6)

    {Q, Q} = {Q, Q} = 0 (1.7)

    {Q, P} = {Q, P} = 0 (1.8)

    P , {1, 2} Weyl. , , . - -, (supermultiplet). -, Higgs, . - , . , . , .

    -,

    7

  • 1.

    . - (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model MSSM). MSSM , . Higgs . , , gluino SU(2)U(1) gauge - , gauginos. - quarks leptons, (squarks sleptons ), . Higgs Higgs, , higgsinos . MSSM .

    Field Content of the MSSM

    Supermultiplets SuperfieldBosonic

    fieldsFermionicpartners

    SU(3) SU(2) U(1)

    gluon/gluinogauge/gaugino

    V8V

    V

    gW,W 0

    B

    g

    W, W 0

    B

    811

    131

    000

    slepton/lepton

    L

    Ec(L, eL)eR

    (, e)LeR

    11

    21

    12

    squark/quark

    Q

    U c

    Dc

    (uL, dL)uRdR

    (u, d)LuRdR

    333

    211

    1/34/32/3

    Higgs/higgsinos

    HdHu

    (H0d , Hd )

    (H+u , H0u)

    (H0d , Hd )

    (H+u , H0u)

    11

    22

    11

    1.1: MSSM SU(3) SU(2)U(1) . , quarks leptons.

    ;

    , - 1016 GeV , GUT , Planck.

    8

  • 1.

    1.4: , ( ) ( ). , . 1016 GeV (), ().

    , , - Higgs .

    - SUSY. ( - , ) Sakharov: ) ) C CP ) . , CP - . , , - -. CP , .

    SUSY ,

    9

  • 1.

    , - . (Lightest Su-persymmetric Particle LSP) TeV , - , .

    , (LHC), CERN.

    1.4 -

    - LHC. - - .

    1.4.1 -

    1776.82 0.16 MeV/c2 . Martin Perl[6] 1976 1995. 3o - . 1 (e), 2.9 1013 s c 87m . , -, +.

    Feynman 1.5, W , -, , down up , . 1.2 - 36% 64%. ( ) , 0.

    10

  • 1.

    1.5: Feynman

    Decay mode Resonance Mass (MeV) Branching Ratio (%) - - 17.36 ee - - 17.85 h 139.6 11.6 h0 770 26.0 h00 1 1200 9.5 hh+h 1 1200 9.8 hh+h0 4.8

    1.2: - . h , .

    1.4.2 - -

    - - Higgs , MSSM, h/H/A H .

    Higgs

    4 2012, ATLAS CMS - , 125 GeV ( 1.6). Higgs .

    11

  • 1.

    1.6: CMS - Higgs,

    O Higgs [7, 8, 9] (gluon fusion), (weak-boson fusion), top . 1.7 Feynman Higgs 1.8 -.

    (Gluon Fusion)

    Higgs (gg H) (top bottom). - Higgs , LO, , 2s Yukawa, top . - QCD . Higgs, NLO LO 80% 100%, NNLO

    12

  • 1.

    g

    g

    t

    tW, Z

    W,Z

    q

    q

    g

    g

    q

    q

    q

    q(a) (b)

    (c) (d)

    H

    HH

    H

    1.7: Feynman Higgs : (a) , (b) , (c) (Higgs-strahlung) (d) top quarks

    top (mt ) - 20%. , NLO 5%.

    (Vector Boson Fusion)

    Higgs LHC (VBF). VBF (-), t u, - W Z, Higgs . VBF - NLO QCD NLO 5 10% .

    Higgs Strahlung

    , VBF Higgs W Z (associate production Higgs Strahlung). , -, .., - ,

    13

  • 1.

    , W Z, Higgs. pp W/Z H NLO QCD Drell-Yan NLO EW. , W/Z + H Higgs b .

    tt

    Higgs qq/gg Htt. - Yukawa top-Higgs Higgs b . LO [10], NLO QCD - 20%.

    [TeV]s7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

    H+

    X)

    [p