Logic Programming

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Σημειώσεις λογικού προγραμματισμού

Transcript of Logic Programming

  • ( 2.1)

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    2001

  • 1

    , 5 . , . , , . . Herbrand , , , Prolog, ... Prolog. , , , , ... , : , Prolog , . ( ) , , Prolog.

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  • 2

    1

    1.1 (Artificial Intelligence, AI, ) , . , , , , , : - (Cognitive Sciences), , , , , - , , , - , , , ... - , (hardware, ).

    1.1. , (.1). , , .

    1950 , Rosenblatt,Wiener, McCulloch,PERCEPTRON 1960 , Newell,Simon,Shannon, Turing, GPS 1970 , Sortliffe,insky, McCarthy, MYCIN 1980 , Lenat,Samuel, Holland, EURISCO

  • 3

    , , . 1.2 . : , , , , , (.2,3). , . (.4,5), "", .

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  • 4

    : , , . : . . .

    1.3.

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  • 5

    1.5. (--) . , , , ... , . , , , , . , ( , , , ). , , , , ... . , ( ) .

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    (spreading activation intersection search).

  • 6

    (2, 3 ..), , , , , ...

    1.6. , : , , ( ). . , , ... , , , , , ... . (declarative knowledge), , . . , (.6) , , , , ... , ' . (semantic networks, ) . T . -, - - , - - , - , , , (semantic cases), ... (primitive links) . ( )

    : , ' , , , , , - , , , ...

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  • 7

    (spreading activation intersection search). , , , ... (frames) (slots) , . , , (default value). , . , (scripts) . , , (procedural knowledge). , . "" , . . (production rules). " " . 1.3 , , . :

    (, ) - ) (.. , , , ...) robot , , ,

    VLSI, ...) :

    : ,

  • 8

    : , ,

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    . (.. LISP). (..

    Prolog). . .

    (expert systems) . . " , ". , :

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    . "" .

    (Knowledge Engineering) . , . (.6).

  • 9

    (.7) . , .

    1.7.

    &

    &

    , , , - (.8). :

    Dendral : "" , , , .

    Meta-Dendral : .

    Mycin : : .

    Prospector : . Hearsay-II : . Teiresias :

    "" .

  • 10

    1.8. 1.4 (logic programming) , . . . : ( )

    ( )

    Prolog. .. , , . , , , . - - . . , , . Prolog. O (mechanized reasoning). : .

  • 11

    , , Prolog.

    , , , . . : (model theory) (proof theory). , , . : (true), (false), (interpretation), (satisfaction), (model), (logical consequence) (semantic consequence). , , . : (axiom) , (inference rule), (theorem) , (proof), (consistency) (syntactic consequence). , . , , . 1.5 , Prolog . Prolog . . . , . . Logic for Problem Solving, Robert A. Kowalski [1], ISBN: 0-444-00365-7

    . , , . ,

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    (resolution theorem-proving), . . , .

    1.9. . Essentials of Logic Programming Christopher J. Hogger [2],ISBN: 0-19-853820-0

    . , . , .

    Foundations of Logic Programming John W. Lloyd [3], ISBN: 3-540-18199-7 .

    , , , . .

    The Art of Prolog : Advanced Programming Techniques Leon Sterling Ehud

    Y. Shapiro [4], ISBN: 0-262-19250-0

  • 13

    Prolog: Programming for Artificial Intelligence Ivan Bratko [5] ,ISBN: 0-201-41606-9 Prolog . . Prolog, . Prolog . Prolog.

    , . Journal of Logic Programming New Generation Computing Logic and Computation Artificial Intelligence Machine Intelligence Knowledge Engineering Review Journal of Automated Reasoning Journal of the ACM Communications of the ACM Journal of Theoritical Computer Science Journal of Symbolic Logic Journal of Logic and Computation International. Workshop on Logic Programming International. Conference on Logic Programming IEEE Symposium on Logic Programming, Atlantic City. North American Conference(s) on Logic Programming (NACLP) Italian Conference(s) on Logic Programming (GULP) Fifth Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) Int. Joint Conference(s) on Artificial Intalligence (IJCAI) Technical Reports of the Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, (ICOT),

    Tokyo. Technical Reports of the European Computer-Industry Research Centre, (ECRC),

    Munich. Logic Programming Newsletters of the Association of Logic Programming (ALP).

    [6]-[13] .

    [14]-[19], , .

  • 14

    1.6 , :

    ,

    . , , , . , . , - - , - (resolution principle) - . Prolog

    + (control strategy) . O Prolog (pure Prolog) . - (non-logical primitives), Prolog (impure Prolog). ( ) . , Prolog . Prolog . . , Prolog. , . , , -, , - . . ; - , clause , : likes(chris, Anyone) if reads(Anyone, these_notes)

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    reads(Anyone, these_notes) if sensible(Anyone) sensible(you) chris likes you. . , . . : Gottlob Frege, , Alfred Tarski, .

    clause

    1.10 . , , Jacques Herbrand. H (resolution) - J. Alan Robinson. , Carl Hewitt, Alain Colmerauer Robert Kowalski. - 25 , . 1965: J. Alan Robinson

    . 1971: Lighthill .

    . 1972: Robert A. Kowalski

    . 1973: Alain Colmerauer, o Philippe Roussel Aix-

    Marseille Prolog. 1974: Robert A. Kowalski

    IFIP-74. 1976: To

    Imperial College .

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    1977: O Keith L. Clark , Prolog.

    1981: William F. Clocksin Christopher S. Mellish Prolog (Programming in Prolog, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1981, ISBN: 3-540-11046-1).

    1981: ! - , -.

    1983: . Alvey , .

    1984: Journal of Logic Programming J. Alan Robinson Jean-Louis Lassez.