De materia medica

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קלריטה ואפרים מצגות. De materia medica. Dioscorides. על עניינים רפואיים, מאת דיוסקורידס. פדניוס דיוסקורידס Pedanius Dioscorides - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of De materia medica

  • Pedanius Dioscorides: ; 40 - 90) , . , -. ( ; : De Materia Medica), , -17. , " " , , , .

  • ; , . , . , -600 * , , . De Materia Medica , , .Dioscorides De Materia Medica. Byzantium 15th century * ("" - "" ) . , . : , ( , , , , , , , , . , ).

  • Dioscorides De Materia Medica, Spain 12th 13th century

  • First image of the author portraits from the Vienna Dioscurides 600 , . ; 1500 . . , ( 1550). .

  • One of two illustrations of 7 physicians from the Vienna Dioscurides. 512. - , . .Vienna Dioscurides

  • The Vienna Dioscurides or Vienna Dioscorides is an early 6th century illuminated manuscript of De Materia Medica by Dioscorides in Greek. It is an important and rare example of a late antique scientific text. The 491 vellum folios measure 37 by 30 cm and contain more than 400 pictures of animals and plants, most done in a naturalistic style.In addition to the text by Dioscorides, the manuscript has appended to it the Carmen de herbis attributed to Rufus, a paraphrase of an ornithological treatise by a certain Dionysius, usually identified with , and a paraphrase of Nicander's treatise on the treatment of snake bites.The manuscript was created in about 515 and was made for the Byzantine princess Juliana Anicia, the daughter of Emperor Anicius Olybrius. Although it was originally created as a luxury copy, there is some indication that in later centuries it was used daily as a hospital textbook. It includes some annotations in Arabic.

  • Dedicatory drawing of Imperial Princess Julian Anicia (center) in the Dioscoridean recension of 512 CE, flanked by personification of Magnanimity on her right who holds gold coins and Wisdom on her left with scroll or codex. The Cupid-like putto offers an open codex and a prostrate female represents craftsmen who restored the church in Honorata on the beneficence of the princess.

  • Anicia Juliana (Constantinople, 462-527/528) was a Roman imperial princess, the daughter of the Western Roman Emperor Olybrius, of the Anicii, by Placidia the younger, daughter of Emperor Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia.

    Her glittering genealogy aside, Juliana is primarily remembered as one of the first non-reigning female patrons of art in recorded history. From what little we know about her personal predilections, it appears that she "directly intervened in determining the content, as well, perhaps, as the style" of the works she commissioned.Juliana's name is attached to the Vienna Dioscurides, also known as the Juliana Anicia Codex, one of the earliest and most lavish illuminated manuscripts still in existence. The frontispiece features her depiction, the first donor portrait in the history of manuscript illumination, flanked by the personifications of Magnanimity and Prudence, with an allegory of the "Gratitude of the Arts" prostrate in front of her. The encircling inscription proclaims Juliana as a great patron of art.

  • Text und Transkription zu Weie Rbe (Brassica rapa L., Fam. Cruciferae) im Wiener DioskuridesDatumMajuskel: um 512, Transkription in Minuskel: 1406Pedanius Dioskurides / Johannes Chortasmenos

    The Vienna Dioscurides 512 , . . 1406 ( ) .

  • " " , -13, ' - (961-912) , - , De materia medica. . , . . , , ' .

  • , . ((Commiphora opobalsamum , , " ... ( ) ... ". : " ", -, "-" () . , , . . " " , ' , : " ".

  • . 50 " " , . , . , , . - - -10 . Commiphora opobalsamum in by Plantae officinales, oder Sammlung officineller Pflanzen, Dsseldorf (1821-1833) by Theodor Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck

  • ( ) , , . Commiphora gileadensis ((Commiphora opobalsamum , , ( ''). , . . , -. " : . , (, , "). ; ' ', ' ' (, , ".) , , . , : ' (balsamum) . '. ' ', ' ' (, " "; , " "; ".) " ( ), ( )"

  • . Ruta)) (, IX, 6; I 18; XII ). . ( ), . : " " (, , "). , , , . , ( (, '. " , . , . , . -. , , , . ." ' :" " ' " -.

  • Dioscrorides and a pupil De Materia Medica of Dioscorides. by Yusuf al Mawsili Mosul, Dec. 1228.

  • Rubus fruticosus. Da Dioscoride, De materia medica 1. Vienna Dioscurides

  • Artemisia maritima , , ,

  • , ' , ., Endpapers from the Vienna Dioscurides

  • Plantago asiatica L., Fam. Plantagineae V

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    231 .

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  • PhysallisPhysalis alkekengi: Physalis, or Winter-cherryThe Physalis plant grows in many parts of the world: in Europe, China, South America, South Africa, and in the United States. Often called the Winter-cherry or Chinese Lanterns, physalis was used as a decorative and medicinal herb. Dioscorides prescribed its stem as a sedative and its berries as diuretics. Mixed with honey, Physalis was said to improve eyesight; with wine, it supposedly cured toothache.

  • Anthon to esthiomenon

  • KyklaminosCyclamen europaeum: Cyclamen, sowbreadThis herb gets its name (cyclamen means circle) from its bulblike, underground stem. Dioscorides suggested its use as a purgative, antitoxin, skin cleanser, and labor-inducer. When used as a purgative, juice from the tuberous root-stock was applied externally, either over the bowels and bladder region or on the anus. Dioscorides also mentioned its use as an aphrodisiac. Many English farmers called Cyclamen stag-truffle or sowbread since they often observed deer and swine digging up and eating the roots.

  • (Dipsacus silvestris L., Fam. Compositae) aus dem Wiener Dioskurides

  • - Materia medica . , ( 512 ) , , .

  • (Brassica rapa L., Fam. Cruciferae)

  • Apsynthion BathyprikonArtemisia absinthium: WormwoodNext to Rue, Wormwood is the bitterest herb. Dioscorides recommended it as a stomachic, a vermifuge, a remedy for jaundice, and a flavoring for absinthe. According to Dioscorides, absinthe was a popular summertime drink in Propontis and Thracia, where they believed it maintained good health. Dioscorides also recommended the use of Wormwood in clothes drawers to repel moths and mice.

  • Kentaureion to leptonErythraea centaurium: CentauryThe genus of this herb was originally named Chironia after Chiron, a centaur of Greek mythology who was famous for his knowledge of medicinal plants. According to legend, Chiron healed himself with this plant after accidentally wounding himself with one of Herculess poisoned arrows. Dioscorides alluded to the myth and prescribed Centaury as a treatment for wounds. He also recommended the herb for lung disorders, namely the old cough and blood spitting. http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/rare_books/herbalism/vienna.cfm

  • Panax Herakliosprobably Ferula galbaniflua: GalbanumThe genus of this plant (panax means universal remedy) suggests its wide use among the ancient Greeks. Dioscorides prescribed the milky juice of Galbanum for ulcers, coughs, convulsions, ruptures, headaches, stomach pains, menstrual cramps, toothaches, snakebites, and labor pains. Rubbed on the eyes as an ointment, it improved eyesight. And taken with honey, Galbanum was a sure remedy for indigestion and flatulence.

  • Pimpernel (: Scarlet pimpernel, : Anagallis arvensis) .

  • Rosa lutea: RoseThe beauty and fragrance of the rose secured its popularity in the ancient world. The Greeks associated the rose with Aphrodite, the Graces, and the Muses. Dioscorides recommended rose petal paste as an eye salve and suggested a decoction of rose petal dust in wine for headaches, earaches, and hemorrhoids. He also prescribed a rose hip decoction against hemoptysis.

  • Asphodelus ramosus. Da Dioscoride, De materia medica,

  • Aeizon to Mikron (Sempervivum tectorum) in Codex Vindobonensis

  • Aloe vera (Aloe Vera) . , "" (vera ) . . ' , , . ' . ' - 400 .

  • kapparis

  • koriannon korion (Coriandrum sativum), .

  • (Dipsacus silvestris L., Fam. Compositae) Wiener Dioskurides

  • Viola, Pedanios Dioscurides Codex medicus Graecus 1 der sterreichischen Nationalbibliothek1) Iride 2) Viola porporina Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli - Biblioteca digitale - Dioscurides Neapolitanus Materia Medica .

  • Illustration of the crisantem from the Vienna Dioscurides

  • Strychnos Megas KepaiosSolanum nigrum: Black NightshadeA relative of the notorious Atropa belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade, the Black, or Garden, Nightshade is potentially harmful, but its poison is relatively mild. Dioscorides recommended its leaves for treating skin diseases. He also suggested a decoction of the plants leaves for earaches, indigestion, and internal bleeding.

  • Drakontaia MikreArum maculatum: Arum, or Cuckoo-PintAncient physicians called this plant the Drakontaia Mikre, or small dragon, because the central stalk resembles a serpent. According to Dioscorides, its shape revealed its purpose as an antidote for snakebites. Rubbing ones hands with Arum root was supposed to make one unbiteable. Dioscorides also recommended the Arum root as an expectorant. The leaves, beaten small, were to be used on fresh wounds. - , , . , , , .

  • Gingidion The wild carrot Daucus gingidium.Staphylinos Keras The cultivated carrot

    Staphylinos Agrios The wild carrot, but appears to be a primitive type of cultivated carrot

  • Coral from the Vienna Dioscurides

  • Thalassa die Personifikation des Meeres Wiener Dioskurides.

  • A gallery of birds Vienna Dioscorides . .

  • Page from the Vienna Dioscurides (Parus caeruleus L.) (Athene glaux) (Syrnium).

  • A mythical fire-dwelling salamander Vienna Dioscurides manuscript.

  • http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/pdfs/JAC.pdf

  • The Morgan Dioscorides Circa 930 970 The Morgan Library& Museum, written in Greek miniscule and illuminated in Constantinople during the mid-10th century, contains an alphabetical five-book version of Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, including 769 illustrations and several headpieces and tailpieces, on 385 leaves

  • Arabic translation of Dioscorides "De Materia Medica Vitis sp Bryonia (Bryonia dioica) ,

  • This illustration from Walters depicts thymelaea (spurge-laurel) (thumala, khamala). This is an illustrated manuscript of the Arabic version of De materia medica by Dioscorides, copied in the thirteenth CE in Iran. An Arabic translation of the manuscript was discovered in Istanbul in the 1560s by the Flemish diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq who was in the employ of Emperor Ferdinand I. The Emperor bought the manuscript and it is now held in the sterreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna. The manuscript was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 1997 in recognition of its historical significance

  • Preparation of Medicine from Honey: Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides, dated 1224 Iraq, Baghdad School Colors and gold on paper

    Among the Greek scientific texts that appealed to the Arab translators and artists of Baghdad, a center for manuscript production in the thirteenth century, were herbals and bestiaries. They described the appearance, habitat, salient characteristics, and uses of various plants and animals, a tradition going back to late antiquity, but pictorially were more often influenced by the art of Byzantium. Particularly popular was the treatise of Dioscorides, a Greek physician working in the Roman army in Asia Minor during the first century A.D.Deep in thought, shaded by trees, a physician stirs his medicine. In the center, a mixture is brewing in a cauldron that hangs from a tripod and is heated by the fire below. To the left, a large jug perhaps held honey or oil.While some miniatures illustrating this scientific text on medicinal uses, principally of plants, rather closely follow their Byzantine prototypes, others, such as this example, reveal more of a human than scientific approach, as the doctor seems to ponder the formula he is mixing. The decorative trees help to contain as well as balance the composition. The lack of spatial depth combined with clarity of design, lively forms, and bold coloring are characteristic of this school of painting.

  • Leaf from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica of Dioscorides ("The Pharmacy"), dated 1224 Iraq, Baghdad SchoolA

  • . De materia medicaAb Slim al-Malat (Traducteur) Dioscorides

  • Pedanius Dioscorides - Folio from an Arabic translation of the Materia Medica by Dioscorides calligrapher: Abdallah ibn al-Fadl 1224

  • De materia medicaAb Slim al-Malat (Traducteur)

  • De materia medica Ab Slim al-Malat (Traducteur) orchide ; plante aromatique ; plante mdicinale ; sauge

  • Preparacin de un antdoto. Materia Mdica de Dioscrides. (Tomado de Fundacin el Legado Andalus)

  • Illustrated manuscript of the Arabic version of De materia medica by Dioscorides, copied in the seventh century AH / thirteenth CE in Iran. Pedanius Dioscorides wrote his treatise on medicinal plants in the first century CE. It was translated into Syriac and then Arabic in Baghdad in the third century AH / ninth CE. De materia medica by Dioscorides was one of the earliest scientific manuscripts to be translated from Greek to Arabic. The Walters' leaves illustrate five plants: wild cucumber, mezereon (spurge-olive), and three varieties of thymelaea (spurge-laurel).Arabic version of Dioscorides' De materia medica, Wild cucumber, Walters Manuscript

  • Arabic version of Dioscorides' De materia medica, Mezereon (spurge-olive), Walters Manuscript

  • Arabic version of Dioscorides' De materia medica, A type of thymelaea called al-sarw, Walters Manuscript

  • Folio 4r of the Arabic version of Dioscorides' De Materia MedicaIris germanica .Culture: Islamic Date: 987-990 State University Library, Leiden

  • An illustration and description of a Cinnamomum tree in a 10th-century Arabic manuscript of Dioscorides. Dioscorides wrote that cinnamon was useful in combating a number of illnesses, from coughs to kidney diseases. STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, LEIDEN

  • Miniature from a copy of Kitab al-hashaish, a translation of Dioscoridess De Materia Medica. The Doctors OfficeIraq, Baghdad?; 1224 This miniature is a lovely example of the oldest preserved book painting from the Islamic world. It was made in Iraq by Abdallah ibn al-Fadl, who presumably was responsible for both copying and illustrating it. The style is an example of Arab painting, in which Byzantine and local Christian pictorial conventions were still found, for example in the use of haloes and the folds of garments.The manuscript contains a number of depictions of medicinal plants. The fact that there are also figurative depictions of more unnecessary scenes, such as this doctors office, has been considered by many to signify the birth of Islamic book painting.

  • Miniature from a copy of Kitab al-hashaish, a translation of Dioscoridess De Materia Medica.

    A Ferry Crossing the Gagos River Iraq, Baghdad?; 1224 Like another miniature, which shows a doctors office (4/1997), this is one of the both unnecessary and revolutionary illustrations in Abdallah ibn al-Fadls copy of Dioscoridess medical treatise.The text states that on the shores of the Gagos River, jet can be found that is effective against pain in the uterus, but the artist took the opportunity to depict an entire ferry with a helmsman, two rowers, and eight passengers, each looking out of a porthole. Despite the awkward rendition of the river landscape, the miniature is colorful and filled with finely observed and beautifully executed details.

  • Ibn Al Farl-Izzz "Making Lead, page from an Arabic edition of the treaty of Dioscorides, 'De Materia Medica'"

  • . - , Dioscurides Neapolitanus)), , 1555. , ( ) ( )

  • Pedacio Dioscorides anazarbeo, Acerca de la materia medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos traduzido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana & illustrado con claras y substantiales annotationes, y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por Andres de Laguna 1555

  • In 1562, a new Czech edition of Pietro Andrea Mattiolis Commentaries on Dioscorides entitled Herbarz: Ginak Bylinar introduced large-scale woodcuts by Giorgio Liberale allowing far more portrayal of botanical detail than had the smaller figures of earlier editions..

  • , 1583.

  • . .

  • :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materia_medicahttp://es.castellano/De_materia_medicahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedanius_Dioscorideshttp://he.wikipedia http://es.wikipedia.castellano/Dioscorideshttp://dioscorides.usal.es/http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioscoride_de_Viennehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Vienna_Dioscurides?uselang=dehttps://www=Dioscorides+De+Materia+Medicahttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/57.51.21http://buecher.heilpflanzen-welt.de/Dioskurides-Arzneimittellehre/http://oldflowerpictures.blogspot.co.il/Medicinal properties of Commiphora gileadensis:http://www.academicjournals.org/ajpp/pdf/pdf2010/august/Iluz%20et%20al.pdf

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