6 kingdoms ges/REG-02-class.htm

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6 kingdoms http://www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pa ges/REG-02-class.htm Slide 2 Evolution Animation https://kleinsclasses.wikispaces.com/file/vie w/apes-05-tree_of_life.swf Slide 3 Prokaryotes Kingdoms Eubacteria & Archaebacteria Slide 4 Prokaryote Before nucleus Characteristics: Unicellular 1-5 m diameter Cell walls -Maintains shape -Provides protection -Prevents lysis in a hypotonic environment Slide 5 PROKARYOTESEUKARYOTES Size1-10 microns10-100 microns Complexityunicellular, rarely small colonies sometimes unicellular more often multicellular Membrane bound organelles nonenuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, & vacuoles d) Nucleusnoyes e) Chromosomes single & circularusually several & linear f) Introns & Exons occasionallyfrequent g) Histonesnoyes h) Ploidyhaploiddiploid i) Mitosis & Meiosis absentpresent j) Sexual reproduction none, or unidirectional from donor to recipient usually, involves fusion of haploid gametes l) Cytoskeletonabsentmicrotubules and microfilaments m) Cell wallusually present, contains peptidoglycan absent in animals present in fungi (chitin) & plants (cellulose) n) Motilitysimple, prokaryotic, flagella, gliding motion complex "9+2" flagella or cilia with centrioles o) Endocytosis & cytoplasmic streaming absentpresent p) Differentiatio n usually absentcells differentiate to form tissues & organs q) Energy metabolism many diverse pathways in various bacteria glycolysis in cytoplasm, Krebs Cycle and ETC in mitochondria r) Oxygenaerobic and/or anaerobic usually aerobic Slide 6 PROKARYOTESEUKARYOTES a) Size1-10 microns10-100 microns b) Complexityunicellular, rarely small colonies sometimes unicellular more often multicellular c) Membrane bound organelles nonenuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, & vacuoles Nucleusnoyes Chromosomessingle & circularusually several & linear IntronsRarelyfrequent Histonesnoyes h) Ploidyhaploiddiploid i) Mitosis & Meiosis absentpresent j) Sexual reproduction none, or unidirectional from donor to recipient usually, involves fusion of haploid gametes l) Cytoskeletonabsentmicrotubules and microfilaments m) Cell wallusually present, contains peptidoglycan absent in animals present in fungi (chitin) & plants (cellulose) n) Motilitysimple, prokaryotic, flagella, gliding motion complex "9+2" flagella or cilia with centrioles o) Endocytosis & cytoplasmic streaming absentpresent p) Differentiatio n usually absentcells differentiate to form tissues & organs q) Energy metabolism many diverse pathways in various bacteria glycolysis in cytoplasm, Krebs Cycle and ETC in mitochondria r) Oxygenaerobic and/or anaerobic usually aerobic ProkaryotesEukaryotes Slide 7 PROKARYOTESEUKARYOTES a) Size1-10 microns10-100 microns b) Complexityunicellular, rarely small colonies sometimes unicellular more often multicellular c) Membrane bound organelles nonenuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi, & vacuoles Nucleusnoyes Chromosomessingle & circularusually several & linear IntronsRarelyfrequent Histonesnoyes Ploidyhaploiddiploid Mitosis & Meiosis absentpresent Sexual reproduction none, or unidirectional from donor to recipient usually, involves fusion of haploid gametes l) Cytoskeletonabsentmicrotubules and microfilaments m) Cell wallusually present, contains peptidoglycan absent in animals present in fungi (chitin) & plants (cellulose) n) Motilitysimple, prokaryotic, flagella, gliding motion complex "9+2" flagella or cilia with centrioles o) Endocytosis & cytoplasmic streaming absentpresent p) Differentiatio n usually absentcells differentiate to form tissues & organs q) Energy metabolism many diverse pathways in various bacteria glycolysis in cytoplasm, Krebs Cycle and ETC in mitochondria r) Oxygenaerobic and/or anaerobic usually aerobic ProkaryotesEukaryotes Slide 8 Bacteria Single-celled prokaryotes Two kingdoms of bacteria: Archaebacteria Eubacteria Slide 9