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Συνολική παρουσίαση του κοινοτικού δικαίου των δημοσίων συμβάσεων

Transcript of το κοινοτικό δίκαιο των δημοσίων συμβάσεων

  • 2009

  • 2

    ................................................................................................................ 13 .................................................................................................................. 20

    . ........................................................................................................................... 24 .................................................................................................................... 24

    .................................................................................................................... 26 ................................................................................................. 26 1. ................................................................. 26 2. ................................................................. 30 3. ............................................................................................. 31 4. ....................................................................... 36 4. ............................................... 38 6. ............................................................... 39 7. ......................................................... 43 8. .............................................................. 43 9. ..................................................... 44 10. ................................................. 44 11. ,

    ...................................................................................................................... 47 .................................................................................................................. 48 .................................. 48 1. To ......... 52 2. .............................................. 56

    2.1. ................................................................................................. 58 2.2. ....................................................................................... 58

    3. ....................................... 59 3.1. ........................................... 60 3.2. 2004/18 "

    , " . ................................................................................... 62

    3.3. 2004/17/EK " , , ", 66

    3.4. ............................................................................... 69 4. ................................................. 72 5. : To

    ......................................................................................... 72 6. ..................................... 74 7. 2007/66/ ............ 75 ................................................................................................................. 77 ................ 77 1. UNCITRAL .......................................... 77 2. .................................................. 79 3. H ()

    ............................................................................................................................ 80 4. ............. 82 5. ....... 85 6. 2004/18 2004/17

    ............................................................................................................................. 86 7.

    ........................................................................................ 90

  • 3

    7.1. ............................................................................ 90 7.2. ............................................................................. 93

    7.3 ............................................................................................ 94 V. ................................................................................................................ 95 . 95 1. .................................................................................. 96 2.

    ............................................................................................................ 100 3. ............................................................................. 103

    4. ................................................... 104 5.

    .......................................................................................................................... 107 6.

    ........................................................................................................................ 109 7. ........... 114

    V ................................................................................................................ 117 ........................................................................ 117 .................... 117

    (4.7.2001) ................................ 121 ......................................................... 122 1.

    ........................................................................................................................................... 123 2.

    .............................................................................................................. 126 3. ..................................................... 129 4. ....................................................................................... 131 5.

    ........................................................................................................................ 132 6.

    ....................................................................................................... 133 6.1. .......................................................... 133 6.2. ..................................................................................... 136 7. ................................................................ 136 8. ..................................................................... 140 9. - ........... 146 VI ............................................................................................................... 148

    ........................................................................................................................ 148 1. .............................. 150

    2. ................... 151 3. ............................................. 152 4. ................................ 155 5. ....................................................................... 155 6. .................. 156 7. ............................................................................................. 156

    8. .................................................................................. 157 9.

    ..................................................................................................... 158 10. 159

    11. ......................................................................... 163

  • 4

    12. ( OLAF) ........ 163 13. ...................... 164 14. .............................................................. 166 15. ............................... 168

    16. - .................................................................................... 171

    17. ........................................................ 175 18. ....................... 179 19. .................. 180 VI. .............................................................................................................. 182

    ........................ 182 1. ............................. 184 2.

    . .................................................................................................................... 190 3. .................. 193 3.1. H ..................................................................................... 193

    3.2. ............................................................................... 194 3.3. ...................................................................................... 195 3.4. : ...................... 197 3.5. ........................................................................................ 199 3.6. ................................... 201 3.7. contra legem

    ............................................................................................................ 203 ..................................................................................... 207 . ......................................................................................................................... 210 .................. 210 ...................... 211 ...................................................................................................................... 213 ............................ 213

    1. ................................................................................................... 215

    2. O 218

    3. 225

    4. 2004/17/ ......................................................... 227 5. .......................................... 228 6.

    ..................................................................................................................... 230 7. 43 49 ........................................................................... 233 8.

    ................................................................................................... 236 9. ....... 240 10. 2004/18

    2004/17 242 11.

    ............................................................................................................................ 243 ............................................................................................................ 244

    :

    ...................................................................................... 244 1. .............................................................. 246 2. .......................... 246

  • 5

    3. ................................................................................................ 250 4. ....................................................................................... 257 5. ............................ 258 6. ........................................... 259 7. ............................................................................. 261 8. .................................................................................. 262 9. ............................................................................................ 263 10. ........................................ 265 ................................................................................................................... 271 .................................. 271 1.

    ................................................................. 271 2. 2004/18/

    31 2004 , 2004/17/ 31 2004 , , .............................................................................................................................. 272

    2.1. ....................................................... 272 2.2 ............................................................. 273 2004/18 2004/17 ..................................................................... 277 IV ................................................................................................................... 281

    2004/18 2004/17 .............................................................................................................. 281 1. 2004/18: -

    .............................................................................................................................. 281 2. 2004/17: ,

    , , - ................................................................................................. 282

    2004/17 2004/18 .................................................... 284 3. ........................................................ 285 3.1 ................................................................................................. 286 3.2 ......................................................................................................... 287 3.3 .................................................................................................. 289 4. , ................................................ 291 4.1 .................................................................................. 291 4.2 ......................................................................... 296 4.3 ........................................................................... 299 4.4 ........................................................ 301 4.5.

    ............................................................................................................................................... 302 V .................................................................................................................... 304

    .......................................................... 304 1. ............................................................................................ 304 1.1. ........ 304 1.2 2004/18 ................................................................... 306 1.3 2004/17 ................................................................... 307 1.4 .......................................................... 307 1.5 .................................................... 308 2. ............................................................................................. 312

  • 6

    2.1 ' 2004/18/ ............................................................................................................... 312

    2.2 '

    2004/17/ ............................................................................................................... 315 VI ................................................................................................................... 318 ........................................................................................................ 318

    2004/18/ 2004/17/

    ............................................................ 318 1.

    .............................................................................................................................. 319 2. ,

    ....................................................................................................................... 322 3. ........... 323 . ............................................................................................ 324 . ............................................................................................................ 325 . ....................................................................... 329 . ............................ 332 . .................... 337 4. ..................................................................................................... 343 5.

    345 6.

    348 7. 2004/17/:

    .................................................. 350 7.1 ......................................................................................... 351 7.2 ............................... 352

    VI ............................................................................................................. 354 H ............................... 354 1. ................................................................. 355 2. ............................................................... 359 3.

    360 4. ....................................................................................... 362 4.1. ..................... 362 4.2 ............................................................................................ 363 4.3 .............................................................................. 363 4.4 ............................................................................................ 365 4.5 ............................................................................. 367 . .......................................... 368 .

    2004/18 2004/17 .............................................................................................................. 368 .................................................................................. 371 .

    .................................................................................................................... 372 .

    ........................................................................................................... 373 .

    ............................................................................................................. 374 .

    ....................................................................................... 374 .1 ........................................................................ 374

  • 7

    .2 ............................................................................................. 376 . .......................................... 376 4.6 ...................................................................................... 378 4.7 ............................................................................................... 381 4.8 ..................... 384 . ....................................................................... 384 . ............................................................. 384 . ....................................... 385 ..................................................................................... 386 VII: ............................................................................................................... 388 ................................................................................ 388 1. .................................................. 388 2. .............................. 388 2.1 ............................................. 390 2.2 ........................................................ 390 2.3 / ................................................................ 391 3. ............................................................................. 393 4. ............................................................................ 396 4.1 ....................... 396 4.2 .............................. 398 I ................................................................................................................... 400 ................................................................................. 400 1.

    400 1.1 ................................................................................................ 403 1.2 .................................... 404 2. ................................. 408 3. ,

    ................................................................ 410 4. ................................ 411

    5. ................ 412 6. ........................ 414 IX ................................................................................................................... 417 .............................................................. 417 1. ............................................................................... 417 2. ............ 417 3 2004 ........................................................................................ 420 4 ....................... 420 5 SIMAP ........................................................................... 420 6 ............................................................................................ 421 7. ................................................................................ 422 8. ................................................... 424 .................................................................................................................... 429 ....................... 429 1. ....................................... 429 2.

    431 3.

    432 3.1 2004/18/ , 31

    2004 ........................................................................................................................ 432

  • 8

    3.2 296 .................................................................. 432 4. 2003

    ............................................................. 436 5. ............ 436 6. 2005

    ........................ 438

    7. 2006 ..................................... 439 8. H

    440 9. ............................................................ 443

    10 ............................................................................................ 445 10.1 .............................................................................................................. 445 10.2 .................................................................... 445 10.3 ............................................................................... 446 10.4

    ................................................................. 448 10.4

    ........................................................................................................................... 450 ................................................................................................................... 452 ................................................................... 452 . .................... 456 1. ..................... 456 2. ........................... 459 3. ..................................................... 462 4. .......................................... 464 5. ...................................... 465 6. ........ 468 7. ................................................................ 471 8.

    ........................................................................................................................ 472 9. ................................................. 474 11. ........................................................ 477 .

    ............................................................................................. 479 1. (PPP) .......................... 479 B.O.T. (Build / Operate / Transfer) .... (Build / Own / Operate /

    Transfer). ............................................................................................................................... 482 ... (Build / Transfer / Operate). .............................................................. 483 . (Private Services Contract: Operations and

    Maintenance), ,

    . .................................................................................. 483 PFI ................................................................................................................. 486 2. C-437/07 28 2008

    487 3. ........................................................................... 488 4.

    (12.4.2000) ............................................................................................................................ 488 5.

    5.2.2008 490

  • 9

    6. ..... 491 7.

    .................................................................................................................... 493 8. ........................ 494

    9. ...................................................................................... 496 10. -

    ......................................................................................................... 500 11. ........................... 502 .

    ............................................................................................................. 504 1. 2004/18

    504 2.

    504 2.1. ............................................................................................................ 505 2.2. ................................................................................................. 509 2.3. ............................................................................. 510 2.4. - ........................................ 513 2.5. ............................. 514 2.6. ......................................................................... 515 2.7. ............................................................... 517 2.8. step- in ................................................ 517 2.9. .......... 518 2.10. ................................................................................................ 520 2.11. ratio ....................................................................................... 520 2.12. ..................................... 522 2.13. ................................................................................ 523

    2.14. ............................................................................................................ 526

    V. O .................... 530 1. ..................................................................................................... 530 2.

    ..................................................................................................................................... 532 3. ............................. 533 4. ............................................................................................ 534 5. ................................................................................... 535 6.

    ........................................................................... 536 7. .................... 536 8. ......................................... 537 9.

    .................................................................................................................... 540 10. .................................................................................... 540 .................................................................................................................. 544

    .............................................................................................................................. 544 O ........................................................... 544 . 2004/18 2004/17 ....... 546 1.

    548 2. .............. 552

  • 10

    2.1. 23 2006

    (2006/C 179/02) ..................... 553 2.1.1. .............................. 554 2.1.2.

    ................................................................................... 555 2.2.

    ................................................................................... 555 2.2.1. ................................................... 555 2.2.2. .......................................................................................... 556 2.2.3. ..................................................................... 556 2.2.4. ......................................................................................... 557 3. -

    ................................................................................................................. 557 . ..... 561 1. 2004/18 ......................... 561 2. 2004/17 ......................... 564 3. . 566 . ........................................................... 567 1.

    93/36/ 14 1993 .......................................................................... 567

    2. 2004/18 569 3. 2004/17 . 569 V. ........................................................................ 572 V.

    ............................................................................................................................................... 575 VI. ................................................................... 580 VII. ............................................... 585 VIII. .................................................................................. 590 IX. ...................................... 597

    X. ......................................................................... 601 .................. 601

    2007 .................................................................................... 603 1. 2004 .................................................................................. 604 2. 2006 ....................................... 605 3.

    () ....................................................................................................... 605 4.

    () ............................ 608 5.

    ................................................................................ 609 ................................................................................................ 611 ........................................................................................................................... 614 .................... 614 ...................................................................................................................... 617 1. ........................................... 617 2. 20

    - UNCITRAL . 618 3. ................... 621 3.1 ......................................................................................... 621

  • 11

    3.2 .......................................................................................... 622 3.3. ..................................................................................... 622 3.4 .................. 623 3.5. ......................................................................................... 624

    3.6 89/665/ 626 4.

    .................................................................................................................... 629 4.1 ........... 630

    ................................................................................................................ 630

    ........................................................................ 630 .............................................. 631 ................................................................ 633 ............................................................................. 633 4.2 .......................................................................................... 634 4.3 ..................................................................... 634 4.4 :

    ............................................................................................................................................... 634 5. .......................................................... 636

    ..................................................................................................................... 637 ............................................................. 637 1. 89/665/

    ................................................................. 637 2.

    638 3.

    ........................................... 640 4.

    ..................................... 644 5.

    644 .................................................................................................................... 647 .................................................................................................... 647

    1. ......................................... 647 2. .......................................................... 654

    ..................................................................................................................... 656 3.

    662 4.

    ..................................................................................................... 668 5. ...................................................................... 669 6. ................................................................... 672 7. ......................................................................................... 676 8. .................................................................. 677

    9. ................ 679

    9.1 ..................................... 680 9.2 ...................... 682 V ............................................................................................................... 684 ................................................ 684

    1. H 92/13/ 25 1992 ,

  • 12

    , ,

    .................................................................................................................... 684 2. .......................................................... 685 3. ................. 685 ) ............................................... 685 ) ........................................................................................ 687

    ) ................. 688 11. V............................................................................................................... 690

    ................................................................ 690 1. 2006 ........................................................................... 690

    2. ................. 696 4. ........................................ 698

    VI ................................................................................................................... 701 2007/66/ 89/665/

    92/13/............................................................................................................................. 701 1. ............................................................................ 701

    2 ........................................ 703 3 ..................................................................................... 706 4 .......................................... 709 5 ................................................................... 714 6 .......................................................................................................... 716 7 .................................................... 722 8 ...... 725 9 ............................................................. 725

    K VI ................................................................................................................... 729 ..................................................................................... 729 1. ................................ 729 2.

    ......................................................................................................... 730 ................................................................................................ 733 ......................................................................................................................... 737 ............................................................................................. 742 .................................................................................................. 773

  • 13

    AbfallR Zeitschrift fr das Recht der Abfallwirtschaft

    AG Aktiengesellschaft

    AJDA ctualit juridique de droit administratif

    AK A

    AN

    AR Archiv des ffentlichen Rechts

    .

    (=

    . ()

    Bd. Band

    .

    BverfG Bundesverfassungsgericht

    CDE Cahiers de droit europen

    CE Conseil dEtat

    CMLR Common Market Law Review

    . ()

  • 14

    ()

    ()

    ()

    ()

    ()

    ()

    ( )

    D. Dalloz ()

    DB Der Betrieb ()

    DV Die ffentliche Verwaltung ()

    DVBl. Deutsches Verwaltungsblatt ()

    EC European Community

    ()

    .

    ()

    EE ()

    ()

    ()

  • 15

    EG Europische Gemeinschaften

    EGV Vertrag ber die Europische Gemeinschaft

    European Investment Bank

    EIPA Institut Europen d Administration Publique

    EJIL European Journal of International Law ()

    ()

    ELJ European Law Journal ()

    .

    .

    EOE

    E

    EU Europische Union

    EuGH Gerichtshof der Europischen Gemeinschaften

    EuZW Europische Zeitschrift fr Wirtschaftsrecht ()

    EWS Europischer Wirtschftsraum

    IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

    Gaz.Pal. Gazette du Palais

    GmbH Gesellschaft mit begrenzter Haftung

    GWB Gesetz gegen Wetbewerbsbeschrnkungen

  • 16

    ()

    JCMS Journal of Common Market Studies

    JuS Juristische Schulung

    ICLQ International and Comparative Law Quarterly ()

    Leb. Lebon

    LGDJ Librairie Gnrale de droit et jurisprudence

    .

    NJW Neue Juristische Wochenschrift ()

    ()

    .

    NvWZ Neue Zeitschrift fr Verwaltungsrecht

    NZBau Neue Zeitschrift fr Baurecht und Vergaberecht

  • 17

    LAF Office Europeen de lutte anifraude

    .

    ()

    PPLR Public Procurement Law Review

    PPP Public Private Partnerships

    PUF Presses Universitaires de France

    RdA Das Recht der Arbeit ()

    RMC Revue du March commun ()

    RGDIP Revue Gnrale de Droit International Public ()

    RTD Pub Rivista Trimestriale Diritto Publico

    Rev Adm Revue Administrative

    .

    .

  • 18

    .

    TEE

    C Tribunal des Conflits

    75 75

    ()

    UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

    WTO World Trade Organization

    YEL Yearbook of European Law ()

    FCE Forum Constitutionis Europae

    VergabeR Vergaberecht-Zeitschrift fr das gesamte Vergaberecht

    VerwArch Verwaltungsarchiv

  • 19

    ZIP Zeitschrift fr Wirtschftsrecht

    ZfBR Zeitschrift fr deutsches und internationales Bau- und

    Vergaberecht

    ZHR Zeitschrift fr das gesamte Handels- und Wirtschftsrecht

  • 20

    , , . .

    , . . .

    . . ; . ( 3 2008 C-444/06 3 2008). , , . . . ; ; ; To . . 2004/17. ;

    .

    .

    . . . .

  • 21

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    . . . ; ;

  • 22

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    . , , . . . . .

  • 23

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    . , .

    &

  • 24

    .

  • 25

  • 26

    1.

    19

    .

    1.

    . 20

    2

    3.

    361

    ()

    4. 361

    1 Zimmermann R., Foreword, in E. Wieacker, A history of Private Law in Europe,

    Oxford University Press, 1996.

    2 Atiyah P.S., The Rise and Fall of the Freedom of Contract, Oxford University Press

    1979, Buckley F.H., (ed) The Fall and Rise of Freedom of Contract, Durham, Duke

    University Press, 1999 . 3 . Arrowsmith S., Public Procurement as an Instrument of Policy and

    the Impact of Market Liberalisation, Law Quarterly Review, 1995, London, Vol. 111, April

    . 235-284, , , , . 235 ., ., , . . 2007 , ., , 2002, ., , 2009 .

    4 Langlais A., L'influence du droit communautaire sur la libert contractuelle du dcideur

    public dans le cadre du contrat de partenariat, RDP, 2006, n 6, Mewett A. W., The Theory of Government Contracts, Mc Gill Law Journal, 1959, . 1601, Kadner Graziano T., Le contrat en droit priv europen, Exercices de comparaison et d'harmonisation, 2007. Helbing

    & Lichtenhahn - Dossiers de droit europen, ., , . . , 2006 .169 ., ., , , . . , 1998, . 243 .

  • 27

    5 .

    . 197 198 6.

    ;

    ;

    To

    common law

    culpa in contrahendo7. To

    .

    .

    ;

    8

    .

    . .

    .

    5 ., , . . , . 395 .,

    ., , , . . , 1998, . 245 . 6 ., , . . , . 417 .,

    ., , , 1983, . 339 . . ., ., (), 35, 1987, . 701 .

    7 MacQueen H., Zimmermann R., (eds), European Contract Law, Edinburgh studies in

    Law V2, Edinburgh University Press, Hector MacQueen, Good Faith, . 61 . . 82 85., Sagaert V., La rforme du droit priv en France N10, Un modle pour le droit priv europen ?, 2008, Larcier - Contrats & Patrimoine, Wicker G., Droit europen du contrat et droits du contrat en Europe N20, Quelles

    perspectives pour quel quilibre ?. Litec - Editions du JurisClasseur, Colloques & dbats2008

    8 .

    Erik Marschher Rostock . . http://www.nott.ac.uk/shared/shared_procurement/PhDconference/PhDConference200

    7papers/Contract_and_adaptation_of_Contracts_in_the_European_Public_Procureme

    nt_Law___Erik_Marschner.pdf.

  • 28

    9.

    ,

    .

    10.

    11.

    .

    12 .

    .

    .

    .

    13

    14.

    9 ., , , -

    1999, . 48 . 10

    Fauvarque- Cosson B., Mazeaud D., (eds), European Contract law, Materials for a

    Common Frame of Reference: Terminology, Guiding Principles, Model Rules, sellier,

    european law publishers, 2008, . 4 . Sagaert V., La rforme du droit priv en France N10, Un modle pour le droit priv europen ?, 2008, Larcier - Contrats & Patrimoine

    11

    ., , , . . , 1998, . 264 ., ., , , - 1999, . 48 .

    12

    ., , , . . , 1998, . 253 .

    13 Mewett A. W., The Theory of Government Contracts, Mc Gill Law Journal, 1959,

    . 222-246.

    14 . Turpin C., Government Procurement and Contracts, Longman, 1989.

    ., , . . , 2006 . 10, 11 12 . 37, 38, ., , 1960, . 237 ., ., , , 1957,

  • 29

    15. O

    13 2005 C-84/03, .

    16 .

    17

    113 ., ., , , ., , , , 2009, ., , 2006, ., , 2009. . . Linotte D. Mestre A., Services Publics et Droit public conomique. LiTEC, Chenot B., Droit public conomique, Cours de Droit IEP, Paris, 1957-58, De Laubadre A., De Corail J.L., La crise de la notion de service public, LGDJ, 1954, De Corail J.L., Le juge administratif et la

    qualification des interventions de lEtat dans le domaine de lconomie, Et. homm.Ch. Einsenmann, Chenot B., La notion de service public dans la jurisprudence conomique de Conseil dEtat, EDCE, 1950, Jeanneau B., Droit des services publics et des entreprises nationaux, Dalloz 1983. . Maurer H., Allgemeines Verwaltungsrecht, C.H. Beck Mnchen, 2004, . 362 .., Kopp F./Ramsauer U., Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz Kommentar, C.H. Beck Mnchen 2008, 54 VwVfG . 1082 . ., Erichsen H.U./Ehlers D., Allgemeines Verwaltungsrecht, De Gruyter Recht Berlin 2005, . 699 . ., Waechter K., Der ffentlichrechtliche Vertrag, JZ 2006, . 166 . ., Lange K., Die Abgrenzung des ffentlich-rechtlichen Vertrages vom privatrechtlichen Vertrag, NVwZ 1983, . 313 . .

    15

    De Laubadre A., Moderne A. Delvolv P., Trait de contrats administratifs, t. 1 2e ed., LGDJ 1983, . 283, ., , , . N. 1991, ., , , , 2009.

    16

    Richer L., Le march public: problmes actuels de dfinition, CJEG, 1986, . 37 .

    17

    . Fauvarque Cosson B., Mazeaud D, (ed), European Contract Law, sellier european law publishers, 2008 , Hector L. MacQueen, Reinhard Zimmermann, European Contract Law, Edinburgh University Press

    2005

    . http://frontpage.cbs.dk/law/commission_on_european_contract_law/

    http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cons_int/safe_shop/fair_bus_pract/cont_law/index_en.ht

    m http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/eu.contract.principles.part1.1995/

  • 30

    (). ,

    9 %

    15 %

    1987.

    18.

    .

    .

    ,

    19.

    2.

    20

    21 .

    .

    .

    http://www.jur.uva.nl/csecl/object.cfm/objectid=E8460963-662F-42E2-

    A804B9B75373074D Max Planck

    http://www.mpipriv.de/ww/en/pub/research/research_work/european_and_universal_p

    rivate/contract_law/principles_of_european_contrac.cfm

    18 Turpin C., Government Procurement and Contracts, Longman, 1989, Mewett A. W.,

    The Theory of Government Contracts, Mc Gill Law Journal, 1959, . 222-246.

    19 Allan W. (et al.), Global competition and transnational regulations: new

    developments, Paris, ICC, 1996

    20 . ., , -

    - - ( ), 2009, . 6 . .

    21 . L Huillier J., Les contrats administratifs tiennent-ils lieu de loi a l Administration ? D. 1953, chron.88

  • 31

    1772

    22 , .

    19 20

    .

    G. Jeze 20

    Conseil d Etat

    service public

    Georges Pequignot

    ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    23.

    3.

    ,

    .

    .

    , ,

    .

    2004/17

    .

    22 Richer L., Droit des contrats administratifs, 2e ed. LGDJ, , 17. 23

    Richer L., Droit des contrats administratifs, 2e ed. LGDJ, .30 . , Chapus R., Droit du contentieux administratif, 13e d., Montchrestien, 2008, Waline J., Droit administratif, 22e d., Dalloz, 2008, Lombard F., La cause dans les contrats administratifs, thse, Dalloz, NBT, t. 77, 2008, Gahdoun P.-Y., La libert contractuelle dans la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel, thse, Dalloz, NBT, t. 76, 2008 Richer L., Droit des contrats administratifs, 6e d., LGDJ, 2008, Cabanes C., Neveu B., Droit de la concurrence dans les contrats publics, Le Moniteur, 2008.

  • 32

    .

    public

    procurement24, appalti pubblici, oeffentlicher Vetrag

    marchs publics.

    25

    24

    . Public Procurement is the term used to describe the purchasing of works, supplies and services by national, regional and local public bodies,

    including central government, local authorities, fire and police authorities, defence, health

    services, joint consortia of public bodies, and public and private utilities. Throughout

    Europe, the public sector and utilities, referred to as 'contracting authorities', need to

    purchase goods and services for a huge range of activities. Many of these form large

    contracts which must be advertised all over Europe, the annual value amounts to around

    500 billion, estimated at around 11.5% of EU Gross national product. This represents potentially profitable opportunities for companies to supply the market at home and

    overseas. http://www.publictender.co.uk/eu-procurement.html

    . : Government procurement, also called public tendering, or public procurement, is the procurement of goods and services on behalf of a

    public authority, such as a government agency. With 10 to 15% of GDP in developed

    countries, and up to 20% in developing countries, government procurement accounts for a

    substantial part of the global economy. To prevent fraud, waste, corruption or local

    protectionism, the law of most countries regulates government procurement more or less

    closely. It usually requires the procuring authority to issue public tenders if the value of the

    procurement exceeds a certain threshold. Government procurement is also the subject of the

    Agreement on Government Procurement, a plurilateral international treaty under the auspices

    of the WTO.

    . Arrowsmith S., The Law of Public and Utilities Procurement, Sweet & Maxwell, 2005.

    25

    , : 77/62/ 21 1976 71/305/ .

    1 77/62/, , , , , , , . .

    1 71/305/, , , ,

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