Οι Θεωρίες...

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θεωρίες μάθησης

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  • 1. & : . .... , 2012

2. 2 , . . , . , / 19, , . . , , . , (....) . . 3. 3 5 Abstract 7 8 , 13 1 15 1. 15 1.1 Ivan Pavlov 17 1.2 John B. Watson 17 1.3 Edward L. Thorndike 17 1.4 B.F. Skinner - 18 1.5 B.F. Skinner - 18 1.6 N.A. Crowder - 18 1.7 R. Gagne - 19 2 21 2. 21 2.1 R. Gagne, A. Newell & H. Simon - 23 3 25 3. 25 3.1 Jean Piaget - (constructionist) 25 3.2 Saymour Papert - (constructionism) 26 3.3 Boyle - 27 3.4 Jerome Bruner - 27 3.5 29 3.5.1 Albert Bandura - - . 30 3.5.2 Lev Vygotsky - 31 3.5.3 ( Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Nardi ) 33 4 35 4. 35 4.1 36 4.2 - 38 4.3 & 39 4.4 43 4.5 45 4.6 46 5 49 5. 49 5.1 & 49 5.1.1 50 5.1.2 52 5.2 & 53 5.2.1 54 5.2.2 54 4. 4 5.3 & 55 5.3.1 57 5.3.2 58 6 62 6. 62 6.1 62 6.2 63 6.3 67 6.3.1 67 6.3.2 68 6.3.3 69 6.3.4 70 6.3.5 71 6.4 73 7 93 7. 93 7.1 94 7.2 99 7.3 183 8 189 8. - 189 200 210 221 5. 5 . . , . , . , , . , , . , , , , , . - , : , . , ( ). 6. 6 , , . 7. 7 Abstract In the present thesis Learning Theories are studied in relation to their integration to the Educational Software. Learning theories are viewed from the perspective of the evolution of the various theories of Pedagogical Psychology. The most prominent learning theories are presented according to their utilization in the educational programs, their characteristics are specified and criteria are extracted in order for them to be classified according to the Theory or Theories that have been used during their development. The main research topic of the thesis is how Behavioral Theories, Cognitive Theories, and Knowledge Construction Theories can be exploited in the development of Educational Software. Furthermore, based on precise criteria, an attempt is made to detect the learning theories which are integrated in the most important educational programs offered by the Department of Education and Skills and the Pedagogical Institute. In the present thesis an attempt was made, based on the existing bibliography, to create the criteria through which the integration of learning theories in the educational software is detected. Afterwards, a quantitative and qualitative research was carried out, which allows the target group, including secondary education Science teachers, who are on the second level of training, as far as the exploitation and application of Information and Communications Technology in the act of teaching is concerned, to express their opinion on the educational software under discussion by replying to a specific means of data collection in order for them to be classified on the basis of the learning theory or theories they adopt. The educational software of the Department of Education and Skills and the Pedagogical Institute, which was the object of study according to the Learning Theories they exploit, treats the syllabus of the basic Secondary Education courses: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Their choice was based on the fact that most of them constitute the basic educational software which the Department of Education and Skills and the Pedagogical Institute suggest to be used at school and which are utilized in the Teacher Training Course concerning the exploitation and application of Information and Communications Technology in the Act of Teaching (second level). This thesis was an effort to create the operational criteria, that is the tools, by means of which the educational software can be classified on the basis of the encapsulated Learning Theories and an effort, as well, to ascertain which ones of the Learning Theories are encapsulated in the Educational Software under review. 8. 8 , . , , , . , (Bigge, 1990). , , . : , , , , , , (Shunk, 2010). . , , . ( & , 2004). . . , , - , . (Bigge, 1990). 9. 9 . 1 : ( ) ( ) ( ). . - . . ( ) ( ). (, 1996). : . . , () . , , , . 1 , ( ) (, 1999; Driscoll, 1994). 10. 10 , (, 2002; 2004). , . . , , (Shunk, 2010). : , : . , . (, & , 2003). . . , , . 11. 11 . ( ). . , . . . . 1. . Pavlov 2. J. B. Watson 3. E. L. Thorndike 4. B.F.Skinner ( ) 5. . Crowder ( ) 6. R. Gagne ( ) 1. C. M. Reigeluth, M. D. Merrill, R. C. Schank, L. Briggs W. Wagner 2. Gagne, A. Newell H. Simon ( ) 1. J. Piaget R. 2. S. Papert ( LOGO) 3. oyle ( ) 4. J. Bruner ( ) Ko 5. A. Bandura 6. L. Vygotsky ( ) 7. Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, ardi ( ) , . . 12. 12 . , (, & , 2003). () . , (Bruner, 1966), (Nardi, 1996), ( ) (Vygotsky), () . . , . , (, & , 2003). : , , . . . , . 13. 13 , , (), . . , ( & , 2000). . . . . . . : & Interactive Physics - & The Geometer s Sketchpad 14. 14 ( ). (...) , , . : , . ; : , , , , . , , ( ). 15. 15 1 1. , , , , , () , (, 2007). . , - . . , (, 2004). . . , (, 1996). , , , . , 2 , ( , , , ..) ( 3 ) (, 2003). (2004), , 2 Skinner, , , , ( ). 3 , , (, 2003). 16. 16 ( ) , ( , ). (feed back) , , . , , , , . . , . - , . , (, 2006). , . (2006), 4 . . , . . , (tutorials), (drill and practice) 4 , , . , , . , (, 2006). 17. 17 . Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, Edward L. Thorndike, B. F. Skinner, N. Crowder R. Gagne. 1.1 Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov , , John B. Watson. Pavlov . Pavlov , , , . Pavlov ( ) , . . , , . 1.2 John B. Watson John B. Watson, , . , . 1.3 Edward L. Thorndike Edward L. Thorndike B.F. Skinner , . 18. 18 , ( ) . , , , . ( ) () , () . 1.4 B.F. Skinner - (Skinner) . . , . 1.5 B.F. Skinner - ( Skinner). . : 1. , 2. , 3. 4. . 1.6 N.A. Crowder - . . . Skinner 19. 19 . , Crowder . . 1.7 R. Gagne - Gagne , . , , , , . . . Gagne , : 1. () 2. () 3. () 4. ( ) 5. ( ) 6. () 7. () 8. () 9. () , . Robert Gagne , , . . , . , . 20. 20 ( & , 2004). 21. 21 2 2. , . . . , (, 1996). , , , . , , . , , . , , , , (, 1997). . , , (, 1996). , ., . . (2003) : (schema theory) . . . 22. 22 . , , , . (encoding and information mapping) . ,