The collapse of Classical Attica (Greek text)

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Στόχος των σύγχρονων αρχαιοπεριβαλλοντικών ερευνών αποτελεί η αναψηλάφηση της δομής και της λειτουργίας των ανθρώπινων οικοσυστημάτων του παρελθόντος. H εφαρμογή των διεπιστημονικών μεθόδων στην ανάπλαση των αστικών & περι- αστικών τοπίων της αρχαίας Eλλάδας συνίσταται στην ανάλυση παραμέτρων και ’μεγεθών’.

Transcript of The collapse of Classical Attica (Greek text)

  • OI KATAPPEYEI TN ANPINN OIKOYTHMATN. H EPITH TH ATTIKH TN KAIKN XPONN

    A 1

    EIAH MEOOOIA & ANTIKEIMENO MEETH H APXAIOEHNIKH OI OIKOOIKH ENOTHTA H ATTIKH TH KAIKH EPIOOY ANPINO OIKOYTHMA TO AINOMENO TH KATAPPEYH OIKOOIKO & OITIMIKO MEEO YMEPAMATA BIBIOPAIA YNOH

    . H & - E , , , , , , .

    To A , - - , , 5 & 4 . .X. A , , . _______________________ 1 . A. T A A . e-mail: alaoupi@otenet.gr

  • EIAH

    O A I , . H , , .

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    K , , , , . , , ; H A (human ecosystems).

  • MEOOOIA & ANTIKEIMENO MEETH

    O (.. , , , , , ) . O A , , , , , , , , , , , . M, I , , . , . H , A, , . T , , , .

    , , , , , , , , .. , . A, , , , , , , ..

    E, , , , , , .... , A , , , (Dincauze, 2000). , K . ,

  • , , , , ...

    , , , , ( E , , , ), , / / / , , , , .

    E , , - : ) (, , ), ) , ) , ) ) .

    A K X, , . (), , , - - , , () ( ), . (Milles et al., eds, 1989 ::55-73 & 330-331. Dalton,ed., 1975 : 23-106).

    M , A K ( 5 4 . .X. ) ( = ) A, a priori . O & , A. H & A O A K , M & O A A & A , I X (: 1999). H APXAIOEHNIKH OH OIKOOIKH ENOTHTA

    H E, . , , , , , , , ,

  • . A, , . , , N B P I (494 ..), , & , - : ( ), ( , ), ( , ), ( ), (), , () ( ), (, ), ( , , ), (), (), ( & ), (), ( ), ( , ), ( ), (, ), (), (), ( ) , ... E, A A , I, ( ), ( ), , , , (K, 1997: 30 - 34 . M, 1997: 42 - 53. N, 1997: 35 -41. X,1997: 17 - 22. M ).

    I, / / 109 , O 89 . I , ( Chadwick, 19732 : 94 & 574 ), (O I P, 144 ), - . H , , I, , (, 1991: 82-109. Lvy, 1983: 55-73. Posner, 1979: 28-46. Glotz, 19281/1981). O : i) H T , (, 555), , , (clans) ii) H , , (, 154). E, O , , ( O , 270-271 & , V. 6. 2 ) (Scully, 1990: 8-9, 103 & 105, 109. Cole, 1976) .

    , I, ( B = Wa-ty , K = Ptolikhatas) 88 , O 49 , (Chadwick, 19732 : 94 & 574). I, , () . O I , . T, O , - (Scully, 1990: 8-9, 103 & 105, 109. Cole, 1976), , , , (, 1991: 82-109. Lvy, 1983: 55-73. Posner, 1979: 28-46. Glotz, 19281/1981). P , , A E, , , .

  • T H H, , , , - . T , , , . , H ( H H, 269 & 639), , () B, , , , , , , , , , - - (Scully, 1990: 2-3).

    A (, , , , , ) (Pritchett, 1953: 269) : ( = ), (= , , .. ), (= , , ), ( = - ), ( = , ), ( = , ), ( = ), ( = ), ( = - ), ( = & ), ( = , ), ( = ), (= ), ( = ), ( = ), / ( = ), ( = ), (= ) ( = ).

    T , , , , , (water supply) (timber supply), (agriculture) (pastoralism), (hunting), (mining), (energy sources), (sewage disposal), (climate exposure) (pollution).

    H ( .. , , , , ) , , (focal), , (complexity), .

    , /A (Real or Objective) A (Perceived Environment). T A (Geographical = & ), (Operational = .. ) (Modified = ). T A (parts) & , , .

  • , - (Butzer,1982 : Ch. 13, 256, Table 13-5 Perception, spatial behavior and the archaeological record ).

    -, K ( 6 . .X.) , , , (Langdon, 1985 : 5 - 15. Hammond, 1972).

    T, A - , , , , - - - , M (Golden & Toohey, eds , 1997 : 132 - 164) , (E , 495. K , 76. A, 15.4. H , s.v. , ..) A , . O .O H (VIII.53) A, . O A (, 533), , (Der Kleine Pauly : Ephebia, 1967, 287 - 291. Pelekides, 1962 : 76. Farnell, 1907 : 19. Dumont, I, 1876 : 8 - 15). , , , E, , , A, / ( .. ,,, , , ..) - A (, 1999).

    H ATTIKH TN KAIKN XPONN ANPINO OIKOYTHMA

    O X (3 1 .X.) E, , , & / . O (, & ) , ' 20-25% , . A, , N E ( , ), ( Bintliff, 1977 : 79). T , 400 500 mm , & , , , 30 C (Eitam & Heltzer,eds, 1996: 29 - 39).

  • T , , , , , , , , . , . (anopheline mosquitos : Anopheles sacharovi & Anopheles superpictus), , (malaria) Plasmodium falcipar(i)um, - -, ( Plasmodium vivax, malariae & ovale ) , E (Cohen & Armelagos, eds, 1984 : Ch. 3, 51-73. Bintliff, 1977 : 79. Bruce- Chwatt,1965: 367 - 387).

    , , , , , E, 8 1 . .X. X H E, , K A, K I, I, . , 8 4 . .X., , , , , I. , , ( H, VI. 76. K, II. 24 . , VI. viii. cap. 371. Vitruvius, VIII.i & ii. ..) , , , , (Crouch, 1993 : Ch. 7, 64-67).

    E , . O, : ) , ) , , ( ) ) , , , , , ... O H, , , & Titus Livius (Kardulias ,ed., 1994: Ch. 4, 70. Bintliff, 1977 :5 & 11-12).

    M , , A K , . B, , , A, . O , , , ,

  • , , .

    T , & , , N E. , A K , : ) H H ( 385, 415-16, 450-1, 571-2 & 614) ( Interan nual Climatic Variability ), B O M (Argout, 1987: 205 - 219) , ) , 4 . .X. A, 17 C ( M,1955. A, 1908 : . 2, 427-429), ) , , , , , ) 7 5 . .X . 35, 11-12 , (Sallares, 1991:.391, Kuniholm & Striker 1983/1987, X 1982 & Lewin & Lomas 1971. Liritzis & Kosmatos, 1995 : 73 - 78. Mariolopoulos, 1962: 243 - 250).

    O , , , . O A, , , (.. E M, 824 .. & Fr. 971, Nauck. , I.3. . E, 987D & T, 24C). E, P , I A & , . , , , , (.. I , III. 23-24. A H7, 1327 b 19-36 H E 1, 1229b 28 & M B5, 362 a 32-b 9. Plinius Naturalis Historia , II. 4 & xii. 58).

    K , , , . O , , , , (, , , ), , , (Jeskins,1998). E (Dillon, 1997: Ch. 2, 29). N 323 .X. (IG II 2 , 1631. 141-3), ,

  • A ( A , I.19-20. , 11.4 ). T, , , , . H ( : 1999), , , - - , , , . (.. , , , ), (.., tsunami, , ), , (.. ENSO, NAO, ), , ... (Davis, Brewer, Stevenson, Guiot & Data Contributors, 2003: 1701-1716. Torrence & Grattan, eds, 2002 : 33 - 44. Fagan, 2000. Nur & Cline, 2000: 43 - 63. Schoch & Aquinas,1999. Peiser, Palmer&Baily,eds,1998. Dalfes, Kukla & Weiss,eds,1997. Stiros & Jones, eds, 1996 : 23 - 36. Simkin & S