The Acts of the Apostles

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1 BIBLE ANALYSIS: Πραχεij Αποστολοj THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES Grace Bible Institute Fall 2012 Pastor Kevin Jeffrey, M.Div.,pastor Grace Bible Church, instructor INTRODUCTION Many of the heresies perpetuated in Christendom today derive from a misapplication from these places: The Old Testament, the Gospels or the Book of Acts. A proper hermeneutic (interpretation of Scripture) requires that the interpreter of Scripture lets the Bible speak (take it literally). The result of a literal interpretation is an application to the proper recipients of Scripture. This type of interpretation can best be seen in the diets of Scripture. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve enjoyed a total vegetation diet. Adam’s immediate descendants enjoyed a meat diet. Under law, Israel was prohibited from eating certain animals with hooves as well as certain sea animals. Today, believers can eat anything the believer can give thanks for. Indeed, application of Scripture to the proper recipients is very important. The book of Acts has been widely misinterpreted for this reason. Application for the Church is being made for events that served as necessary for recipients of the early church. For example, In Acts the eighth chapter, the Holy Spirit was conferred as the apostles laid hands on those who had already believed in Samaria. Today, the Holy Spirit is not conferred by the laying on of hands. The early church had gifts given for the purpose of legitimizing the message preached. Those gifts were given on a temporary basis and are not in existence today. A tremendous amount of division exist in the Church over disagreement about the transitory nature of the book of Acts. There are many who reject the temporary nature of some of the acts carried out in the early Church. A study of the book of Acts in context provides an objective view of the events of the early Church. A study in the book will show that the Acts of the Apostles transitioned God’s plan and purposes from the earthly ministry of Christ to God’s plans for the Church in this present dispensation. We would hope that at the end of this quarter that you would possess a clear understanding of the doctrines of Acts in their proper context.

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The Acts of the Apostlesby Kevin Jeffrey

Transcript of The Acts of the Apostles

Page 1: The Acts of the Apostles



Πραχεij Αποστολοj


Grace Bible Institute Fall 2012

Pastor Kevin Jeffrey, M.Div.,pastor Grace Bible Church, instructor

INTRODUCTION Many of the heresies perpetuated in Christendom today derive from a misapplication from these places: The Old Testament, the Gospels or the Book of Acts. A proper hermeneutic (interpretation of Scripture) requires that the interpreter of Scripture lets the Bible speak (take it literally). The result of a literal interpretation is an application to the proper recipients of Scripture. This type of interpretation can best be seen in the diets of Scripture. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve enjoyed a total vegetation diet. Adam’s immediate descendants enjoyed a meat diet. Under law, Israel was prohibited from eating certain animals with hooves as well as certain sea animals. Today, believers can eat anything the believer can give thanks for. Indeed, application of Scripture to the proper recipients is very important.

The book of Acts has been widely misinterpreted for this reason. Application for the Church is being made for events that served as necessary for recipients of the early church. For example, In Acts the eighth chapter, the Holy Spirit was conferred as the apostles laid hands on those who had already believed in Samaria. Today, the Holy Spirit is not conferred by the laying on of hands. The early church had gifts given for the purpose of legitimizing the message preached. Those gifts were given on a temporary basis and are not in existence today.

A tremendous amount of division exist in the Church over disagreement about the transitory nature of the book of Acts. There are many who reject the temporary nature of some of the acts carried out in the early Church. A study of the book of Acts in context provides an objective view of the events of the early Church. A study in the book will show that the Acts of the Apostles transitioned God’s plan and purposes from the earthly ministry of Christ to God’s plans for the Church in this present dispensation. We would hope that at the end of this quarter that you would possess a clear understanding of the doctrines of Acts in their proper context.

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A. Official title: (Acts of the Apostles)

B. Author of the book is Luke “the physican”.

1. The author of the gospel of Luke. Acts 1:1-2; Lk. 1:1-4

2. A traveling companion of Paul. 2 Tim. 4:11; Col. 4:14; (ill. Acts. 16:10-17; 20:5-

21:18; 27:1; 28:16)

3. Luke is the only Gentile writer in the Bible. (Identified as a gentile in Col. 4:10-15)

C. Recipient of the letter is Theopholous, a believer who was a high-level

official in the Roman government to whom Dr. Luke had written previously to

inform about the life of Christ.

D. Time of the writing of the letter.

1. Westminster Dictionary of the Bible puts the date at 63 a.d.

2. Charles Ryrie (Ryrie Study Bible) puts the date at 61 a.d.

3. Merrill Tenney (New Testament Survey) puts the date at 60 or 61 A.D.


To explain the transition from the earthly Ministry of Jesus presenting the Kingdom

from the Heavens to Israel to the establishment of the Church which included both

Jew and Gentiles and was built by those “whom He chose”.


A. The Kingdom of God. Acts 1:3; 8:12; 14:22

B. Transition from Judism to the Church.

1. Change in focus on the Kingdom from the heavens. Acts 1:6

2. Change in residency of the members of the Godhead. Acts1: 9; 2:2-4

3. Change in People of God. Acts 13:44-48

4. Temporary methods utilized in laying the foundation of the Church.

a. Laying on of Hands to receive the Holy Spirit. Acts 8:14-17

b. Baptizing in the Name of Jesus. Acts 19:5

C. The Church

1. Its origin.

2. Its doctrines.

3. Its names.

a. “This Way” – Acts 9:2; 23:4

b. “That Way” – Acts 19:9, 23

c. “Sect” – Acts 24:5, 14; 28:22

d. Christians – Acts 11:26

4. Its development.

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a. Primarily Jewish for the first few years. Acts 11:19; Acts 10:28;


b. Gentiles added over the span of years.

5. Its leaders primarily Apostles. Acts 2:43; 8:14-17

6. Its place of meeting in homes (primarily). Acts 2:46; 8:3; 12:12

D. The Times and Seasons. Acts 1:7

E. The Nation Israel

1. God’s past dealings with them. Acts 7; 13

2. Their rejection of messiah. Acts 2:34-38; 7:51-52

3. Their synagogues/Temple. Acts 17:1; 18:19; 21:26

4. Their relationship with the Roman government. Acts 24:2-3

5. Their relationship to gentiles. Acts 10:10-14, 28; 21:28-29

6. Their religious practices. Acts 6:13; 13:15; 15:5; 24; 18:13; 21:20

F. The Word from God

G. Peter

1. His message at Pentecost. Acts 2:14-39

2. His messages after Pentecost. Acts 3:12-26

3. His entry to the Gentiles. Acts 10

4. His transitory connections

a. God not a respecter of persons. Acts 10:34-37

b. Gentiles not under law. Acts 15:7-10

H. Paul of Tarsus

1. His conversion. Acts 9:1-9

2. His Apostolic journeys.

a. First Apostolic Journey Acts 14

b. Second Apostolic Journey Acts 15:40-18:23

c. Third Apostolic Journey Acts 28:23-21:17

3. His Apologetics. Acts 26:16-18

4. His struggles. Acts 18:1-9; 23:7-11

I. The Gentiles

a. Their history. Acts 14:15-17

b. Their religion – pagan. Acts 14:8-13; 17:22-26

c. Their superstitions (respect for and fear of the supernatural). Acts 19:18-19; 28:4-6

J. The Baptism of John. Acts 1:5; 10:36-37; 13:25

K. The Holy Spirit

1. His arrival.

2. His leading.

3. His Predominant in the Dispensation of Grace.

4. His energizing.

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L. The Mosaic Law (Acts 6:13; 15:5, 24; 18:13

M. Repentance (Acts 2:38; 3:19; 8:22; 17:30)

N. Resurrection of Jesus (Acts 2:31; 23:6; 26:23)

O. Salvation (Acts 4:12; 13:26; 15:1)

P. Miracles

1. Signs

2. Wonders

3. Mighty powers

Q. The Apostles

a. Their unique powers Acts 3:1-11

b. Their “laying on of Hands” (Acts 8:14-17)

c. Their role in laying the foundation of the church. Acts 1:2

R. Grace (Acts 13:43; 15:11; 20:24)

S. Witnesses (Acts 16:2; 23:11; 26:22)


A. Merrill C. Tenney’s New Testament Survey.

I. Introduction 1:1-11

II. The Origin of the Church: Jerusalem 1:12-8:3

III. The Period of Transition: Samaria 8:4-11:18

IV. The Expansion to the Gentiles 11:19-21:16

The Pauline Mission: Antioch and the Empire

V. The Imprisonment and Defense of Paul: 21:17-28:31

Caesarea and Rome

B. Ungers’ Bible Handbook.

I. From Jerusalem to All Judea 1-7

II. To Samaria 8

III. To the Gentiles 9-12

IV. To the End of the Earth 13-28

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C. Charles Ryrie, The Ryrie Study Bible

I. Christianity in Jerusalem. 1:1-8:3

II. Christianity in Palestine and Syria. 8:4-12:25

III. Christianity to the Uttermost Part of the World. 13:1-28:31

D. Kevin Jeffrey, pastor Bethesda Bible Church

I. The Church’s Foundation laid at Pentecost. 1-6

II. The Transition From Law to Grace Wrought With Challenges. 7-8

III. The Addition of The Gentiles Hastened The Transition

From Law To Grace 9-12

IV. The Conversion of Paul Instrumental in the Direction of

The Church 13-21

V. Pauline Apologetics Crucial to Development of the Church 22-28

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A. Dr. Luke covered the last scene of God’s unfolding plan and purposes in great detail in his

first letter to Theophilus (The Book of Luke). vs.1

1. Not much is known about the recipient of the book of Acts, Theophilus.

a. Theophilus’ name in Greek means one who is fond of God.

b. Theophilus, apparently, was a high official in the Roman government as

indicated by Luke’s “most excellent” address to Theophilus in his first letter

was on par with that made to high officials. (ill. Acts 23:26; 24:2)

2. Luke’s first discourse focused (generally concerning two areas of the Lord’s earthly


a. The things that Jesus began to do.

He began to do miracles. Lk. 5:17-25; 6:17-19; 8:22-55

He began to incite the Jews. Lk. 4:23-30; 11:45-54; 13:10-17;


b. The things that Jesus began to teach.

He taught concerning the poor. Lk. (Lk. 4:18) 6:20-49

He taught concerning the Kingdom of God. (33x) Lk. 9:1; 16:16;


He taught concerning His death, burial and resurrection. Lk.

9:43-45; 18:31-34

He taught concerning the after life. Lk. 16:19-31

He taught concerning the Tribulation period. Lk. 21:7-28

He taught concerning the suffering and glorification of Messiah.

Lk. 24:24-27; 44-48

4. Luke validates the time frame of events covered in his first letter. vs. 1b-2a

a. Lukes’first letter begins with the things Jesus began to do and teach.

b. Luke’s first letter ends with the Lord’s giving of injunctions to His

Apostles. Lk. 24:49 (Acts 1:4)

c. Luke’s record extends to the day the Lord was taken up. Lk. 24:51 (Acts 1:9)

B. The apostles became the main focus during the early years of the church. vs.2b-3

1. The Lord showed Himself alive to them.

a. He showed Himself living to them after His passion.

b. He showed Himself living to them with many infallible proofs ( –

a fixed mark, a sign, indubitable token, clear proof – The Analytical Greek


He was seen by them for forty days. vs.3

He was seen by 500 others. 1 Co. 15:6

He displayed his pierced hands and side. John 20:20,27

He served breakfast. John 21:12-15

He performed a miracle. John 21:6

2. The Lord gave them command to await the coming Holy Spirit in Jerusalem. vs.4

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a. The promised relationship of the Holy Spirit they were to receive differed

from the relationship of the Holy Spirit under the baptism of John. vs. 5

* John baptized with water. Matt. 3:11; Acts 19:1-5; 13:24-25

* Believers from Pentecost forward would be baptized by the Holy

Spirit. vs.5

- Dr. Luke’s use of the construction draws a contrast

between John’s Baptism and the Baptism of the Holy Spirit.

-The Spirit’s baptism identifies the believer with Christ’s death,

burial and resurrection (2 Co. 12:13; Rom. 6:3-4).

-The Grace Believer does not repent to be baptized as was

necessary under John’s baptism (1 Peter 3:20).

- The believer believes the facts concerning the gospel and he is

saved (1Co. 15:3-4).

- Repentance is a result of this belief. (Acts 10: 44-47)

b. The disciples coming together kept on asking him (as an equal) concerning

the Kingdom from the Heavens. vs.6

-They use a first class condition to assert the belief that they think its

going to happen now. (Wilt should be translated since)

- The phrase “restore again” is the word which

means to restore something to its former state. (ill. Lk. 6:10; Matt.


c. Christ responded to the question of the disciples by instructing them on the

Father’s freedom from the constraint of men. vs.7

- The word for not used in the context is the Greek particle

which is used to “deny the reality of an alleged fact. It is the clear-cut

point-blank negative, objective, final.” – Dana & Mantey (ill. John


- The word “know” is the word which is used in

Scripture of the difference between knowledge of facts versus

knowledge acquired by experience. (ill. Mk. 4:11; John 1:10; 14:7)

- “Times and Seasons” are used in scripture of certain periods scheduled

to occur in God’s plan and purposes. (1 Thess. 5:1)

– is time, whether in respect of duration or a definite

point of its laps. An epoch, era, marked duration. – Analytical

Greek Lexicon (ill Matt. 2:7; 25:19)

is time measured by fitness, proportion, suitableness;

a fitting situation; a limited period of time marked by a

suitableness of circumstances. (ill. 1 Co. 4:5; Acts 17:30; Gal.


- The word for “put” is the word (aor. mid.) which means to

place, lay or set. – Abbott & Smith (ill. Acts 13:47; 1Co. 12:18, 28; 1

Thess. 5:9)

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d. In contrast to awaiting the coming of the Kingdom, the Lord redirects the

disciples’ focus to the beginning of a new dispensation. vs. 8

Luke uses an adversative conjunction but) to emphasize

God’s change in His program. This should be translated:

“but, on the contrary (to their knowledge of when the Kingdom

will be restored to Israel)…”

The reception of power was promised to the disciples.

- Power is an ability ( in the Greek means

ability). (ill. Acts 3:12; 4:7,33; 6:8; 19:11)

- The power received by the disciples received was a by-

product of the Holy Spirit coming upon them which

was unique to the Dispensation of Grace. (ill. Acts


Instead of the receiving the Kingdom from the Heavens, the

disciples were made witnesses for the new dispensation.

- Witness is the Greek word from which we

get our English word martyr. The Greek Analytical

Lexicon defines the word to mean “generally, a witness

to a circumstance.” (ill. 7:58; Acts 10:39; 2:32; 3:15;


- The disciples were witnesses firstly in Jerusalem. (ill.

Acts 2:14; 13:26-46)

- The disciples were witnesses secondly in Judea and

Sameria. (ill. Acts 8:4-8)

- The disciples were witnesses thirdly “up to the edge of

the last of the earth” (ill. Acts 9:26-38; ch.14-28)

C. Scene I of the Lord Jesus’ earthly ministry is completed at His ascension. vs.9

1. Three things occurred as the Lord finished speaking:

a. The disciples looked ( – to glance).

b. The Lord was taken (aor. pass.) up

c. A cloud received Him from the sight of the disciples.

2. The events of the Lord’s ascension occurred so rapidly, the disciples were left

contemplating what had happened. vs.10a

a. The disciples were gazing (-- to fix one’s eyes upon, to look

steadily, gaze intently, to view with contemplation ill. Lk. 4:20) in the

heaven (first)

b. The phrase “as He went up” translates the Greek word which

means to go, pass on one’s way, journey, travel. The word is accompanied

by a personal pronoun autou which makes the phrase emphatic – “His very

own journey”

The phrase is used to emphasize the next phase in the Lord’s

participation in the Father’s plan and purposes.

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The ascension of Christ was necessary for the believer’s present

tense salvation. John 16:5-13; 1 John 2:1-2

c. Two men stood by them as they gazed upon His ascension. vs.10b

The word for men is the Greek word which is defined

as a male person of full age and stature, as opposed to a child

or female. – The Greek Analytical Lexicon (ill. Lk. 24:4)

The phrase “white apparel” is better understood “having been

made to stand in a quality of white” -- which appears to be the

common characteristic of angelic appearances in the Gospels.

(Ill. John 20:12)

d. The angels appeared to spur the disciples on after the shocking departure of

the one they expected to restore the Kingdom to Israel. vs.11a

The disciples were standing (perf. – standing in the past with

the result that they were still standing), probably in shock.

The disciples were looking (– to glancing as opposed to

gazing) into the heaven

e. The two men reveal truth about the second coming of Jesus to the disciples.


He was taken (a taking up, to receive up. ill.

Acts 20:13-14) into heaven (third).

He shall return (-- to come or go.)

His return will be in the same manner ( --) the

disciples watched Him go. (ill. Zech. 14:1-14)

D. The disciples followed Jesus instructions after His departure and returned to Jerusalem from

the Mount of Olives. vs.12

1. They entered into the upper room (an up stairs room. Traditionally the study and

the room for prayer of a rabbi. The use of the article designates this upper room as

one specific to the disciples)

2.They were recovered from the shock of the Lord’s departure.

a. They were “carrying on” in worship The Greek word is

Greek Analytical Lexicon – to persist in adherence to a thing; to be intently

engaged in, attend constantly to.

Reinecker/Rogers -- to be strong, steadfast, like the English “carry on”).

b. They were of one mind in worship ( -- to be with one mind,

with one accord, unanimously – Analytical Greek Lexicon). Acts 2:1,46;


c. The disciples were together with Jesus’ mother and his brothers (probably

James and Jude who didn’t believe before Christ’s crucifixion).

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3. The Holy Spirit used the apostle Peter in the early stages of the Church. vs.15-26

a. The term “in those days” is used in Scripture to denote a particular time

frame that varies from days, to months to years. (ill. Matt. 3:1; Acts 2:18;

6:1; 7:41; Rev. 9:6)

b. Peter brought perspective from Scripture for all the things that had occurred

concerning the Lord Jesus.

1. Peter declared that the things that happened to the Lord were

necessary to the fulfillment of Scripture. (ill. Ps.69: 26; 109:8)

The Holy Spirit spoke before the things concerning Judas.

The Holy Spirit spoke through the mouth of David and

other prophets in the Old Testament. (ill. 2 Pet. 2:20-21)

2. Peter put Judas’ role in the betrayal of the Lord into Scriptural

context. vs.16

Judas “came to be” a guide (-- one who led the

way, normally for those who are blind ill. Matt. 23:24;

Rom. 2:19) to the ones arresting Jesus. Matt. 26:47-49

(They needed a guide for the opportune time – Matt.

26:3-5; 21; 45-46)

Judas was a guide for those arresting Jesus

because he was “numbered” (-- to

enumerate, number with, count with) with the


Judas obtained (– to have assigned to

one, to obtain, receive) the inheritance belonging

to the ministry. (ill. 2 Pet. 1:1; John 19:24)

Judas could not handle the magnitude of his behavior

(though he was unrepentant). vs.18 (ill. Matt. 27:3)

Judas (the money that he was paid to betray Jesus

was used for this purpose) brought a field with the

reward of unrighteousness. (Matt. 27:6)

Judas hang himself. (Matt. 27:5)

He fell flat on his face and burst asunder.

Judas’ betrayal left a tragic impression.

The word for “habitation” is the word defined in

the Greek language as a homestead, a country, a

house, cottage, cabin. —Reinecker/Rogers

The word “bishoprick” is used to denote the

things that he was in charge of, to oversee. (ill

John 13:29)

3. Peter oversaw the process to replace Judas. vs.21

It was necessary (-- something that had to happen,

that which is not optionalthat Judas’ replacement came

from among those who were – coming

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intimately together with – the disciples during the time of

Jesus’ earthly ministry: vs.22a

From the time the Lord Jesus entered among the


To the time the Lord Jesus left the disciples.

From the baptism of John to the point that Jesus

was taken up from the disciples.

The one selected would become a witness together with

the disciples of the Lord’s resurrection. vs.22b

Two men met the qualifications: vs.23

Justus (Col. 4:11??)


Two things brought the disciples to a conclusion

concerning who would replace Judas. vs.25


Casting lots (—the method employed by

the Jews was to put the names written on stones

into a vessel and shake it until one fell out – ill.

Matt. 27:35 -- Reinecker/Rogers)

Matthias was numbered ( – to be chosen

by vote; then to be added – Reinecker/Rogers) vs.26

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A. The Day of Pentecost was a traditional celebration by the Nation Israel. vs. 1 (ill. Lev.

23:11-16; Acts 20:16; 1 Co. 16:8)

Note: The name Pentecost is derived from the Greek Pentekostos meaning fiftieth, which was applied to

the fiftieth day after the Passover. It was the culmination of the “Feast of Weeks” (Ex. 34:22; Deut.

16:10) which began on the third day after the Passover with the presentation of the first harvest sheaves

to God and which concluded with the offering of tow loaves of un-leaven bread, representing the first

products of the harvest. After the exile, it became one of the great pilgrimage feasts of Judaism, at which

many of those who lived in remote sections of the Roman world returned to Jerusalem for worship. (Acts

10:16). For that reason it served as a bond to unite the Jewish world of the first century and to remind

them of their history – Evangelical Dictionary of Theology

B. The setting of the Holy Spirit’s coming was at the completion of the day. vs. 1

1. The phrase “fully come” () denotes to fill completely of time, to

approach, to come – Reinecker/Rogers

2. The significance of the Holy Spirit’s coming at Pentecost is the difference between

the theological term residency, indwelling, and omnipresence.

C. The word “they” refers back to those in Chapter 1:13-14. (approximately 120)

D. An echo occurred while they together. vs.1-2

1. The word echo is the Greek word denoting a reverberating sound or noise or roar.

(ill. Lk. 21:25; 1 Co. 13:1; Lk. 4:37)

2. The echo occurred suddenly.

3. The echo came out () from the third heaven.

4. The echo was as being borne of a violent wind.

a. The word “as” is – as it were. (ill. 1 Co. 15:8)

b. The word “of” is better translated by the word -- to carry, to be

driven. (ill 2 Pet. 1:21; Acts 27:15)

c. The words “rushing mighty” can better be translated violent; a blowing blast.

(ill Acts 17:25)

5. The echo filled the whole house where they were sitting.

E. Tongues like fire appeared to each of them. vs.3

1. The phrase “cloven tongues as of fire”:

a. The word tongue is the word which is used in Scripture to denote

the physical tongue, tribes and languages.

Physical use – Ja. 3:6; Rom. 3:13; Mk. 7:33

Tribes – Rev. 5:9; 7:9; 13:7

Languages –Acts 2; 11; 10:46; 1 Co. 14:22

b. The tongues were distributed (– to distribute, parting

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themselves asunder or distributing themselves – Reinecker/Rogers) upon

each of them. (ill. Acts 2:45)

c. The tongues were like () fire.

2. The tongues appeared to each of them.

3. The tongues sat upon each (e[kastoj – each individual one)

F. The event culminated in all those being present being filled by the Holy Spirit. vs.4a

1. The word for filling of the Holy Spirit is different from that used later in Scripture.

a. is the word used at Pentecost and it means that which fills or takes

possession of the mind. (ill Lk. 1:15, 41, 67; 4:28; Acts 3:10;4:8,31)

b. is the word used of the Holy Spirit’s filling in later years of the

church. ill. Eph. 5:18; Rom. 15:13)

2. The filling of the Holy Spirit upon all was unique to the Dispensation of Grace.

G. Speaking in “other tongues” resulted from the Holy Spirit’s filling. vs.4b

1. The term “other” is the word heteros (heterosexual) tongues of a different kind than

theirs. (ill. Jude 7; Rom. 7; 3; Gal. 1:6; Eph. 3:5)

2. They spoke as the Holy Spirit gave them “utterance” (). (ill Acts

2:14; 26:25)

a. Reinecker/Rogers – to utter to speak, use of weighty or aracular utterance.

b. Abbott & Smith – to speak forth, give utterance.

3. The message they spoke was concerning the mighty deeds of God. vs. 11

H. The events of the Holy Spirit’s coming caused a great commotion among the Godly Jews in

Judea. vs.5

1. The word for devout signifies caution and carefulness in respect of divine things. (ill

Lk. 2:25; Acts 8:2)

2. The devout Jews were (out from – as to source) all nations under (the) heaven (as a

result of the scattering of the nation after the Babylonian captivity)

3. The sound (vs.2) brought the multitude of devout Jews together. vs.6a

a. They all came together (passive) when they heard the sound.

b. They were confounded ( – aor. passive – to be perplexed. It

describes the surprising effect of the miracle). over the sound.

I. The source of the devout Jew’s perplexity was what they heard subsequent to the Holy

Spirit’s coming. vs.6b

1. Each (e[kastoj) one (the devout Jews) heard them (the disciples and others in the

upper room) speaking in their (the devout Jews) very own (idia) dialect

(). (ill. Acts 1:19; 21:40; 26:14)

a. Joseph Thayer – the tongue or language peculiar to any people.

b. Analytical Greek Lexicon – speech; manner of speaking; peculiar language

of a nation, vernacular, idiom.

2. The devout Jews were amazed and marveled at the miracle. vs.7

a. They knew that all those speaking in tongues were Galileans.

b. But, they were able to hear each of those Galileans in “our” () own

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(idios) dialect in which we were born:




Dwellers in:

* Mesopotamia

* Judea

* Cappadocia

* Pontus

* Asia

* Phrygia

*Pamphylia Egypt

*In the regions of Libya


* Temporarily residing Roman Jews and proselytes


* And Arabians

3. Though all were amazed at the miracle that occurred, a splintering of opinions arose.


a. Some (of the same kind) were troubled over what occurred.

b. Some (of the same kind) were asking ?

c. Others (of a different kind) mocked saying they are:


With sweet wine

J. The apostle Peter answers the charges made by those devout Jews. vs. 14-37

1.Peter took the leadership in setting the record straight concerning the events that


a. Peter rose to answer the charges. vs. 14a

b. Peter stood together with the eleven other disciples. vs. 14b

c. Peter addressed those to whom his message was directed. vs.14c

Men of Judea

All ye that dwell at Jerusalem

d. Peter ask two things of his audience before he begins:

“Let this thing be made known unto you”

“Hearken to my words”

e. Peter refutes the notion that those filled with the Spirit were drunk. vs.15

The belief that they were drunk was something that they had


Proof they weren’t drunk was that it was the “third hour of the


2. Contrarily the apostle links the events of the day to the prophecies made concerning

the coming of the Holy Spirit in the last days. vs.16-37

a. Peter uses a neuter pronoun to explain that the pouring out of the Holy Spirit

was prophesied to occur through the prophet Joel. vs.16 (12,14); Joel 3:1-5

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i. God would pour from His Spirit:

In the last days

Upon all flesh

ii. The result of the pouring out of the Spirit:

3. Peter explains the significance of Jesus to the Jews.

a. He was from Nazareth.

b. He was a man accredited to you (Jews) by God.

i. He was accredited through the mighty deeds that He


ii. He was accredited through the wonders He did.

iii. He was accredited through the signs He performed.

c. He was betrayed in accordance with God’s decree.

d. He was rejected by His own people.

i. You (Jews) killed Him.

ii. God raised Him out from the dead because it was impossible

for death to hold Him. vs.24

e. David prophesied the Lord’s resurrection. vs.25-27 (Ps. 15:8-11)

i. David forsaw the Lord “before me always”. vs.24

Because he was at my right hand

For the purpose that I not be moved

ii. David’s foresight brought joy. vs.25-26

Therefore is better rendered because of this thing.

My heart was Glad

My tongue exalted

My flesh dwells upon hope.

iii. Resurrection from the grave was the source of the joy. vs.27-28

Because you did not abandon my soul into hades.

Nor will Thou give the Holy one to see corruption.

Thou has made known to me the ways of life.

Thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance.

iv. Peter spoke with boldness concerning the patriarch David,

that the prophecy could not have been in reference to himself.


Because David both died and was buried and is in his

tomb. vs.29

David was aware of the oath God swore to him. vs.30

One out from then fruit of his loins would sit upon

his throne. Ps. 132:11; 89:4

Foreseeing that one out from the fruit of his loins

would sit upon his throne, he spoke concerning

the resurrection of the Christ. vs.31-32

-He was not abandoned into hades.

-Neither did His flesh see corruption.

-This same Jesus, God raised which we are all


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Christ sent the promised Holy Spirit being exhalted to the

right hand of the Father. vs.33

The Son received the promised Holy Spirit

The Son poured out the promised Holy Spirit this

thing, which you have seen and heard.

Peter asserts his interpretation to be the only Scriptural

answer to the events that had occurred:

For, David didn’t ascend into the heaven.

But, “the Lord (the Father) said to my Lord (Son)

sit out from my right hand until I make thine

enemies thy footstool.

Peter concluded with a proclamation to the house of

Israel. vs.36

Assuredly therefore

Let the house of Israel know

God the Father has made the same Jesus (which

you crucified) both Lord and Christ.

f. Some devout Jews responded to Peter’s message. vs.37

i. Hearing

ii. They were cut to the heart

iii. They said to both Peter and the rest of the apostles

iv. What must they do?

g. Peter’s prescription for the devout Jews was three-fold. vs.38

i. Repent

ii. Be baptized upon the name of Jesus Christ because of

forgiveness of sins.

iii. Receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

h. Peter defines those to whom his promise was applicable. vs.39

i. The promise is to your children

ii. The promise is to those far away

iii. The promise is to as many as the Lord our God shall call.

i. Peter exhorted the devout Jews with many words of a different kind. vs.40

i. He exhorted they by saying:

ii. Save yourself from this perverse generation (Israel?).

j. The response of the Jews to Peter’s message led to their salvation. vs.41-43a

i. They gladly received his word.

ii. They were baptized.

iii. There were added three thousand souls in that day.

iv. They continued steadfastly in the apostle’s doctrine

v. They continued steadfastly in fellowship

vi. They continued steadfastly in the breaking of bread.

vii. They continued steadfastly in prayers (worship)

viii. Fear came upon every soul.

h. There were other events that occurred. vs.43-44

i. Many wonders and signs were done by the apostles.

ii. All that believed were together and shared all things in common.

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iii. All that believed sold their possessions and goods and parted

them to every man who had need.

iv. They continued daily with one accord.

v. They broke bread from house to house.

vi. They ate their meat with gladness and singleness of heart.

vii. They were praising God.

viii. They were having favor with all people. vs.47

ix. The Lord added to the Church daily such as should be saved.

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Chapter 3



A. God used Peter and John to heal a man crippled from birth. Acts 3:1-8

1. Peter and John encountered the impotent man on their way to the temple. vs.1

a. The word translated “went up” is , a descriptive imperfect which

means to ascend the terraces.

b. The ninth hour of prayer was 3:00 p.m in the afternoon.

2. The lame man had been lame from his mother’s womb. vs.2-3

a. The term “lame” is the word which means maimed. (ill. Acts 14:8)

i. DNTT – the reference is either implicitly or explicitly to

impairment of the legs and feet.

ii. Reinecker/Rogers – the word is used in classical writing to describe

a lame condition in the legs or feet which produced a halting or

limping gait (a manner of walking or moving on foot)

b. He “laid daily” () denotes that he was carried to the temple gate

simultaneous to the going up o the apostles.

c. The purpose of his placement at the gate was to ask alms, from the ones

entering ( – denotes being about to enter) into the temple. vs.2

d. Peter and John “fastening () their eyes upon going into the temple.


i. Abbott & Smith – to look fixly gazed (this word is used numerous

times in Acts with connection with performance of miracles. Ill. Acts

10:4; 13:9; 14:9

ii. Context of Scripture – denote and intense looking with the purpose

of discerning a matter.

3. The lame man gave heed to Peter’s address to him indicating that he had faith. vs.3-5


a. The term “gave heed” is the Greek word translated .

i. Reinecker/Rogers – to aim at, to fix one’s attention upon.

ii. Abbott & Smith – to observe, to give attention to.

b. He attention was focused on receiving something. vs.5

4. Peter did two things in healing the lame man.

a. Peter had no (possessions to give the lame man). vs.6

b. On the contrary, Peter said: – I have this thing I give


5. Peter made two crucial statements in healing the lame man:

a. (In the name of Jesus

Christ of Nazareth)

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i. The phrase “in the name of Jesus” is used often in Acts. It is the bases

of the things the Apostles accomplished (Acts 2:38; 5:28; 8:12)

ii. The fact that Jesus was from Nazareth is a reason many rejected Him,

consequently, Peter continued to emphasize it.

* Jesus was raised in Nazareth. Lk. 4:16

* Nazareth was looked down on as a place of nobodies. John


b. (rise and walk around) vs.6

6. Peter “took him (seized him, took hold of him) by the right hand” vs.7-8

a. His feet and ankle bones immediately “received strength” ( --

to make form or solid – Heb. 5:12,14)

b. He began leaping. – to leap out, to leap up.

c. He walking and entered with (Peter and John) into the temple.

d. He continued leaping and praising (Heb. 13:15) God.

B. The healing of the lame man caused amazement among those who witnessed the healed

man walking. Acts 3:9-11

1. “The People” a phrase used to denote those in the nation Israel.

2. They saw him walking.

3. They saw him praising God.

4. They knew (they began to perceive, recognize) that it was the

impotent man.

5. Those who saw him healed were filled (with wonder and

amazement. (ekstasews – an abnormal condition of the mind in which the subject

passes out of his usual self-control). Mk. 5:42; Lk. 5:26

6. The impotent man held himself to Peter and John.

7. The crowd ran -- to make a run. in greatly wondering to be

amazed, astonished, terrified. (Mk.1: 27; 10:32)



A. Peter connects the healing of the lame man to God’s message to the Nation Israel. Acts


1. Peter answered ( ---to answer, to separate, divide from – Cremer) the

crowd as they came together.

2. The context of the audience is established with the phrase “Ye men of Israel.” vs.12a

3. Peter divests he and John of the ability to heal the impotent man. vs.12b

a. Peter was perplexed at the crowd’s marveling of the man’s healing.

b. The word “look” is which means to look with a fixed gaze. Acts

1:10; 10:4

4. Peter attributes the lame man’s healing to Man with whom the Jews rejected.

a. Peter ties Jesus’ authenticity to the God of the Jewish’ fathers.

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i. God the Father glorified (ill. John 7:39; 11:4; 12:16;

17:1,4,5; 21:19) His son.

ii. The word for Son is the Greek word is a term used of Christ

that references Old Testament prophecy about Him to which the Jews

would have been familiar. (ill. Is.42: 1-5)

5. Peter informs the Jews of God’s inditement against them for their role in the death of

their Messiah

a. They delivered ( --to release, to betray – John 18:29-31,35-36;

Lk. 24:20) Him up in the presence of Pilate.

b. They denied (– to deny – takes place upon the ground of, and

with the underlying better conviction to the contrary – in other words they

were unconvinced that He was Messiah) Him

i. They denied Him before Pilate. (John 19:14-15:19-22)

ii. Pilate had judged to release Him. John 19:12; Lk. 23:14;Matt. 27:18

c. They desired that a murderer be granted to them. Matt. 27:15-21

d. They killed the Prince of “the life”.

i. The word Prince is which is defined originator, founder,

leader, chief, first. Heb. 5:9; 12:2

ii. “The Life” is used in Scripture to denote that eternal quality of life that

the believer has as a result of regeneration. (ill. Eph. 4:18; Rom. 8:2)

e. God raised Him ( – out from among dead ones, meaning there

were still others dead in the grave) from the dead. (ill. Rom. 4:24)

6. Peter connects the healing of the lame man with the nation’s rejection of Christ.

a. The lame man was made strong through the faith concerning Christ’s

name ( – denotes the character of one -- ill. Acts

4:30; 5:41; 8:12; 9:16; 10:43; 15:26).

b. Faith provided by Christ led to the lame man’s healing.

i. Faith to believe was given () to the lame man (ill. 1 Co. 3:5)

ii. He was made whole ( – denotes soundness in all parts

– body, soul and spirit – Reincecker/Rogers 1 Thess. 5:23; Jas. 1:4)

before all the Jews because of his faith.

B. Peter advances the reason as to why the Jews killed their Messiah.

1. The Jews killed Christ because of ignorance ( to not recognize, not to know,

to be unacquainted with). vs.17 (ill. Acts 13:27-30; Rom. 10:3)

2. The word “did” is which is from the word meaning to practice. (ill.

1Thess. 4:11; Phil. 4:9)

C. Peter links the Jews’ killing of Messiah to fulfillment of O.T. Scripture. vs.18

1. The term “beforehand” is – which is to report beforehand, too

announce fully before hand.

2. The term “suffer” is (ill Ps. 22; Is. 53:7-10).

3. “Christ” is better translated “the Christ”, the Messiah which was expected. (ill. Matt.

16:13-20; John 4:25; 7:41)

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D. Peter makes a final offer to Israel of establishment of the Kingdom.


1. The word “therefore” is used in light of the evidence Peter has presented concerning

the nation and their rejection of Messiah.

2. The Jews are called upon to repent ( - to have a change of mind) ill.

Acts 5:31

3. The result of the Jews repentance would be conversion, , to turn (ill.

Acts 11:21)

4. The result of the Jews conversion is their sins would be “blotted out” – to

washover; to wipe out; to obliterate; to cancel a debt) ill. Col. 2:14

5. “Times of refreshing” would be a direct result of their repentance. vs.19

a. The word times is which means a season. It is used in Scripture to

denote a fitting occasion. (ill. Acts 24:26; 2 Thess. 2:6)

b. “Refreshing” is the word – to cool again, refresh. (ill. 2 Tim.

1:16) 2 Pet. 3:12

6. God would send Jesus Christ as a result of their repentance. vs.21

a. The phrase “before was preached unto you” in Greek means to be previously

appointed for you. (ill. Acts 10:41; 22:14)

b. Heaven received Him until the time of restitution.

i. The word “times” is which measure chronological time, the

logical sequence of events.

ii. The word restitution is – restoration, the

establishment of all that has been promised in the Old Testament.

(ill. Lk. 6:10; Mk 9:12; Acts 1:6)

iii. “All things spoken of by the prophets” includes prophecy concerning

Israel. (ill. Lk. 1:70-79)

D. Adherence to Christ was prophesized.

1. Moses warned of judgment for all who rejected the message of “that prophet”. vs.

22-23 (Deut. 18:5-20)

2. It was prophesied by Samuel and all the other prophets that followed Him. vs. 24

E. God’s message was first sent to the Nation Israel. vs. 26

1. They are the Sons of the prophets.

2. They are the sons of the covenants which God made with the Fathers. (Gen. 12:3;

18:18; 22:18; 26:4)

3. God sent His servant, Christ to turn each of them from their evil ()

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Chapter 4



vs. 1-12

A. The Jewish leaders reacted to Peter and John’s proclamation of the Jew’s role in the

rejection of the Messiah. vs.1-3

1. The Priests, the captain of the temple and the Sadducees came upon them. vs.1

2. The Priests, the captain of the temple and the Sadducees were grieved

(– to be worked up, to be indignant – Acts 16:18) over their

teaching. vs.2

3. The apostles were imprisoned ( --- a place of custody, probably in a

chamber of the temple—Rienecker/Rogers) as a results of their teaching. vs.3

B. Five thousand believed the message of the apostles in spite of the rejection of the Jewish

leaders. vs.4

C. The Jewish leaders brought Peter and John before them to inquire of their preaching.

1. There was a list of Jewish leaders in attendance eager to make the apostles account

for their teaching. vs.6 (all definitions from Westminister Dictionary of the Bible)

a. The rulers – an officer in the synagogue – (Matt. 9:18; Mk. 5:22-38; Lk.


b. The elders – those who administered the nation’s civil and religious affairs-

(Matt. 15:2; 21:23; 26:3,47)

c. The scribes – Those who devoted themselves to the study and interpretation

of the law, which was both civil and religious; and to determine its

applictation to the details of daily life. The decisions of the great scribes

became the oral law or tradition. Matt. 16:21; 26:3; 8:19; 21:15

d. Annas the high priest – He was the supreme pontiff and representive of the

Nation before Yahweh. (ill. Heb. 5:1-2)

e. Caiaphas – He served as high priest along with his father –in-law Annas. It

was he who proposed the death of Jesus in order to preserve the rest of the

nation. (John 11:49-53; 18:14,24)

f. “As many as were of the kindred of the high priest” – included John and


2. The Jews asked ( – to inquire, demand, seek information that would

answer unsolved issues. – Context Matt. 2:4; Acts 21:33) as to the source of their

power () in healing the lame man. vs.7

3. Peter answers the query of the Jewish leaders.vs.10-

a. He addresses those present (“Ye rulers of the people, and elders of Israel”)


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b. He addresses the occasion. vs.9

i. The apostles were being examined (, denotes a questioning

for the purpose of drawing a conclusion – Context Acts 12:19; 28:18)

ii. Their examination was on the basis of a “good deed” (ill. Acts 10:38)

c. He addresses the source of their power—Jesus Christ of Nazareth. vs.10

i. The Jews crucified Him.

ii. God raised Him from the dead.

iii. He was the stone “which was set at nought of you builders” vs.11


iv. Salvation under any other name is not possible. vs.12

* Dr. Luke uses , the most emphatic negative in the Greek

language to emphasize the absence of salvation in any other

( -- of the same kind)

* There is no name (– name of a different kind) given

- under () the heaven (third heaven)

- among mankind

- by which it is necessary () for salvation.

4. The Jewish leaders beheld the boldness of the apostle’s response to their inquiry.


a. The word beheld is the Greek word which means to look at, to

gaze. (ill. Acts 25:24)

b. Boldness () denotes the confidence and forthrightness with

which the apostles spoke under the prompting of the Holy Spirit. –

Reinecker/Rogers (ill. 2 Co. 7:4; Eph.3:12)

5. The Jewish leaders perceived (– to grasp with the mind –

Reinecker Rogers – John 1:5; Acts 10:34) certain characteristics about the apostles.


a. They perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men.

i. The word unlearned is denoting uneducated, unable to

write. Here it denotes the lack of rabbinic training. Reinecker/Rogers

ii. The word ignorant is , one who is not an expert, unskilled,

commoner. (ill. 2 Co. 11:6)

b. They marveled (inceptive imperfect) they began to wonder over their


c. They recognized (gained experiential knowledge) they had been together

with Jesus.

6. The presence of the healed man together with Peter and John made refutation of the

miracle impossible. vs.14

D. The circumstances behind the miracle and teaching left the Jewish leaders perplexed as to

their next step. vs.15

1. They command the apostles and the healed man to go outside the council (a local

Jewish tribunal; the ecclesiastical court of the Jews – Abbott & Smith – Matt.

10:17; Mk. 13:9).

2. They conferred with one another as to what action should be taken.

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i. A notable (one that is a matter of knowledge – Abbott & Smith – Acts 1:19)

sign miracle had been performed: vs.16

* It was done by (the instrumentality of) the apostles

* It was know before all dwelling in Jerusalem.

* It was undeniable – – did not have the ability

to say no to it.

ii. Damage control was the issue before the Jewish leaders. vs.17

They threatened them to no longer speak upon Jesus’ name in order

that news of the miracle spread no further among the Jews.

* They threatened them to no longer teach in the name of Jesus. vs.18



A. The apostles reject the threatenings of the Jewish leaders. vs.19

1. The apostles left the question whether they should listen to God or men to the Jewish

leader’s judgment. vs.19

2. The apostles emphasized the impossibility of their refusing to speak concerning the

things they have seen and heard. vs.20

B. The Jewish leaders issued further threats and released the apostles. vs.21

1. They further threatened the disciples.

2. They released them.

*They released them due to the fact they found no means of punishing them.

* They released them because all men glorified God (“for the

thing having happened.”)

*The sign miracle occurred to a man more than forty years old. vs.22

C. Peter and John were unshaken by their persecution upon their release. vs.22-23

1. They went to their “own company” (a Greek idiom that is used in Scripture to denote

those in a certain group or relationship, in this instance other believers. John 13:1;

Matt. 25:14).

2. The reported all (– whatsoever things) “that the chief priest and elders had said

to them”

D. The believers were unified in their reaction to the rejection of the chief priest and the elders.


1. They all with one accord ( – emphasizes a unity of mind – ill. Acts

5:12; 19:29; Rom. 15; 6) lifted up their voice to God.

2. They begin in worship. Acts 4:24b

a. Lord is the word – a sovereign – the word is used to by the

believers to show their servant role. (ill 2 Tim. 2:20)

b. They acknowledge that it was He who made the heaven and the earth and the

sea and all things that are in them. (ill. Acts 17:23-28)

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3. The quote of Psalms 2 point towards the fact the religious leaders fulfilled Scripture

in their rejection of the Messiah. vs.25-26

a. The heathen raged ( - to snort, to be arrogant, haughty, insolent)

ill. Matt. 27:27-37; John 18:33-38; 19:9-11

b. The people devised ( – to devise, to plan – Reinecker/Rogers) vain

things. ill. Mark. 13:11 (Matt. 21:43-46; Lk. 4:28-29; John 7:30)

c. The kings of the earth (Lk. 23:7-12) and the rulers (1 Co. 2:7-8) assembled

together against the Lord and His Messiah.

5. The communication to the Father reveals those complicit in Christ’s death. vs.27

a. Herod

b. Pontius Pilate

c. The Gentiles

d. The people of Israel

6. These all conspired to kill Christ. vs.28

a. To do whatsoever the hand (is used in Scripture to denote power or authority.

Ill. Acts 7:25; 13:11; Heb. 10:31) foreordained ( – to mark out

the bounds before; predetermined) to happen.

b. To do whatsoever the counsel (decree – Eph. 1:11) foreordained to happen.

7. The apostles appeal to the Father to help them in their persecution. vs.29

a. They ask concerning relief from the Jews

i. Now Lord --

ii. Look upon the threatenings of them.

b. They asked for help in their ministry. 29-30

i. Grant unto thy servants that with all boldness ( –

confidence – 2 Co. 3:12; Eph. 3:12; 1 John 2:28) they may speak thy


ii. “Stretch forth thy hand”.

* The result of stretch forth His hand would be healing.

* The result of stretching forth His hand would be signs and

wonders done in the name of “thy holy child Jesus.”

8. The apostles’ communication was immediately answered. vs.31

a. “ And when they had prayed” --

b. The place was shaken where they were assembled together.

c. They were all filled (mentally) with the Holy Spirit.

d. They spake the Word of God with boldness.`



A. The multitude was united. vs. 32

1. They were of one heart.

2. They were of one soul.

B. They shared their possessions. vs.32

1. They didn’t consider the things they possessed to be their own.

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2. All things were to them common.

C. The Holy Spirit was evident in the ministry of the Apostles. vs.33

1. Great power was given to them in their testimony.

2. Great grace was upon them all.

D. No one among them lacked anything. vs.34-35

1. There was no one needy among them.

2. Those possessors of lands and houses sold them and brought the prices of the things

that was being sold.

3. They laid the things brought and placed them at the apostles feet.

4. The possessions were distributed to every man according as he had need.

5. Barnabas typified those believers who sold their possessions.

a. Scripture gives information about his background. vs.36

* His name defined his personality.

* He was a Levite (from the priestly line).

* He was of the country of Cyprus

b. Barnabas sold land and brought the money and laid it at the apostles feet.


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Chapter 5



A. Judgment is brought upon Ananias and his wife Sapphira for lying.

1. The couple sold (the word sold is which means to barter, it is contrasted with

which means to purchase with cash -- ill. Lk. 17:28; Rev. 13:17)

property to provide for the common good of the church as others had done. vs.1 (ill.

Acts 4:34-35)

2. The couple failed to give all of the proceeds of the transaction that they promised to

God. vs.2

a. They “kept back” () part of the price.

* Marvin Vincent – to embezzle, to secretly take a part of a larger

quantity which had been given to one as a trust – ill. Tit.2:10

* Joseph Thayer – to set apart or separate for one’s self, i.e. to purloin,

embezzle, withdraw covertly and appropriate to one’s own use.

b. Sapphira was “privy” - – conscious, aware, complicit) to what was


c. They took a “certain part” ( – a portion) and laid it at the apostle’s


3. Peter confronts the couple concerning the lie.

a. Peter traces the source of the lie to Satan. vs.3

* Satan filled ( – filled up what is lacking) his heart.

* The purpose for the filling of his heart was to lie (feusasQai – to

deceive, cheat, show ones self deceitful – Thayer) to the Holy Spirit.

(Ananas’ lie was considered a lie to the Holy Spirit because it was

the Holy Spirit who was leading him to make the offering—a role

not filled by the Holy Spirit under law)

b. Peter emphasizes the uselessness of the lie. vs.4

*The property was in Ananias’ authority ( -- delegated

power—Lk. 4:6) before it was sold.

*The property was at Ananias’ disposal ( – in one’s power or

disposal – Thayer).

c. Ananias conceived the thing in his heart that Satan filled his heart with.

* The word “conceived” is from the Greek word (Mid. Voice)

i. Marvin Vincent -- which means to put or fix, resolve upon it.

ii. Joseph Thayer – to propose to one’s self, to purpose; to place

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or position for the execution of one’s purpose. (ill. Acts 19:21;

2 Co. 5:19; Lk. 9:44

* The word “thing” is – that which has been done; a deed, an

accomplished fact. (ill. 2 Co. 7:11)

4. The wages for Anasias’ sin was death. vs.5-6

a. He started falling while hearing Peter’s words.

b. He “gave up the ghost” is the Greek word ( -- a term used by

medical writers; to breath out, to expire – Reinecker/Rogers) while falling.

c. Fear dominated those who heard of the event.

d. Young men wrapped Ananias, carried him out for burial.

5. Sapphira came before Peter unaware ( – not knowing the facts) of what had

happened to her husband. vs.7-10

a. She came in a three hour interval (space of time) after her husband expired.


b. Peter quizzed her concerning the amount for which the land was sold. vs.8

*Peter asked why she had “agreed together” ( – to agree

together – passive – denotes be made to agree) to tempt the Holy

Spirit. vs.9a

*Peter warned of her impending death.vs.9b

*Sapphira died. vs. 10

- She fell down “straightway” ( – immediate,

forthwith, instantly – Reinecker/Rogers) at his feet.

- She “yielded up the ghost” (expired).

- The young men came in and found her dead.

6. The judgment of Ananias and Sapphira had an effect on the early church.

a. “Great fear came upon all the church” (this is the first mention of the term

church in Acts. The Greek word is – called out assembly)”.


b. “Great fear came upon as many as heard these things”. vs.11b


A. The “hands” of the apostles produced miracles that validated their apostleship. vs.12a

1. Signs were done among “the people” (Israel). The word “signs” indicates that the

event is not an empty ostentation of power, but it is significant in that it points

beyond itself to the reality of the might hand of God in operation – Reineker/Roger

(John 2:11; Acts 4:16; 15:12)

2. Wonders were done among the people (Israel) The word “wonders” denotes terrible

appearances which elicit fright and horror, and which contradict the ordered unity

of nature – DNTT – (Acts 2:19; 7:36; 14:3)

B. All the believers were of one mind. vs.12b

1. “One mind” is a compound word

a. Homo – the same

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b. Thumos – burning, heart

2. The term “one mind” denotes a unity.

a. DNTT – the visible, inner unity of a group faced by a common duty or

danger. The unanimity is not based on common personal feelings but on a

cause greater than the individual.

b. Liddell & Scott – one mind, unanimous.

3. It is used in Acts of believers united in purpose in the midst of persecution and the

enemies of Christianity united in purpose against believers.

a. It is used believers united in purpose in the midst of persecution.

C. The place of meeting at that time was “Solomon’s porch” (a splendid colonnade, according

to tradition built by Solomon, on the east side of the Temple area, on an artificial

embankment built upon the Valley of the Kidron). vs.12c

D. The activities of the early Church had a profound effect on those who witnessed the church

in action.vs.13-14

1. No one dared to be joined ( – the word implies a forced, unnatural, or

unexpected union; the sense of an unnatural union – Marvin Vincent – 1Co. 6:16,

17) to them. vs.13a

2. “The people” (Jews) “magnified” ( – to make large, to magnify –

Reinecker/Rogers – Phil. 1:21) them. 13b

3. More were “added” ( – to add to, emphasizes repeated actions –

Reinecker/Rogers) to the Lord. vs.14 (both men and women)

E. The numbers of those believing grew to such an extent that many were brought to be healed

by Peter. vs.15-16

1. Sick were brought in great numbers in hopes his shadow would overshadow some.


2. Multitudes from surrounding cities of Jerusalem brought sick who were healed. vs.16


LEADERS. Acts 5:17-42

A. The High priest and the Sadducees took offense to the works of the apostles.

1. They were filled (– complete mental filling – in passive voice used to

denote the miracles caused them to be filled) with indignation. vs.17

2. They laid their hands on the apostles and put them in a “common prison”. vs.18

a. Common is the Greek word which means public.

b. Prison is – which means to keep.

c. Used together it should be translated “a place of public keeping”.

3. “The angel of the Lord” (the word angel is anarthorous and should be

translated an angel of the Lord) rescued the apostles. vs.19

a. He appeared at night time.

b. He opened

c. He led them out.

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d. He instructed the apostles to speak in the temple:

* To “the people” -- Israel

* All the words of “this life”.

i. The word life is the word which is eternal life, the higher

form of life; the life of God indwelling in the believer because

Christ indwells the believer. 2 Co. 4:10-11; 1 John 5:11-12;

Acts 13:46, 48; Acts 11:18)

ii. The term “words” is the word which are utterances;

individual parts versus the whole. (ill. Eph. 6:17)

B. The apostles respond to the angel’s instructions entering into the temple in the early

morning and taught. vs.21

C. The Jewish leaders were surprised to find they were not in their prison cell.

1. They gathered (– to come on the scene, to appear) to meet to

consider their fate. vs.22

2. The officers found the prison cell empty. vs.22-23

a. The officers reported that the prison was found shut ( – to

close, shut – the per. pass. Part. Denotes it hadn’t been opened from the

time that it was shut with them in it with the abiding result that it was still

in a state of being shut)

b. The officers reported that the “keepers were standing ( – standing

when the doors were closed with the abiding result that they are still

standing) without before the doors”

c. The officers “found no man within”.

3. There existed perplexity over the direction of the situation. vs.24

a. The Jewish leaders were perplexed ( – to be thoroughly at a loss

– the imperfect denotes they were in a state of being at a loss).

b. There perplexity involved “whereunto this would grow ( – to


D. Peter and the apostles continued their preaching in spite of opposition. vs.25

1. News of their preaching was reported to the Jewish leaders.

2. They were found standing and teaching “the people” (Israel)

E. The captain and his attendants captured the apostles.

1. They brought them before the Jewish leaders.

a. They brought them without force.

b. They feared they would be stoned by the people.

2. They led them into the council (Sanhedrin). vs. 27

a. The high priest questioned them concerning their charge not to teach in

Christ’s name. vs.28

* The phrase translated “Did not we straitly command you” can better be

translated “with a charge, we charged you”

* The word charge is – to command, to charge. Often

used as a legal term indicating a summons to court or the complaint

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against the defendant. – Reinecker/Rogers

* “Christ’s name” is – upon the character of

this one. (The message of Christ’s name was that He is one who has

the character to save—a reality that threatened the hierarchy of the


- Faith in his name brought healing. Acts 3:16

- Faith in his name saves. Acts 4:12; 8:12

- The apostles suffered for his name. Acts 5:41; 9:16

b. The leaders were concerned they had filled Jerusalem with their teaching.

vs.28a (fulfilling Christ’s command Acts 1:8)

c. The leaders were concerned they intended to place the blame for Christ’s

death upon them.vs.28b

* The word intend is – to determine.

* The term “Bring this man’s blood upon us.”

3. The apostles affirm the necessity of continuing their message. vs.29

a. Peter points out the necessity to obey ( – to obey a ruler or a

superior) God. (ill. 2 Co. 1:9; Gal. 1:10)

b. Peter points out the necessity of not obeying man over God.

4. Peter gives a short narrative of the Jew’s history in hopes of bringing


a. Peter connects Jesus and the Jews by stating “The God of our fathers” -- a

term used consistently in sermons to the Jews. (Acts 3:13; 7:32; 13:17;

15:10; 22:14; 26:6 ;)

b. God raised up the Jesus whom you killed by hanging Him on a tree. vs.30

c. God exalted Him to His right hand.

* God exalted Him to be a ruler. Lk. 1:69-74

* God exalted Him to be a savior. Matt. 1:21

* God exalted Him for the purpose of giving repentance to Israel.

-- John proclaimed. Acts 13:24; 19:4

-- Israel, as a whole, didn’t repent. (ill. Matt. 11:16-24)

-- Israel will repent in the future. Zec.

* God exalted Him to give forgiveness of sins.

e. The apostles were witnesses of the things God did. (ill. Acts 1:8; 10:37-41;

2:32; 3:15)

f. The Holy Spirit was witness to the things of whom God gave to the ones

obeying Him. (ill. John 14:16-17; Acts 1:4-5)

5. The Jewish leaders were unimpressed by the connection made to their forefathers.


a. They were cut (– to saw through, to cut to the quick, to

infuriate) to the heart upon hearing Peter. (ill. 7:54)

b. They determined () to kill the apostles.

6. Gamaliel, the chief Pharisee averts the apostles’ death. vs.34

(Gamaliel was of a sect of the Pharisees -- conservative Jews. He was a

teacher/interpreter of the Mosiac law. The apostle Paul studied under him. He was

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the greatest teacher of his day (Acts 22:3). He was president of the Sanhedrin.

One of seven Jewish doctors of the law termed Rabbi. Tradition states that he later

became a Christian) — Notes on the Book of Acts – Dale Spurbeck.

a. Gamaliel commanded the apostles be put outside the council.

b. Gamaliel warned the Jews concerning their actions.

* He cautioned the “Men of Israel” to take heed to themselves (reflexive

pronoun – ill. 1 Tim. 2:16).

* He reminded the Jews of another insurrection that failed. vs.36-37

* He reminded the Jews that the actions of the apostles would fail if it

were motivated by men. vs. 38

* He warned the Jews that they could not overthrow the work of God.


7. The Jews were obedient to Gamaliel. vs.40

a. They called the apostles.

b. They beat (dei,rantej – to flog, beat. The punishment was for minor

offenses—Acts 16:37; 22:19) the apostles.

c. They charged the apostles not to speak in His name.

d. They released the apostles.

8. The apostles counted directed joy in the midst of their oppression. Vs. 41-42

a. They departed from the presence of the Jews rejoicing ( – a

mental contentment with trying and difficult circumstances– Col. 1:24; 2

Co. 7:5- 7).

b. They were counted worthy to suffer for His name.

c. They ceased not to teach Jesus Christ.

d. They ceased not to preach Jesus Christ.

e. They taught in the temple and in homes by this time.

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Chapter 6



A. The growth of the early church presented logistical problems for the apostles. vs.1

1. The disciples multiplied.

a. The word “multiplied” is the Greek word – to fill, to

increase, abound.

b. The word is used throughout the book of Acts denoting the growth of the


* It is used to denote the number of disciples increasing. Acts 6:1,7

* It is used of the Word of God increasing. Acts 12:24

2. The growth of the church brought about murmuring of the Hellenist believers against

the Hebrew believers.

a. The Hellenist was one, not of the Greek nation, who spoke Greek. The term

is used specially of Jews who had adopted the Greek tongue, and with it

often Greek practices and opinions. Probably these Jews spoke only Greek

and no Semitic language. The text calls them Grecian Jews; and the AV

simply Grecians. --- Westminister Dictionary of The Bible. (Acts 9:29)

b. The Hebrew is a name applied to the Israelites.

c. The word murmuring denotes a grumble; say anything in a low tone; of

those who discontentedly complain. —Joseph Thayer (ill. 1 Co.10: 10; John


* The murmuring began because their (Hellenist) widows were

overlooked (The idea behind the word denotes that they were

intentionally neglected, continually)

* The neglect occurred in the daily service of the widows.

- The church provided for widows from the things given to

the church by individual believers. (ill. Acts 4:34)

- The widows played a pivotal role in the early church. (ill Acts


- There was a standard for who was accepted into the role as a

widow. 1 Tim. 5:3-16

B. The apostles provided a solution to the problem. vs.2

1. They called the multitude of the disciples together.

a. Notice “the twelve” denotes the 11 disciples plus Matthias who replaced

Judas – this number grew as the church grew and the name of their position

also changed.

b. They emphasized the problems with “leaving” ( – to leave

behind, to abandon – aor. part. Ill. Eph. 5:31) the Word of God to do

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c. They instructed the multitude of disciples to select men whose purpose would

be to conduct this service.

2. The disciples were to “look ye out” ( – to oversee, supervise – ill.

Heb. 12:15; 1 Pet. 5:2)

3. The standard for serving as deacons was three fold. vs.3a

a. The number to be selected to serve was seven men of an “honest report”

(- to give testimony, to bear witness, to be well reported

of – ill. 1 Tim. 5:10)

b. Those serving had to be ones (being full – continually filled) by the Holy


c. Those serving had to be ones (being full- continually filled) with wisdom

(being able to properly apply the knowledge – ill 2 Co.1: 12; Acts 6:10)

4. Those who met the standard were chosen by the majority with the 12 disciples

“appointing them to the office.” 3b

a. The congregation selected deacons.

b. The disciples appointed (– to appoint; give their approval to the

congregation’s selection)

C. The appointment of deacons to an office of service freed the apostles to devote their time to

teaching. vs.4

1. The phrase “give ourselves continually” is – to hold fast to,

to continue in. (ill. Acts 2:42,46)

2. The appointment allowed the apostles to continue in worshipping (prayer). vs. 4a

3. The appointment allowed the apostles to continue in the service (ministering) of the

Word. vs.4b

D. The multitude was in agreement with the apostle’s solution. vs.5

1. The multitude was pleased with the solution.

2. The multitude (indication of church authority) chose ( – to select, to choose –

ill. Mark 13:20; John 6:70) out seven men. (All seven names are Greek in origin and

may have been a Hellenist some think)

a. Stephen (had the gift of pastor/teacher)

* He was full of faith.

* He was full of the Holy Spirit.

b. Phillip (had the gift of evangelism)

c. Prochorus

d. Nicanor

e. Timona

f. Parmenas

g. Nicolaus was a Jewish proselyte who then converted to Christianity. His

name means one who rules the people.

3. They set the seven before the apostles. vs.6

a. The apostles prayed over them.

b. The apostles laid hands (a ritual used in the early church by the apostles of

identifying with or authenticating someone – ill. Acts 8:18; 1 Ti. 4:14; 2

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Ti. 1:6; Heb. 6:2) on them.

E. The solution of the apostles was directly related to the continued progress of the church. vs.7

1. The term “and” denotes a connection to the activities of verse 6.

2. The “Word of (from) God”

a. A summation of the “Word of God” is illustrated by the apostles Paul and


* Peter outlined the thrust of the “Word of God” in his message to the

household of Corneilus. Acts 10:34-43

* Paul gave insight into the message of the “Word of God” in his

message to the church of Antioch in Pisidia. Acts 13:15-44

b. The “Word of God” was verbalized in the early formation of the Church.

(ill. Acts 4:4; 8:25; 13:4-5,46; 15:35-36)

c. The Word from God grew (spread)– Acts 12:24; 19:20

d. “The Word of the Lord” is a part of the “Word of God”.

3. The number of the disciples in Jerusalem multiplied ( – to increase – Acts

6:1; 7:17; 9:31).

4. Many of the (Jewish) priests were obedient to “the Faith”.


A. The Lord used Stephen mightily. vs.8

1. He was full of faith – trusting God at His word.

2. He was full of power -- ability. (ill. Acts 1:8; 3:12)

3. He did signs and wonders among “the people” (Israel)

B. Stephen’s spiritual maturity caused envy among the Jews. vs.9

1. Certain ones of the synagogue of the Libertines (Jews who, having been taken

prisoners in battle by Pompey and other Roman generals, had been bondsmen at

Rome, but were afterward restored to liberty) debated with Stephen.

a. Some were from Cyrenian (An important Greek colony city in North Africa;

many Jews became resident there in 3rd

century B.C. – WDTB)

b. Some were from Alexandria (An Egyptian city founded by Alexander the

Great in 332 B.C. -- WDTB)

c. Some were from Cilicia (a district in the s.e. corner of Asia Minor; the chief

town was Tarsus, birthplace of the Apostle Paul -- WDTB)

d. Some were from Asia

2. Those debating with Stephen didn’t have the strength to withstand him. vs.9-10

a. The word debating is the Greek word suzhtou/ntej(pres. part.) which

denote to contend against a stated position for the purpose of underminding

it. – Context of Scripture (ill. Mk. 12:19-28; Acts 15:1-2)

b. The word strength is – faculty, ability. —Sheldon Green (ill. 1

Pet.4: 11)

c. They couldn’t withstand (– to stand against, successfully

withstand) his wisdom (how to apply what he knew about the Old

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Testament Scriptures and how they related to the Dispensation of Grace)

d. They couldn’t withstand the Spirit by which he spoke. (ill. 1 Pet. 4:11)

C. Stephen’s tormentors resorted to lying in order to extract retribution for their inability to

undermine the Word of God.

1. They suborned men who spoke lies about Stephen. vs.11

a. The word suborned is which means to put up, to prompt. It

applies to the secret instigation of persons who are supplied with

suggestions of what they are to say, much as in the modern “frame up” –


b. These men claimed Stephen spoke blasphemous utterances against Moses.

c. These men claimed Stephen spoke blasphemous utterances against God.

2. They “stirred up” ( -- to throw into a commotion, to stir violently) the

Jews with their accusations. vs.12

a. The elders and the scribes seized him.

b. They led him to the council.

D. The witnesses to Stephen’s supposed blasphemous statements continued their lies. vs.13-14

1. They claimed that he spoke blasphemous words against the synagogue.

2. They claimed that he spoke blasphemous words against the law.

3. They claimed that he said Jesus of Nazareth would destroy the temple.

4. They claimed that he said Jesus of Nazareth would change the customs ( –

custom, institute, rite – Acts 15:1; Lk.): 42) which Moses delivered to the Jews.

E. The witness of Stephen had an impact on his tormentors. vs.15

1. They gazed at him while sitting in the council.

2. They saw the face of him as the face of an angel.

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Chapter 7


ISRAEL’S HOPE. vs. 1-8

A. The high priest quizzes Stephen over the accusations. vs.1

B. Stephen begins his narrative with God’s appearance to Abram after all of mankind rebelled

at the tower of Babel. vs.2

1. The God of Glory “appeared” (-- from oraw which means to appear; to reveal

one’s self – ill. Acts 26: 16) to father Abraham.

a. He appeared to Abraham while he was in Mesopotamia. (present day Iraq)

b. He appeared to Abraham before he “dwelt” ( –settled down and

felt at ease – permanently) in Charran. (ill. Gen. 12:1)


Charran was a city of Mesopotomia, on the Balikh, an affluent

Of the Euphrates, about 240 miles w. by n. from Nineveh and 280 n.n.e.

of Damascus. It was a commercial center, being on one of the main

trade routes between Babylonia and the Mediterranean;, and, like Ur of

the Chaldees, had the moon-god for its patron deity.

2. God’s gave Abraham particular instructions. vs.3

a. He was told to go forth out of this land.

b. He was told to go forth out of his “kindred” ( – kinship, relatives).

c. He was told to come into the land which God would “shew” ( –

grapically display to him)

3. Abraham disobeyed God’s instructions to him. vs.4-5

a. He went out from the land of the Chaldeans (In the Neo-Babylonian Empire

the Chaldeans were the dominat race, and doubtless possessed themselves

of all offices of influence. – Westminster Dictionary of the Bible) and dwelt

in Charran. vs.4a

b. God used the death of his father to remove him out Charran into the land

“wherein ye now dwell”. vs.4b

* God “removed” ( – to cause to dwell, to settle (for the idea

of transfer or change).

- into the (this) land (the promised land)

- into which ye now dwell ( – settle down and feel at


* He didn’t give him an “inheritance” in it.

* He didn’t give him “as to set his foot on” (podo.j– space

which the foot covers, a foot-breadth)

* Yet, he “promised” (aor. mid.) him:

-that he would give it to him for a possession ( – to

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hold downright, hold in a firm grasp to have in full and secure


-that he would give it to his seed after him (“when as yet he had

not child”).

4. God made other promises to Abraham.vs.6-8a

a. God promised that his seed would “sojourn” (pa,roikon – foreign, alien, Sojourner – Reinecker/Rogers) in a strange land. Gen.


b. God promised that those in the land where the dwelt would bring them into

“bondage” ( -- to serve as a slave, to be enslaved) Ex. 1:1-14

c. God promised that those who placed his seed in bondage would treat them

evil for four hundred years. Ex.3: 5-8

d. God promised that he would “judge” the nation who enslaves them. (ill. Ex.

Chapters 7-9)

e. God gave him the covenant of circumcision (3rd

covenant – Gen. 17:10-13)

5. The first three generations from Abraham included:

a. Isaac

b. Jacob

c. The twelve patriarchs (the sons of Jacob/Israel)


A. God uses the ill-will of the patriarchs to fulfill his promise to Abraham. vs.9-10

1. The Patriarchs sold Joseph because of their “envy” (zhlw,santej – to boil with

zeal, then with envy; to be jealous). ill. Gen. 37:3-27

2. God delivered Joseph out of all his afflictions. vs. 10

a. God “delivered” ( – to take out, to tear out, to deliver—


* “Out” (ek) from.

* “All his afflictions” ( – pressures, compression; distress of


b. He gave him “favour” (xarin – grace) in the sight of Pharaoh. Gen. 39:21-23

c. He gave him “wisdom” in the sight of Pharoh. Gen. 41:1-36

d. Pharaoh gave made him governor over Egypt and his entire house. Gen.


B. Joseph’s position is used by God to deliver his family out from severe drought conditions.

vs. 11-16

1. A dearth (famine –limo.j—scarcity of food, want of grain) came over Egypt and

Canaan. vs.11a

2. “Our fathers” (the patriarchs) found ( – to find – imperf.) no food

( – food; originally of animals, foodstuffs. Later in the sense of

men’s food as well – Reinecker/Rogers) vs.11b

3. Jacob heard (aor. part. continually hearing at a point in time) that there was corn in

Egypt. vs. 12a (Gen. 41:56-57; 42:1-2)

a. He sent the patriarchs into Egypt. vs.12b (Gen. 42:3)

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b. Joseph “was made known” ( -- to make known, reveal, declare –

Sheldon Green – aor. pass.) to the patriarchs on the second visit. (Gen. 45:1)

c. Joseph sent to call his father and kindred to Egypt. Gen. 45:9-13

d. Jacob went to Egypt and died there as well as the fathers. Gen. 46:1-7; 49:29-


e. They all were carried over into Sychem and buried in Abraham’s tomb. Gen.




A. The presence of the Israelites in Egypt brought fear to the Pharoah of Egypt. vs.17-19

1. “The people” (Israel) “grew” as the time of the promise drew near. vs.17

a. The word “time” is which emphasizes occurrence in sequential

order. (ill. Acts 1:6,7; 3:21; Gen. 4:4)

b. The word declared is – means to agree, to promise.

2. “The people” (Israel) “multiplied” in Egypt.

3. “Another” king arose who didn’t “know” Joseph. vs.18

a. The word “another” is – a king of a different kind (Josephus in his

Antiquity of the Jews denotes that the king of a different kind denoted the

beginning of a new dynasty)

b. The word “know” is the word hdei – is from oida, to know the facts about it

is in the pluperfect which can be translated he did not know Joseph at all

in the past and did not know him when he took control.

4. The new king treated the Israelites badly. vs.19

a. He dealt “subtily” ( – to exploit, to deal wisely, it implies

crafty or deceitful ill treatment) with the Israelites. Ex. 1:9-11

b. He treated the patriarchs “evil entreated” by making them “exposed” their

babes in order that they might die.

* “evil entreated” – is the term that denotes that he treated with a

lacking in characterness for his own benefit. (ill Acts 18:10 of those

doing harm to Paul).

* “exposed” is the term which means to expose, cast out or

abandon. (ill. Ex. 1:15-16)

B. God sent Moses to be deliverer of Israel.

1. Moses was born during the “time” (kairos – a season of time) in which many of the

Israelite babies were being esposed. vs.20-21 (Ex. 2:1-10)

a. He was born “fair” (asteios – belonging to a city; well-bred, polite, polished;

elegant, fair, comely, beautiful. – Sheldon Green

b. He was “nourished up” ( – to nurse up, nourish up; of young

children and animals nourished to promote their growth) three months in

the house of his father. (Ex. 2:1-2)

c. Pharaoh’s daughter “took” ( – to lift up; used of acknowledging or

adopting as one’s child) him when he was esposed. vs.21 (Ex. 2:3-9)

d. Pharaoh’s daughter “reared” (nourished him – through a nurse maid) Moses

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as her son. (Ex. 2:9-10)

2. Moses was “learned” ( – to train a child; to instruct – used of Grace

teaching – 1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:25; Tit. 2:12) in the royalty of the Egyptians. vs.22

a. He was learned in all the “wisdom” of the Egyptians.

b. He was “mighty” (Dunatos – to be able, powerful, mighty – ill. Acts 18:24):

* “In words” – denotes an ability to speak well. (ill. 1 Co. 1:17; 2:4,13)

* “In deeds” – denotes anything done; a deed, work, action – ill. 2 Pet.

2:8; 2 John 11; Rom. 15:18

3. Moses thought his Egyptian connections would be the thing that God would use to

free the Israelites from oppression. vs.23-24

a. It “came into his heart” ( – to go up, to come up. Used of things

coming up into one’s mind). to visit his brethren when he was forty.

b. He killed an Egyptian who was treating an Israelite unjustly.

* The term “suffer wrong” is – which means to wrong, to

act unjustly toward; to suffer injustice. (Ex. 2:11-12)

* He avenged him that was “oppressed” ( – to subdue,

to torment, to oppress.

* He “supposed” ( – to own as settled and established; to deem;

to suppose, presume – 1 Tim. 6:5)

* The term “understand” ( – to comprehend, understand

– put together – Eph. 5:17)

* Moses thought that God would deliver them “by his hand” (by his

physical proweress)

* The Israelites didn’t “understand” that God would use Moses.

4. Moses is made to flee Egypt. vs.26-29

a. He appeared to two Israelites who were fighting one another. vs.26

* The term “shewed” (is from – to reveal oneself – see vs.1)

* He attempted to “set them at one again” (reconcile them into peace)

* He quizzed them as to why they were unjustly treating “one to

another” (another of the same kind – fellow Israelite)

b. The Israelites made it known they had witnessed his murder of the Egyptian.

vs. 27-28

* The one unjustly treating his “neighbour” (note another Jew) “thrust”

( – to thrust away, repel from one’s self, repulse —Rom.

11:1,2; 1 Tim. 1:19) him away.

* The one unjustly treating his neighbor ask Moses:

- “Who made thee a “ruler” () over us?

- “Who made thee a “judge” ( – one who passes

judgment in matters) over us?

- “ Wilt” ( – to wish, desire) you kill ( – a

compound word made up of – up and – to raise; the

idea is to take up, lift as from the ground; to take away or off,

put to death, kill, murder – Heb. 10:9) in the same manner as

you killed the Egyptian yesterday?

c. Moses fled to Midian upon learning others knew about his murder of the


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* He became a “sojourner” (paraoikos -- one who lives in a place

without the right of citizenship – Joseph Thayer – Eph. 2:19; 1 Pet.

2:11) in Midian.

* He begat two sons in Midian.

5. God appeared to Moses forty years later. vs.30

a. The term expired is is used to denote a fixed time frame

appointed by God was filled.

b. God appeared ( – gives prominence to the discerning mind, denotes

perception in general as resulting principally from vision – Joseph Thayer)

to Moses in the desert.

c. God appeared to him on the mount (which is called) Sinai (located in the

peninsula of Arabia Petraea)

d. God appeared to him as an angel. (similar to other O.T. appearances of the

pre-incarnate Son of God – Gen. 21; 17-19; Judges 14:16-22)

e. God appeared to him in a “flaming fire” in a “thorn bush”.

6. Moses was intrigued by the bush.vs.31

a. He “marveled” ( – to wonder, to be amazed) at the sight of it.

b. He approached the bush to “to behold it.” ( – to take knowledge

of, to take notice, to master the mystery – ill. Matt. 7:3)

c. A voice of (from a) Lord came (to) him.

7. The Lord explained to Moses the promises made to Abraham and his role in

fulfilling them. vs.32-34

a. God announced who He was (o` qeo.j – “I on my part am The God of

your fathers”. vs.32

b. Moses “trembled” (entromos - used to describe the anxiety of one who

distrusts his ability completely to meet all requirements, but religiously

does his utmost to fulfill his duty -- 1 Co. 2:3)

c. Moses did not “durst” (dare) take notice of the bush.

d. Moses was instructed to take off his “shoes”. vs.33

e. God announced his purpose for talking to Moses. vs.34

* God “I have seen” (better translated “seeing I saw” – to turn the eyes,

the mind, the attention to anything; to pay attention, observe) the

“affliction” ( – acts of evil for personal gain) of His people

in Egypt.

* God “heard” (aor.) the “groaning” ( – groaning or sighing

due to intense exertion – Rom. 8:23; 2Co. 5:2) of His people in Egypt.

* God “came down” ( – to come down; used of members of the

Godhead coming to earth – Matt. 3:16; Lk. 2:51; 10:31) to rescue


* God sent Moses into Egypt.

8. God sent Moses to Egypt for two purposes. vs.35

a. God sent Moses to Egypt to be a “ruler” (commander, chief leader).

b. God sent Moses to Egypt to be a “deliverer” (liberator).

c. God sent Moses “by the hand” ( – it is an idiom used to denote the

power and strength or authority of one – Acts 11:21; Lk. 23:46; Mk. 14:41)

“of the angel, which appeared to him in the bush”.

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9. God brought the Israelites out of Egypt through Moses using signs and wonders.


a. God showed signs and wonders in Egypt. (Ps. 105: 26-41)

b. God showed signs and wonders in the Red Sea. (Ex. 14:12-27)

c. God showed signs and wonders in the wilderness.

d. God showed these signs for forty years.

C. Stephen connects the legitimacy of Christ to the credibility of Moses, a man the Jews


1. Moses prophesied that God would raise up a prophet out from his brethren like him.

vs.37 (Deut. 18:15)

a. The prophet was promised to come out from among the Jew.

b. The prophet was promised to be similar to Moses.

* The law was given by Moses – Grace and truth through Jesus. John


* Moses had a house (Israel) that he was over (Heb. 3:5) – Christ has a

house that He is over (Heb. 3:6)

2. The prophet that Moses prophesied was the same one who was: vs.38

a. In the assembly in the wilderness. (Ex. 40:34-38)

b. With ( – loosely associated with --the angel speaking to him on the

Mount Sinai. (vs.30)

c. With the fathers who received the oracles to give unto Israel. (Deut. 9:10-13)


vs. 39-50

A. Israel’s rejection of Jehovah excelled at Mount Sinai. vs. 39

1. They didn’t “desire” ( – constative aor. denotes that they never desired)

to “become” (aor. mid. Inf. – become for themselves) obedient to Him.

2. They “thrust” Him away from them.

3. They “turned” in their hearts into Egypt. vs. 42-43 (Num. 14:1-5; Ex. 32:1,23)

a. The focus of the heart affects direction. (ill. Acts 5:4; 28:27; Eph.3: 7)

b. Israel made idol gods to “go before them” (– to go

before, to precede, as Jehovah had gone before them in the pillar of

cloud and as images were carried by the heathen in their marches).

c. Moses had been on the mount for so long they didn’t believe he would


* The word translated “know” ( – to know the facts about a


* The phrase “what is become of him” (, what has

come to be with him.)

* They became idol worshippers. vs.41

-They made a calf.

-They brought up sacrifices to the idol.

-They “rejoiced” (were made merry) by the works

of their (very own) hands”

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c. God “turned” and “delivered” them to worship the “host of heaven”. vs.42

(Jer. 8:2; 19:13)

*The term “host” ( -- is used in Scripture to denote armies –

both of men and spirit beings—both good and bad. (ill.1 Sam. 28:5;

Deut. 4:19; Lk. 2:13;)

* God “gave them up” ( – to hand over, deliver up – ill.

Rom. 1:24,26)

* God “deported” them into Babylon for their disobedience. vs.43 (ill.

Amos 5:20-27)

- The served the God Molech, which was a diety, worshiped by

the children of Ammon (1Kings 11:7); and an exceedingly

detestable feature of Molech’s worship was the burning of

children to him in the fire. The practice was in vogue early;

and the Mosaic law was enacted that if any man made or

permitted his children to pass through the fire of Molech he

was to be put to death (Lev. 18:21). -- DNTT

- They served the God Remphan which was a god who has a

star associated with him and who was worshipped by the

Isralites in the wilderness – DNTT

- The term “deport” is – to remove to a new abode, to

cause to migrate.


B. Stephen reminds his persecutors that it was Israel with whom Jehovah dwelt after they

left Egypt. vs.44-45

1.The Fathers of Israel had the “Tabernacle of Witness”.

a. The term “Fathers” is used to denote the patriarchs of Israel.

b. The “Tabernacle of Witness” (a moveable sanctuary in the form of a tent,

which God directed Moses at Sinai to make, that God might dwell as king

among his people. (Ex.25: 8-9; Num. 16:18-19)

* It was in the wilderness.

* Jehovah instructed Moses to make it according to the type which he

had seen. (Ex. 25:9; Heb. 9:24)

2. Stephen informs the Jews that Jesus was the one in the tabernacle with Israel

in the wilderness.

a. The Fathers after the wilderness experience received the tabernacle.

b. The Fathers after the wilderness experience brought the tabernacle

with Jesus (dwelling in it) in the possession of the nations whom God

put out.

* from before the face of “our fathers”

* unto the days of David.

C. David desired to build Jehovah a tent to dwell in. vs.46

1. David had found (eureka – favor) with God.

2. David asked to find a tent for the house of Jacob.

3. David’s son Soloman built a house for Jehovah. vs.47

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D. Stephen emphasizes the immensity of Jehovah stretches beyond buildings. vs.48-50

1. The term “the Most High” denotes

2. He does not dwell (– dwell) in “temples made with hands”.

3. Old Testament Scripture describes God’s immensity. (ill. Is. 66:1)

a. Heaven is His throne.

b. Earth is His footstool.

4. His hands (anthropomorphism for His power or providence – ill. Lk. 1:66) has

made all things.


A. They were stiff-necked ( -- to be hard hearted. – Heb. 3:8,13,15; 4:7)

B. They were uncircumcised in heart (ill. Rom. 2:28-29)

C. They always “resist” the Holy Spirit as their fathers did. (ill Is. 63:10)

1. Their fathers persecuted the prophets in the Old Testament. (2 Chron. 36:11-13)

2. Their fathers killed the ones announcing before hand the coming of the just one.

(Matt. 23:29-30)

3. The Jews with whom Stephen was talking followed in the footsteps of their

fathers by killing the Just One whom the prophets prophesied. vs. 52

a. They betrayed Him

b. They murdered Him.

D. They never kept the law. vs.53

1. They received it by the disposition (-- angels were employed as God’s

assistants in the solemn proclamation of the Mosaic law –Gal. 3:19; Heb. 2:2) of


2. They did not keep ( -- to observe, to keep – Acts 15:10) the law.


A. Stephen’s message had a tremendous affect on the Jews hearing him. vs.54

1. They were “cut to the heart” (– to cut to the quick – Acts 5:33))

2. They gnashed (-- to bite with a loud noise, to grind)

their teeth upon (in the accusative is translated at or towards) him.

B. Stephen’s response to the Jew’s anger made them more angry. vs.55

1. He was “full” (plh,rhj – one filled with what’s lacking – ill. Lk. 4:1; Acts 11; 24)

of the Holy Spirit.

2. He “looked” (avteni,zw– to fix eyes upon) into (the) heaven.

a. He saw (a quality of) glory of (belonging to) God.

b. He saw Jesus standing out (ek) (normally sitting – Col. 3:1 Heb. 1:13; 12:2)

of the right hand of God

3. He related what he was seeing to the Jews. vs.56

a. He said “behold I see the heavens opened”

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b. He said “ and I see the Son of man standing (out) at the right hand of (the)


C. Stephen’s comments left the Jews in a rage. vs.57-58

1. They “cried out” with a great voice. vs.57

2. They “stopped” ( – to hold together, to stop the ears) their ears.

3. They “ran” (– to rush)

a. upon him.

b. with one accord

4. They “cast” (-- to cast) him outside the city. (the procedure for

blasphemy was to take the offender outside the city for stoning). Lev. 24:10-14;

Num.15: 35)

5. They “stoned” him. vs.58

a. There were witnesses to the stoning.

b. They laid their garments at the feet of a “young man’s” ( – youth,

one who is in the prime and vigour of life – Acts 20:9) feet whose name

was Saul.

D. Stephen’s response was consistent with his manner of life. vs.59-60

1. He “called” upon God.

2. He was “saying” Lord Jesus “receive” ( – to welcome, receive) my spirit.

3. He “kneeled down”

4. He “cried with a loud voice”

a. “Lord”

b. “Do not lay this sin”

c. “To their charge”

5. He “fell asleep”

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A. Saul the Pharisee was one of the main instigators of persecuting Christians. vs. 1a

(Acts 22:3-5; 26: 9-11; Gal. 1:13)

1. He was “consenting” ( – to approve, to have pleasure with --Rom.

1:32; Acts 22:20)

2. The word used for kill is (murder).

B. The persecution of the Church in Jerusalem caused many to leave. vs.1b

1. The word persecution is which means emphasizes to be pursued. Acts

26:11; 22:4

2. All were “scattered” ( -- to scatter abroad, disperse) Ja. 1:1; 1 Pet. 1:1

3. The apostles remained behind.

C. Stephen was buried. vs.2

1. “Devout” ( – taking hold well, i.e. carefully and surely cautious – Joseph

Thayer – Acts 2:5) men recovered his body.

2. Great “lamentation” ( – beating of the breast as a sign of grief – Joseph

Thayer ) was made over him.

D. Saul “made havoc” ( – to devastate, to ruin. Used of physical injury,

particularly of the mangling by wild beast – the imperfect pictures the continual action)

the Church in Jerusalem. vs.3

1. He entered into each house. (— according to house)

2. He “hailed” ( – to draw, to drag – Joseph Thayer – John 21:8) men and


3. He “committed” them to prison.

E. Those scattered “went everywhere” ( --- to go through, pass through) preaching

the Word (-- ill. Acts 4:3-4).

F. Phillip journeyed to Samaria. vs.5-6

1. Samaria was the town Jesus had visited during his earthly ministry. (John 4:4-5)

2. Phillip preached “the Christ” (the one having been raised from the dead) unto


3. The people “gave heed” – used in the sense of paying attention and

giving a favorable response) to the things being said.

a. They gave heed because of the things they heard.

b. They gave heed because of the (sign) miracles he did.

4. Many were affected by Phillip’s miracles. vs.7

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a. Unclean spirits were cast out.

b. Those “taken with the palsies”(weakened or disabled ) were healed.

5. There was great joy in the city.

G. A man named Simon desired to have Phillip’s abilities. Vs. 9-10

1. He practicing “sorcery” ( – one who practices sorcery, uses potions that

derive a supposed efficacy form magical spells, and professes to possess

supernatural power or knowledge, gained in any manner, especially through the

connivance of evil spirits. – D.N.T.T) Ex. 7:11-12; Is. 47:9

a. He “bewitched” (– to astonish, to amaze, to cause one to be beside

himself – Reinecker/Rogers -- ill. Mk. 5:42) the nation of Samaria.

b. He fashioned himself to be “someone great”.

c. The Samaritans had previously “given heed” (gave credence to) to him.


* He was called “the power” (from) God. (He was putting himself on a

par with diety. ill. 1 Co. 1:24)

* He was characterized as being “great”.

d. The Samaritans had “regard” (listened to him). vs.11

* They regarded him because of the “considerable time” (long time)

he’d been there.

*They regarded him because they were astonished by his sorceries.

H. The Samaritans turned away from Simon believing Phillip. vs.12

1. They believed his preaching:

a. Concerning the Kingdom of God.

*The Kingdom of God was the main focus of those spreading the Good

news in the early development of the Church.

*Christ spoke to the disciples concerning the kingdom before His

ascension. Acts 1:3

*Paul preached the kingdom to the Ephesians. Acts 20:25

*Regeneration is necessary to enter into the Kingdom of God today.

John 3:3

b. Concerning the name (the one being characterized) Jesus (the one who died

for sins) Christ (the one who was raised from the dead).

2. Both men and women were baptized. (The proper mode of baptism is illustrated in

Acts 8:38-39)

I. Simon himself believed also. vs.13

1. The emphatic use of the personal pronoun autos denotes the legitimacy of Simon’s


2. He was baptized.

3. He “continued” ( – to persist in adherence to a thing – to be

intently engaged in; attend constantly to – Sheldon Green – Acts 2:42) with Phillip:

a. He was “beholding” ( – to be a spectator, to gaze on, contemplate; to

behold, view with interest and attention)—Matt. 27:54-55 the great signs and

wonders being done.

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b. He “wondered” (was beside himself over the signs and wonders).



A. The apostles alone had authority to confer the Holy Spirit to new believers.

1. The apostle’s authority was illustrated in the salvation of the Samaritans. vs.14

a. The apostles at Jerusalem heard the Samaritans had “received” (welcomed)

the Word of God. vs.12

b. Peter and John were sent to the Samaritans.

2. Peter and John prayed for the Samaritans that they “might” (aor. act. subj) receive

the Holy Spirit. vs.15-16

a. They had been baptized into the name of The Lord Jesus.

b. The Holy Spirit had not “fallen” ( – to fall upon mentally or

spiritually – Sheldon Green – Lk. 1:12; Acts 10:10,44) upon them yet.

3. Conference of the Holy Spirit occurred as a result of the apostle’s identification with

those who believed. vs.17

a. They “laid” ( – to put, place, lay upon—Sheldon Green) they

hands upon them.

* The laying on of hands was used to denote identification. Acts 13:3

* The laying on of hands was performed by the apostles to confer the

Holy Spirit to new believers. Acts 19:6

* The laying on of hands was performed by the apostles to impart a

spiritual gift. 1 Ti. 4:14; 5:22; 2 Ti. 1:6

b. They received the Holy Spirit “thru” (the instrumentality of) the laying on of


c. There are four different ways the Holy Spirit was conferred upon four

different classes of people in the book of Acts.

* Believers at Pentecost. Acts 2:1-4

* The Samaritans. Acts 8:17

* The Gentiles. Acts 10:44-46

* The disciples of John the Baptist. Acts 19:6

B. The apostle’s reaction to Simon’s desire for the gift proved the gift was one

exclusive to the apostles.

1. He “offered” the apostles money. vs.18

2. He asked the apostles had to “give me” ( – to grant, permit, allow) the Holy

Spirit. vs.19

3. Peter rebuked Simon for his desire for apostolic authority. vs.20

a. Peter requested that “thy money perish ( – to perish; to be

destroyed – ill. Acts 5:37; Ro. 2:12; 14:15) with thee”.

b. Simon “supposed” ( -- to own as, settle, establish; to deem – 1 Ti.

6:5; Matt. 5:17; Lk. 2:44) that to get the gift from God through money.

c. Simon didn’t have “part” ( – share; participation –2 Co. 6:15; Col.


d. Simon didn’t have “lot” ( -- a thing used in determining chances; a

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constituent partition of the church – Acts 26:18).

e. The term “in this matter” is – in the word (discourse); this

one. (ill. Acts 15:6)

f. Simon’s heart was not “right” ( -- upright; true – Sheldon Green –

Acts 13:10; 2 Pet. 2:15) before God. (ill. Ps. 78: 37 used of Israel)

g. Peter admonished Simon to do two things: vs.22

* Repent from “this wickedness” ( – of a bad quality or

disposition – Sheldon Green – Tit. 1:12; 1 Pet. 3:10).

* “Pray God” (– petition, supplicate; cry for help)

h. Supplication to God brought about potential forgiveness. vs.22

*The term “if perhaps” is which denotes a means of uncertainty.

(Acts 17:27)

- represents a second-class condition – assuming for the sake

of argument.

- denotes “therefore, then, consequently; should it so

result”. (Acts 17:27)

* Forgiveness is the word --send away; dismiss; suffer to


* “Thought of thine heart” is:

- -- thought, intent, plot. Used in a bad sense of evil

or hostile schemes or stratagems. – Reinecker/Rogers

- -- from the heart (literally. belonging to you)

g. Peter addresses the basis of Simon’s request. vs.23

*He saw that he was in a “gall of bitterness” – denotes the venomous,

malignant feeling against what is good – DNTT – ill. Deut. 29:16-18))

* He saw that he was in a “bond of unrighteousness”

- – that which binds together; a bundle. (denotes

the depth of how entrenched Simon was)

- – that which is not right.

h. Simon asked supplication of Peter to avert the things, which he spoke

of him. vs.24

C. Peter and John returned to Jerusalem after helping to evangelize Samaria.

1. They had “testified” (– to make solemn affirmation, protest, to

charge, exhort with entreaty; to testify or teach earnestly. Sheldon Green) the word

of the Lord.

2. They had “preached” ( – to make an announcement or declaration –

Sheldon Green – Acts 14:25) the word of the Lord (ill. Acts. 13:26)

3. They “returned” into Jerusalem


A. Phillip is instructed to leave from Samaria to a location where he had an appointment with a

man from Ethiopia. vs.26 (Prophecy had been made concerning Ethiopia reaching out to

God. Ps. 68:32)

1. An angel from the Lord spoke to Phillip. vs.26

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a. The angel told him to rise up.

b. The angel told him to go into the south:

*upon the way that goeth down from Jerusalem

* into Gaza which is the desert.

2. Phillip’s obedience to the angel led him into the pathway of a man from


3. The Ethiopian was not a commoner. Vs.27b

a. He was a eunuch – denotes one keeping or guarding the couch; persons who

have been emasculated; an impotent man. – DNTT – ill. Dan. 1:3; Esth.


b. He was “of great authority” (– a potentate, sovereign, prince; a

person of rank and authority. – Sheldon Green) of Candace, queen of

Ethiopia. (ill. Lk. 1:52)

c. He was over all the treasure of Candace (general name for a queen in


d. He had come into Jerusalem for worship. (possibly a Jewish proselyte)

4. Phillip intersected with him on his return to Ethiopia. vs.28-29

a. He was sitting upon his chariot.

b. He was reading the prophet Isaiah.

5. Phillip’s encounter with the Ethiopian typifies the process of evangelism. vs.29-31

a. The Holy Spirit led Phillip to: vs.29

* “Go near ( – go to or towards) the chariot”

* “To join ( -- to glue or weld together to adhere to; to attach

one’s self to, unite with, associate.) thyself to this chariot”

b. Phillip enquires as to the understanding the Ethiopian has concerning Isaiah.


* The word for “understand” is the word ginowskw (experientially

know; have an acquaintance with).

* The use of the interrogative particle “” makes the translation of

Phillip’s comments: “do you really know what you are reading?”

(Dana & Mantey Grammar pg. 241)

c. The Ethiopian expresses a desire for understanding. vs.31

* The word for able is to have an ability, power.

* “Except some man should guide me”

- The Greek word for guide is ( – to show the way, to

lead). Ill. John 16:13

- The translation “some man” is actually the adjectival use of the

indefinite pronoun, which is used to “mention an act performed

by one without caring to specify his exact identity. – Dana &

Mantey Grammar. ill. Lk. 22:35; Phil. 3:15

* He “besought” Phillip to come up and sit with him.

6. Phillip explained the passage in Isaiah 53:7-8 to the Ethiopian. vs.32-35

* Christ was prophesied as the suffering servant. vs. 32-33

* The term “I pray thee” in vs.34 is the Greek word ( – to stand

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in need of want for one’s self; to ask; to beg. – Joseph Thayer – ill.

Acts 21:39)

* Phillip began at (– from) Isaiah 53 and preached to him (the)

Jesus (the one who would die for sin – Mat. 1:21; Acts 9:20; 17:18;


7. The Ethiopian requested to be baptized. vs.36

8. There is a textual problem with vs.37 (it is included by the TR when most

major manuscripts do not record it)

*The question by Erasmus was could Phillip baptize the Ethiopian

without knowing his belief.

* The answer is His belief was inferred in Scripture.

B. New Testament baptism is pictured in vs.38.

1. Both men descended into (eis) the water.

2. Phillip “baptized” (dipped) him.

3. Both men came up out (ek) of the water. vs.39a

C. Phillip is taken away by the Holy Spirit immediately after baptism. 39b-40

1. The word “caught” is the word used for the rapture .

2. The Eunuch didn’t see Phillip again.

3. The Eunuch went his way rejoicing.

4. Phillip was “found” (eureQh ---

* Azotus is a city eighteen miles south of Joppa, in Philistia. On

an elevation above the plain, was strongly fortified, and was one of the

seats of the worship of the god Dagon. – Smith’s Bible Dictionary.

* He evangelized the cities in that area “till” (ews – up to the edge of)

he came into Caesarea.

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Chapter 9

(A.D. 32-39)


vs. 1-19

A. Saul’s persecution of the church was intensifying when He met the Lord on the road to

Damascus. vs.1-2

1. The name Saul is Hebrew for: “ask of God” – DNTT (His name is changed from

Acts 13:9 onward Paul is the Gentile pronunciation of the name)

2. Saul was “yet breathing out threathenings and slaughter”

a. The term “breathing” is (e,mpnewn – to brethe into or upon: to respire, brethe;

to breathe of, be animated with the spirit of – Sheldon Green)

b. “Threatenings is.(apeilh – harshness of language –Sheldon Green – Acts

4:17,29; Eph. 6:9

c. The term “murder” is (fo,nou – a killing, a slaughter, murder.)

3. He approached the High Priest:

a. He asked them for letters for the synagogues in Damascus.

b. Any found in ‘this way” (the characteristic direction of life as determined by

faith on Jesus Christ – Marvin Vincent – Acts 16:17; 19:9; 22:4;24:22;

28:25) he would bind and bring to Jerusalem.

B. A light from heaven shinned about him on his way to Damascus. vs.3-4

1. The light appeared as he drew near to Damascus (largest town in Syria).

2. There suddenly appeared to him a light shinning out around (periastraptw – to

flash around – Reinecker/Rogers) from heaven.

3. Saul fell upon the earth.

4. While falling upon the earth, Saul heard a voice saying:

a. Saul, Saul!

b. Why persecutest thou me? (God sees persecution of saints as persecuting

Him) vs.5.

C. Saul enquired as to whom he was speaking. vs. 5

1. Saul asked who art thou Lord?

2. He gets an answer: I am Jesus whom thou persecutest

D. The message of the Lord was specifically for Saul.vs.6 (also Acts 22:9)

1. “Rise up”.

2. “Enter into the city”.

3. Let it be told what “is necessary” (dei) to do.

a. dei – denotes a logical necessity (Abbott & Smith). Heb. 2:1

b. dei is used in Hebrews to emphasize the need to heed our “great salvation.”

Heb. 2:1

c. dei is used in Hebrews to denote how essential it was to offer sacrifices under

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law. Heb. 9:26

d. dei is used to denote the essential need to please God. Heb. 11:6; Rom. 8:26;12:3

E. The men traveling with had a different experience than Saul. vs.7

1. They stood speechless.

2. They heard the sound.

3. They were beholding (qewrountej -- to be a spectator, to gaze on, contemplate; to

behold, view with interest and attention; to contemplate mentally, consider—Matt.

27:55) no man.

F. Saul reaches Damascus a changed man.vs.8-9

1. He was helped from the ground.

2. His eyes were opened but he could not see (Blepw – to glance ).

(Note: The mention of the scales, or incrustations, such as are incidental to

ophthalmia – an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that

lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the forepart of the

eyeball) or the eyeball – Marvin Vincent/Webster’s Dictionary

3. He was led by the hand by his traveling companions into Damascus.

4. Saul sight remained absent for three days.

5. Saul did not eat or drink for three days.

G. God used a man named Ananias to intergrate Saul into the brotherhood. vs. 10-17

1. Ananias was a disciple, possibly of Christ during His earthly ministry.

2. The Lord appeared to Ananias in a vision.

a. A vision is when the eyes are open but something else is in the line of sight.

(ill Numb. 24:4,15,16)

b. God used visions as a mechanism of revelation for the early Church. (Acts

c. Ananias was given instructions concerning Saul.

* He was to go to a street called Straight street (The traditional street

called straight is about 2 miles long, and runs from n.e. to s.w.,

almost through the center of the city. It is a poor street now, but it

the time of Paul it was a magnificent thoroughfare, flanked with

Corinthian columns —DNTT).

* He was to give out to seek out Saul in the house of Judas.

3. Saul’s filling was (pimplhmi – mental enhancement, complete mental filling) vs.17

H. There is an elapse of time between Saul’s forced departure from Damascus and his first visit

to Jerusalem. The gap probably occurs in Acts 9:19a

1. He receives his sight and strength.

2. He hadn’t conferred (prosaneqemhn – the gaining of information by communicating

with others – Reinecker/Rogers) with “flesh and blood. Gal.1:16

3. He hadn’t made his first journey into Jerusalem. Acts 9:26; Gal. 1:17

4. He had apparently left Damascus and returned. Gal. 1:17

5. The word “then” (egeneto) accounts for a change in activities in 19:b.

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I. Saul’s began his ministry after getting acquainted with other disciples following his time in

Arabia. vs.19b

1.The word “then” is egeneto is used in Scripture to denote a gap in events – here it is

used to denote Saul’s second trip into Damascus after spending time in Arabia. (ill.

Acts 1:2; 11,16,17,19)

2. He spent time with the disciples “certain days” (The word “certain” is tinoj an

indefinite pronoun that indicates an unspecified amount of time).


MESSIAH. vs. 20-31

A. Saul immediately preached in the Synagogue. vs.20

(Note: The origin of the synagogue is obscure, but the formal worship at Jerusalem was

impossible when most of the people were in exile in Babylon, and it seems to have

been then and there that synagogues first arose. They were designed to be places, not

of sacrifice, but of Scriptural instruction and prayer. – DNTT)

1. He began his ministry immediately (euqewj – instantly, at once, directly)

2. He “preached” (,russen – heralded with authority—2 Tim. 4:2) in the


a. He preached “the Jesus”.

b. He preached that He (Jesus) is the Son of (belonging to) God.

B. People were amazed by Saul’s preaching. vs. 21

1. They were amazed (e.xi,stanto – to be beside one’s self).

2. They questioned as to whether this was the same man who:

a. “Destroyed” (to ravage, to or sack a city, to destroy any human fellowship)

those in Jerusalem who “involked” (called upon) “this name”.

b. Came to Damascus to bind them “that he might bring them bound unto the

chief priests?”

C. Saul continued to grow. vs. 22

1. He “increased the more in strength” (enedunamouto --

2. He “confounded” (sunexunnen – to confuse, to exercise constraining influence on –

Reinecker/Rogers – Lk. 19:43) the Jews dwelling in Damascus.

3. He was “proving” (sumbiabazwn – the verb means to bring or put together: hence to

compare and examine, as evidence, and so to prove.) that “this is” (outoj – this one

– goes back to vs. 21,20) is “the Christ” (Messiah).

D. The Jews were unimpressed with Saul’s newfound message. vs.23-25

1. “Many days” (ikanai hmerai -- were fulfilled). vs.22

2. The Jews “took counsel” (sunebouleu, santo – determined together; decreed—Matt.

26:4) to kill Saul. vs.23

3. Their “lying in wait” (epiboulh —plot) was “made known” to Saul. vs.24

4. The Jews “watched” (parethrounto --- to watch, to observe) “the gates” (pu, laj) day

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and night to kill him. (Paul counts this as one of his most tretcharous sufferings –

2 Co. 11:32-33)

5. The disciples helped him escape. vs.25

a. They took him by night.

b. They let him down (dia – by mean of a window 2 Co. 11:33)

c. They let him down in a basket.

E. The believers in Jerusalem were apprehensive about Saul’s conversion. vs.26

1. Saul travel from Damascus to Jerusalem after his escape.

2. He “assayed” (, irazen – to try, attempt – impf. is used here to denote repeated

attempts) to “join himself” (kalla/sqai –to be joined to, to keep company with – Acts

5:13; 10:28) to the disciples. vs. 26a

3. All the disciples were “afraid” (efobounto – of him) and believed not that he was a

disciple. vs. 26b

F. Barnabas led the way in giving Saul acceptance among the brethern. vs.27

1. Barnabas – son of exhortation, encouragement, or consolation, which favors.

2. He “took” Saul and led him to the apostles.

3. He “declared” (dihghsato – narrated, to relate, describe —Acts 2:14; 3:18; 4:23) to


a. How he had seen the Lord in the way.

b. That He spoke (elalhsen ---) to him.

c. He (Saul) spoke boldly (Acts 4:31; 13:46; 14:3; 18:26; 19:8) in the name of

Jesus in Damascus.

G. Saul continued with the apostles from that point. vs.28-29

1. He was with them “coming in” (eisporeuomenoj) to Jerusalem.

2. He was with them “going out” (ekporeuomenoj – 13:42) of Jerusalem.

3. He spoke boldly in the “name of the Lord” (Acts 8:16; 10:48; 19:5).

4. He disputed (sunzhtei -- to mingle thought with thoughts; to converse; discourse

with one, argue; discuss -- Acts 9:29; 17:17) with the “Grecians” who attempted

to him.

a. “When the brethren knew” the brought him into Ceasarea.

b. They sent him into Tarsus.

H. The conversion of Saul brought rest throughout churches. vs. 31

1. The churches in Judea, Galilee and Samaria had peace.

2. The churches were “edified”.

3. The churches were “walking” in the “fear of the Lord” (Acts 13:16; Rom. 3:18;

11:20; Eph. 5:21)

4. The churches were in the “comfort of the Holy Spirit” (Col. 4:8; 2 Thess. 2:17)

5. The churches were “multiplied”


A. Peter’s mission takes him throughout the region. vs. 32

1. He “passed throughout” (go through, pass through different locations) all “quarters

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(Acts 12; 10; 14:24; 15:3; 17:1; 19:1,21)

2. He “came down” to the saints which “dwelt” at Lydda.

(Note: Lydda was a town 11 miles southest of Joppa)

B. Peter heals Aeneas in Lydda. vs. 33-35

1. The name Aeneas (was the name of a Trojan hero) means

2. He “kept his bed” eight years.

3. He was sick of the “palsy” (a partial or total loss of sensibility, voluntary motion, or

both in 1 or more parts of the body -- DNTT) ill. Mk. 2:3,9-12

4. “Jesus” (Christ) “cured” through Peter (ill. Heb. 2:4) Aeneas

5. Aneas’ healing affected those who “saw” (Acts 3:9; 4:14) him.

a. Those inhabiting Lydda and Sharon

b. They “turned” (1Thess.1: 9) to the Lord.

C. Peter heals Tabitha in Joppa. Vs. 36-42.

1. The name Dorcas is translated Tabitha in Aramaic. The name means gazelle.

2. Dorcas was characterized by her lifestyle. (ill. 1 Tim. 5:10)

a. She was one “filled” (plhrhj – one filled up with what was lacking of good –

beneficial – works -- ill. Acts 6:8; 7:55)

b. She was one filled with “alms” (elehmosunwn- mercy, pity, the benefaction

itself, donation to the poor)

3. Dorcas became sick and died.

a. She was “washed” (ceremonial washing for purification)

b. She was placed in an “upper chamber”

4. Peter was in Joppa, which was near Lydda.

a. The disciples at Lydda sent for Peter.

b. The widows displayed (for themselves) the results of Dorcas’ good works.

* She made coats.

* She made garments.

5. Peter raised Dorcas from the dead. vs. 39-41

a. He placed everyone outside.

b. He knelt down and prayed.

c. He turned to the body and spoke.

d. Dorcas opened her eyes.

e. Seeing Peter, she sat up.

f. Giving her a hand, she raised up.

g. He presented her to the widows alive.

6. Dorcas’ miracle resulted in the conversion of many who heard of it. vs.42

a. The miracle became known (gnwston) throughout all of Joppa.

b. Many believed upon the Lord.

D. Peter minister in Joppa many days. vs.43

1. Peter remained in Joppa several days.

2. He resided with Simon, “the tanner”.

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Chapter 10

(A.D. 41-51)


A. Cornelius was a gentile and a member of the Roman army. vs.1-2

1. He lived in Caesarea, a city named in honor of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar.


2. He was a centurion (of the Italian band).

a. A centurion is a soldier with authority over 100 men.

b. A band (speirhj – a regiment made up on approximately 600 individuals

stationed across the Roman Empire where needed – Sir William Ramsey)

3. He was a devout (eulabhj– taking hold well, i.e. carefully and surely

cautious – Joseph Thayer – Acts 2:5) man. vs.2

4. He feared God (denotes reverence toward the God of Israel) with all his house.

(note: the terms devout and fear were used to denote Gentiles who, though not

full proselytes, attached themselves to the Jewish religion, practicing its

monotheistic and imageless worship – Reinecker/Rogers)

5. He gave “much alms” (elehmosuhn – to practice the virtue of mercy or

beneficence, to show one’s compassion, often a donation to the poor among Israel

–Joseph Thayer) to people.

6. He prayed (deomai – to stand in need of, want for one’s self, to ask for, to beg –

Joseph Thayer) to God continually. (ill. Acts 8:34)

B. God spoke to Cornelius in a vision (ill. Numbers 24:4,15-16). vs.3

1. It occurred about the ninth hour (Three p.m. which was the Jewish time for prayer –


2. An angel came to him.

3. Cornelius was afraid of the angel.

4. The angel informed him of God’s message to him. vs.4

a. His worship and alms went up as a memorial (denotes it became know before

God, so that he heeded them and was about to help him) before God

b. He was to send (metapemfai (aor. mid. Imp.) – the sending of another for

one’s own sake) men to Joppa and call for Simon Peter.

* He was lodging with one Simon, a tanner.

* His lodging was by the seaside.

* Peter was to tell him what he was to do

5. Cornelius obeyed the angel’s message. vs.7-8

a. He called two of his household servants

b. He called a devout (one taking hold well, i.e. carefully and surely

cautious – Joseph Thayer – Acts 2:5

c. He declared (e, xhge, omai –to draw out in narrative, unfold in teaching; also

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used in Greek writers of the interpretation of things sacred and divine,

oracles, dreams etc…ill. Lk. 24:35) unto them all the things spoken to him by

the angel.

d. He sent them to Joppa (33miles).


A. God uses a vision to change Peter’s view of Gentiles. vs.9-16

1. It was about the sixth hour.

2. He became very hungry and would have eaten.

3. He fell into a trance (ekstasij -- a state in which the functions of the senses are

suspended and the soul seems to be liberated from the body whil it contemplates

some extraordinary object --- ill. Acts 11:5; 22:17):

a. He saw the heaven opened.

b. He saw a vessel like a great sheet. vs.12

* It had four corners.

* It was let down to the earth.

* It had four-footed beasts of the earth

* It had wild beasts.

* It had creeping things.

* It had fowls of the air.

c. A voice came to Peter saying:

* rise Peter

* kill and eat.

d. Peter refused the instructions given him. vs.14

* Peter said he had never eaten anything common. (Lev. 11:26-30)

* Peter said he had never eaten anything unclean.

e. The Lord explains to Peter why he should eat the things that he saw. vs.16

* God had cleansed (ekatqarizw –to cleanse, purify) those things.

* They were no longer unclean.

f. The lowering of the sheet occurred repeatedly. vs.16

* It happened three times.

* It was received up into (the) heaven.

B. Cornelius’ men arrived as Peter contemplated the vision. vs.17-21

1. Peter was perplexed (dihporei – to be completely at a loss what road to take by the

event. Joseph Thayer) ill. Lk. 24:4;Acts 5:24)

2. Cornelius’ men arrived.

a. They made inquiry for Simon’s house.

b. They stood before the gate.

c. Calling they inquired if Simon Peter lodged there.

3. Peter was yet pondering (dienqumoume,nou – to think about, to think through and

through, in and out) the vision.

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a. The Holy Spirit alerted him that three men sought him. vs.19

b. The Holy Spirit directed Peter to arise and go with the men “doubting

nothing” (diakrinomenoj -- pres.mid.part – to separate, make distinction,

discriminate – Joseph Thayer – ill. Ja. 1:6). vs.20

c. Peter “went down” and introduced himself to the men. vs.21

4. Corneilus’ men explain the reason for their visit. vs.22

a. They explained the background of Cornelius to Peter:

* That he was a centurion.

* That he was a just (righteous) man.

* That he was one fearing “the” God (of Israel).

* That he had a testimony before “all the nation of the Jews”.

b. God sent an angel to warn (xrhmatizomai – to instruct, to give a divine

warning to act upon a matter consistent with God’s plans -- ill. Heb. 11:7;

8:5) Corneilus to:

* Summon Peter to the house.

* To hear Peter’s words (rhmata – utterances, individual parts of

doctrine—here concerning the Kingdom of God – Acts 5:20,10:37;


5. Peter responds with hospitality. vs.23

a. He “lodged” them.

b. He and other “brethren” accompanied them to Caesarea.

6. Cornelius gathered together his nearest relatives and intimate friends to hear what

Peter had to say. vs.24

7. Cornelius tried to worship (proseku,nhsen – to kiss the feet of – ill. Matt. 2:11; 1 Co.

14:25) Peter.

8. Peter rejects Cornelius’ worship signifying such worship is only given to deity. vs.26

a. Peter raised him up.

b. Peter admonished him that he too, was only a man.

9. Peter went in, talking with Cornelius and found many who had assembled. vs.27

C. Peter begins his message by emphasizing the unlawfulness of the presence of a Jew among


1. Peter termed his entry among them as “unlawful” (a.qe, mito, n – contrary to the

divinely constituted order of things, breaking a taboo – Reinecker/Rogers)

a. It was unlawful for a Jew to come unto one of “another nation” (allofulw –

of another tribe, one that is not a Jew. Not all intercourse with Gentiles was

absolutely prohibited, but that which rendered a Jew ceremonially unclean,

such as entering a Gentile house – Reinecker/Rogers) (Acts 11:2-3; Gal.

2:11-12; John 4:9)

b. It was unlawful for a Jew to “keep company” (kollasqai – adhere to; join

oneself to one as an associate – Joseph Thayer) ill. Lk. 15;15

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c. God graphically illustrated to Peter (in vision) to:

* “Any man” (anqropoj – anarthorus – any quality of man).

* “Common” (koinon --- to make Leviitically unclean, render

unhallowed, defile, profane – Joseph Thayer) ill. Matt. 15:11, 18,20

* “Unclean” (a.ka, qarton – to be unpure, soiled or stained by a thing)

ill. Heb. 9:13; Rom. 14:14,20



A. Peter’s vision was the basis for why he traveled to see Corneilus. Vs.29

1. “Therefore” is used to indicate the reason he traveled to Caesarea.

2. Peter went without “gainsaying” (anantirrhtwj – not speaking back, without

raising any objections – Reinecker/Rogers) on account of the vision. ill. Acts 19:36

B. Cornelius gives Peter a thorough explanation for summoning him.

1. Cornelius recounted his vision four days before.

a. He was fasting until the ninth hour.

b. He saw a man (note the distinction from vs.3 – an angel)

c. He recounted the message of the angel. vs.31-32

d. Cornelius wasted no time sending for Peter (“at once”). vs.33

e. He and his household were present to hear the things “commanded thee”

(prosta,sso – to appoint before, define beforehand) of God. vs.33

ill. Acts 17:26

IV. Peter proceeds to teach Cornelius and his household the things he had put together from the

vision and what he had witnessed during Christ’s earthly ministry. vs. 34-43

A. Peter “perceived” (katalambanomai – to grasp with the mind) that God is not a “respecter

of persons” (proswpolh, mpthj -- the fault of one who when called on to requite or to give

judgment has respect to the outward circumstances of men and not to their intrinsic

merits, and so prefers, as the more worthy, one who is rich, high-born, or powerful to

another who is destitute of such gifts – Joseph Thayer). vs.34

1. Scripture has always maintained that God is not a respecter of person. Deut. 10:17

2. He did not choose Israel because of who they were. Deut. 7:6-7

3. He does not choose men today because of who they are. 1 Cor. 1:26-29

4. Believers today are told not to be a respecter of person. Ja. 2:1

B. Peter perceived that God has elect in every nation. vs.35

C. Peter perceived that this revelation was consistent with the message sent to Israel during

Christ’s earthly ministry. vs.36

1. The term “word” is “ton logon” (a discourse, message)

2. The Kingdom of God is a message of salvation for all men.

a. The Kingdom of God is generally seen in Scripture as emphasizing salvation

while the Kingdom of the Heavens is generally viewed as governmental rule.

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i. Robert Saucy – The Kingdom of God in Scripture is the all-

embracing program of God’s divine salvation history. All ages,

peoples, and saving activities are in some way related to it.

ii. Dwight Pentecost -- The name “Kingdom of God” is employed

because it points to the spiritual character of the reign and

dominion. The glory of God is its chief and sole object. Christ’s work

in which He seeks only to glorify His Father is complete when God is

glorified. This is the aim and purpose of the Kingdom of God.

b. Regeneration is necessary to enter into the Kingdom of God today. John 3:3

c. The Kingdom of God is invisible (Lk. 17:20-21).

3. The word was preached had two tenants:

a. Peace through Jesus Christ. (Lk. 2:13-14; 10:5)

b. He is Lord of all.

D. The Gentiles were familiar with this message that was preached. vs.37

1. Dr. Luke uses the word oidate (to know facts about something) for the word “know”.

2. “That word” is better translated (to genomenon rhma).

a. “That word” spread throughout all of Judea (its boundaries extended from

Joppa on the Mediterranean to a point on the Jordan about 10 miles n. of

the Dead Sea. Its s. boundary may be drawn from Wadi Ghazzeh, about 7

miles s.w. of Gaza, ghrough Beersheba, to the s. portion of the Dead Sea.

The length from north to south is about 55 miles, and from East to West the

same). D.N.T.T. (ill. Lk. 23:5; John 7:1)

b. It began to be preached in Galilee (it is about 60 miles long by 25 broad. It is

generally mountainous with fertile valleys between. The mixture of races

tended to produce a distinct accent or even dialect (Mk. 14:70; Lk. 22:59).

The people also was supposed to be one that never would produce a prophet

(John 7:41, 52). Nevertheless, nearly all the apostles of Jesus were natives

of Galilee, and he himself was brought up in it and made it the chief scene

of His ministry). D.N.T.T. (ill.)

c. It began being preached after the baptism that John preached. (ill. Mk. 1:14;

Acts 13:24)

E. The context of what the Gentiles knew about “the word” sent to Israel was: vs.38

1. Jesus of Nazareth was anointed:

a. With the Holy Spirit (ill. Lk. 4:18-19)

b. With power. (ill. John 3:2)

2. He went about “doing good” (euergetwn – to do well, to do good; bestow benefits)

Acts 2:22

3. He went about “curing all that were oppressed (katadunsteuomenouj – to oppress, to

exploit, to dominate someone – Reinecker/Rogers) by the Devil. (ill. Jas. 2:6)

F. The disciples were witnesses: vs.39a

1. They were witnesses of all the things that He did in the land of the Jews.

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2. They were witnesses of all the things that He did in Jerusalem.

G. The Jews killed Him. vs. 39b

H. God raised Him up on the third day and showed Him openly. vs.40-41

1. The word “shewed” is (emfanh – to manifest, exhibit, to view)

2. He didn’t show Him to all “the people” (Israel)

3. He showed Him to “chosen” (prokeceirotonhmenoij – to choose or designate by

hand, to choose beforehand) witnesses. ill. 1 Co. 15:1-8

4. He ate and drank with His disciples after His resurrection. (John 21:4-14)

J. Those witnesses were “commanded” to make proclamation to “the people” (Israel). vs.42-43

1. They were to teach that He was the One “ordained” (wrismenoj – to mark out the

boundary, to ordain – Reinecker/Rogers) of God:

a. He was ordained to be judge of the living. (2 Tim. 4:1; Matt. 25:31-46)

b. He was ordained to be judge of the dead. (Rev. 20:11-14)

2. They were to teach that He was the one testified of by the Prophets. vs.43

a. They testified that through His name would come forgiveness of sins.

(Matt.1: 21; Lk. 1:76-77)

b. They testified this forgiveness would come to those who believe “in Him”


A. Another phase of the manifestation of the Holy Spirit occurred as Peter spoke to them. vs.44

1. The Holy Spirit had manifested Himself in two different ways prior to this


a. He came upon those on the Day of Pentecost as “tongues like fire”. Acts 2:3

b. He was given to those in Samaria as a result of the “laying on of the hands”

of the apostles. Acts 8: 14-16

2. The Holy Spirit “fell” on all those who heard Peter’s “word” (utterance).

3. Those of “the circumcision” (Acts 11:2) were “astonished” (exesthsan – to be

besides oneself, to be amazed) that the Holy Spirit was “poured out” the Gentiles.

a. A sign of the Holy Spirit’s manifestation was that they spoke in tongues.

b. A sign of the Holy Spirit’s manifestation was that they “magnified” God.

B. Peter commanded that the Gentiles be water baptized due to their receiving the Holy Spirit.

vs. 47-48

1. Peter asserted that no man “could” (dunatai—was able) to “forbid” them from being

baptized. vs.47

a. They received the Spirit.

b. Their reception of the Spirit was “as” (wj – similar, like) “we”.

2. Peter commanded them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. vs.48

3. They asked him to “tarry” (epimeinai – to remain) “certain days”.

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(41-51 a.d.)



A. News of the Gentiles’ salvation spread to Jerusalem. vs1

1. The apostles and the brethren that were in Judea heard the news.

2. The “Word” of God is the oral preaching of the apostles.

B. Those of the circumcision disputed with Peter over entering and eating with Gentiles. vs.2-3

1. “The Circumcision” was a term used Jews on account of the covenant of

circumcision. (ill. Gal. 2:7,8; Rom. 4:10; Phil. 3:1)

a. Some Jews adhered to the standards of circumcision instead of living by

Grace and caused a problems in Galatia, teaching the believer that

circumcision was a means of maturity. Gal. 5:6; 6:15

b. They disputed with Paul and Barnabas over whether the Gentiles should be

circumcised. Acts 15:1

2. The word “disputed” (diekrinouto – to take issue, to dispute with someone—

continuously – Reinecker/Rogers)

C. Peter explained to the brethren why he was led to enter into the Gentiles. vs.4-18

1. Peter recounted how he saw a vision in Joppa. vs.4-5

a. The vision occurred while he was praying. vs.5

b. The vision occurred while he was in a trance.

c. The vision included a certain vessel that was similar to a great sheet let down

from heaven by four corners.

d. Peter gives two insights into his thinking at the time of the vision that was not

given in Chapter 10. vs.6

* He “fastened” (atenisaj -- to gaze) his eyes upon the sheet.

* He “considered” (katenooun -- to put the mind down, to understand,

to take notice of)

e. The things he fastened upon and considered were the various animals upon

the sheet.

2. Peter recounted how he heard a voice. vs.7-9

a. The voice told him to rise, slay and eat.

b. Peter was hesitant to obey the voice.

c. The voice informed him that he should not call common that which God has


3. Peter recounted how three men appeared at the house in which he was residing.


a. The three men appeared “already” (ecauthj –at once).

b. The Spirit “bade” (eipen –said) him to go with them, doubting nothing.

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c. Six brethren accompanied Peter as validation of the event. vs.12b

4. Peter recounted what he found when he reached Caesarea. vs.12c-13

a. Peter and the six (who were also of the circumcision – Acts 10:23,45) who

accompanied him enter into the house of “the man”.

b. He (the man) showed Peter how he had seen an angel.

c. Peter relates some thing about Cornelius’ vision not mentioned by Cornelius

in his account:

*How the angel was standing and saying to him to send for Peter. vs.13b

*How the angel informed him how Peter would speak words whereby

which Cornelius and his whole household would be saved. vs.14

d. The Holy Spirit fell upon them.

* He fell upon them while Peter was speaking.

* He fell upon them as He did those at Pentecost.

i. “as” (wsper – just as, like as) ill. Matt. 6:2

ii. “on us” (ef hmaj — upon us)

iii. “in a beginning” (Acts 2:2)

5. Peter recounted how he connected the event to a prophecy made by the Lord during

His earthly ministry. vs.16

a. Peter said, “I remembered” (emnhsqhn – to remember, recollect, call to

mind—Sheldon Green) Acts 1:5

b. “The Word” is better rendered the “utterance”

c. The Lord made a parenthetical statement, the second part of which was filled

in the Holy Spirit’s baptism in this Dispensation.

6. Peter gives a summation of his justification for going to the Gentiles. vs.17

a. God “gave” (didomi – to bestow upon) them the equal gift as was given to

those believing upon the Lord, Jesus Christ.

(The term “gave” is used elsewhere in Scripture of God giving to ones

believe). 1 Co. 3:5

b. Peter didn’t believe he was in a position to hinder God.

D. The ones out from the circumcision were content with Peter’s explanation. vs.18

1. They “held their peace” (hsuxasan – ceased and desisted)

2. They “glorified” (edoxasan) (the) God saying:

a. God has “granted” to the nations repentance (th, n metanoian).

b. The repentance “granted” (didwmi) to them was “unto life” (eis zwhn – into

this quality of life).



A. Luke explains the plight of those believers scattered as a result of Stephen’s persecution.


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1. The word “scattered” is the term diasparente which means to scatter abroad or in

every direction, as seed; to disperse – Sheldon Green. (ill. 1 Pet. 1:1)

2. They “traveled” (dihlqon – to go through or to pass through)

a. They traveled through Phoenica – a narrow strip of territory between the

Mediterranean sea on the west and on the east the crest of the Lebanon

range and the detached hills running south from it. The area during the

time of the Lord’s earthly ministry included the cities of Tyre & Sidon. –

Westminister Bible Dictionary.

b. They traveled through Cyprus – an Island situated in the northeast part of

the Mediterranean Sea about 41 miles from the coast of Cilicia and 60

from Syria. Many Jewish communities existed in the island. Westminister

Bible Dictionary.

c. They traveled through Antioch –a city founded in 300 b.c. by Seleucus

Nicator and named by him after Antiochus, his father. It was situated on

the south side of the Orontes river about 15 miles from its north. It’s

population was mixed with “not a few Jews”. – Westminister Bible


3. They were preaching the word to no one except Jews only.

4. Some “out from them” were men of Cyprus and Cyrene (an important Greek

colonial city in North Africa. Cyrenians joined with the Libertines, or freedmen,

and other in forming a synagogue at Hersalem (Acts 6:9). Jews became resident

in Cyrene in the 3rd

century b.c.). vs.20

a. They spoke unto the Grecians (Greek speaking Jews) in Antioch. vs.20a

b. They preached the Lord Jesus. vs.20b

5. The hand of the Lord was with them. vs.21a

6. A great number was saved. 21b

a. “Believing” --

b. “ They “turned” to the Lord.

B. News of the Gospel spread by those scattered reached Jerusalem. vs. 22

1. The Church heard the “tidings” (o logos)

2. Barnabas was selected to go “as far” (ewj – up to the edge of) Antioch. Arriving:

a. He saw the Grace of God.

b. He rejoiced.

c. He exhorted (parekalei) all:

* He exhorted them with purpose from the heart.

* He exhorted them to “cleave” (prosmenein – to continue, to remain, to

stay in a place –Acts 18:18; 1 Ti.1: 3; 5:5) to the Lord.

3. Exhortation was natural for Barnabas. vs.24a

a. He was a “good” man.

b. He was full of the Holy Spirit.

c. He was full of faith

4. Many more were added to the Lord. vs.24b

C. Barnabas left Antioch for Tarsus in search of Saul. vs.25-26

1. Barnabas had to “seek” (anazhthsai- -- to search for; to seek up and down, back

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and forth; to make a thorough search till success comes). Saul

2. He found Saul.

3. He “brought” him to Antioch.

4. They assembled in Antioch for a year with the Church there. vs. 26a

5. They taught “much” crowd. vs.26b

6. Antioch was the first place were disciples were “called” (Crhmatisai ---a lifestyle

reflected the standard of those where were “anointed ones”) Christians.

vs. 26c

D. Worldwide famine spurs giving from among believers. vs.27-30

1. Prophets went from Jerusalem to Antioch with the message. vs.27

2. Agabas was one of the prophets. vs.28a

3. Agabas “signified” (eshmainen – to make know by a sign) by the Holy Spirit that

there would be a famine throughout the entire world. vs.28b

4. The famine occurred during the time of Claudius Caesar. 28c

5. The disciples “determined” (wrisan – to fix a boundary, to determine, to appoint

“they arranged”. Perhaps each one set aside a fixed sum out of his property or

income as a contribution to the fund – Reinecker/Rogers) to send relief to Judea.


a. They determined to send aid “according to” (as measured by)

b. They determined to send aid “according to his ability” (euporeito – to be well

off, to have plenty here “according to financial ability” – Reinecker/Rogers)

6. They sent the offering by means of Barnabas and Saul. vs.30

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(A.D. 41-50)


A. Herod persecuted some in the Church. vs.1

1. The Herod mentioned here is Agrippa I who was the grandson of Herod the Great

(ruler during the birth of Christ Matt. 2:1) and the Father of Agrippa II before whom

the apostle Paul appeared. (Acts 26:1)

2. He “stretched forth” (epe,balen – to cast upon, to lay hands on, to seize) his hands

(his authority, power).

3. He “vexed” (kakwsai – to afflict, to do harm to – Reinecker/Rogers) certain “of” the


a. He “killed” (a`nei/len – to slay) James the brother of John with a sword (a

method of execution in the Roman empire -- ill. Rom. 13:4). vs.2

i. This fulfilled the prophecy the Lord Jesus made concerning James

(Mk. 10:35-40)

ii. One of only two apostles whose death or imminent death is recorded

in Scripture. (apostle Paul being the other 2 Tim. 4:7)

b. He “proceeded” (prose,qeto -- to add, join to, give in addition; of repeating

or continuing the action signified by the following verb – Abbott & Smith)

further to “take” (arrest) Peter. vs.3a

c. Herod was motivated to “take” Peter because he saw that persecuting the

Christians “pleased” (a`resto,n – pleasing, agreeable—Abbott & Smith – ill. 1

John 3:22) the Jews. vs.3b

B. Herod didn’t immediately kill Peter as He did James because it was during “days of

unleavened bread” that he was apprehended. vs.4

1. The “days of unleavened bread” (Ex. 23:15; Deut. 16:16) is the Passover, the 1st of

the 3 annual festivals at which all the men were required to appear at the

sanctuary (Ex.12: 43; Deut. 16:1); It was instituted in Egypt to commemorate the

culminating event in the redemption of the Israelites; the day was to be

commemorated by a festival of 7 days duration (Ex. 12:14-20) –Westminster

Dictionary of the Bible

2. He “apprehended” him.

3. He “put” him in prison.

4. He delivered him to “four-quarternions” (a company of four soldiers with four in

each group – 16 in all) of soldiers to “keep” (fula,ssein -- to guard or watch –

Abbott & Smith) him.

Note: The prison at Jerusalem into which Herod Agrippa I cast Peter was

protected by iron gates, and important prisoners were bound with chains and

guarded by soldiers in the cell, while other soldiers kept watch before the

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door. --Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (The cell in which Peter was kept

was an inner cell)

C. Herod “intended” (Boulomenoj –determined) to use Peter to earn favor with the Jews. vs.5

1. He “intended” to bring him to “the people” (Israel).

2. He wanted to wait until after “Easter” (to. Pa,sca – the Passover).


A. The Church communicated on behalf of Peter.

1. Peter was “therefore” (on the one hand) kept in prison. vs.5a

a. The word “therefore” is the Greek idiom me.n which is used in this context to

point out the response of God’s people to a dire situation.

b. Peter was “kept” (e.threi/to – being guarded) in prison.

2. The Church (on the other hand) prayed for him. vs.5b

a. The word “but” denotes the other half of the idiom.

b. In spite of the circumstances, the Church prayed for Peter.

i. The word “prayer” is proseuch. – worship (ill. John 4:21-24)

ii. Prayer was “without ceasing” (e`ktenw/j – fervently, earnestly – Abbott

& Smith ill. Lk. 22:44)

c. There are three prepositions that describe the communications made for Peter.

i. The word “of” is the Greek word upo which means by (direct agent)

the Church.

ii. The word “unto” is the Greek word proj which means towards or

facing (the) God (Father).

iii. The word “for” is the Greek word peri which means generally

concerning (Peter).

B. God thwarts Herod’s plans to kill Peter. vs.6-10

1. Peter was held under tight security at the time Herod would have “brought him

forth. vs.6

a. Peter was sleeping between two soldiers.

b. Peter was bound with two chains (presumably to each soldier).

c. “Keepers” (guards) before the door “kept” (guarded) the prison.

2. God sent an angel to set Peter free. vs7-10

a. The word “the” does not appear in the original. vs.7

b. The angel “came upon” (epe,sth --- to stand by – Reinecker/Rogers)

c. A light “shone” (e;lamyen – to shine;) in the building.

i. The angel “smote” (tata,xaj –to strike or to hit – Reinecker/Rogers)

Peter. (aor. part. he was striking Peter on the side)

ii. The angel “raised” (h;geiren – to wake up – Reinecker/Rogers) Peter.

iii. The angel urged Peter to rise “in haste” (ta,cei – quickly)

d. Peter’s chains fell off his hands. vs.7

e. The angel urged Peter to “gird” (zw/sai – to gird oneself, to bind the tunic

with a wide belt. During the night the long-flowing undergarment was

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loosened, but fastened up by day, so as not to impede movements) himself.


f. The angel asked Peter to “bind on” (upo,dhsai – to bind under, to tie on –

Reinecker/Rogers) his sandals. vs.8b

g. The angel asked Peter to “cast” (peribalou –throw about oneself –

Reinecker/Rogers) his garment ( possibly a cloak) and follow him. vs.8c

3. Peter did not “know” (h;dei – he was continually unaware) vs.9

a. The thing happening through the angel was true.

b. He “thought” (edo,kei – to suppose, to think – Reinecker/Rogers) that he had

seen a vision.

4. The angel led Peter out of the prison.

a. The angel led him through the first prison (cell).

b. The angel led him through the second prison (cell).

c. The angel led him upon the iron gate leading into the city.

i. The gate was “opened to them”.

ii. They went towards “one” street (a block).

iii. The angel “departed”.

5. Peter understood the significance of the event once he left the prison. vs.11

a. Peter “was come to himself” (genomenoj e``n e`autw/ -- when he had become

present in himself; denoting his awaking from the dazed condition

produced by his being suddenly roused from sleep and confronted with a

supernatural appearance. – Marvin Vincent)

b. The word “now” is an adverb of time

c. The Lord “sent” (exape,steilen--- to send out on a mission)

d. The Lord “delivered” (e`xei,lato, -- to remove above, to rescue –

Reinecker/Rogers) Peter:

i. Out of the hand of Herod.

ii. Out of all the expectation of the “people of the Jews” (Jewish people).

6. Peter put together the events after he had left prison. vs.12

a. The word “considered” (sunidwn --- to view with mental discernment,

putting things together with clarity—the fact that he had been freed; that

he was in the street alone; that he had to go somewhere; that Mary’s house

was a destination where he would find friends – Marvin Vincent) the events.

b. Peter “came” to the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark

c. Many were “gathered” (sunhqroismenoi – to bring together; to be gathered;

to meet.—Reinecker/Rogers) ill. Lk. 24:33

d. They were “praying” (all night).

7. The believers were shocked by God ‘s answer to their communication.vs.13-

a. Peter knocked at the door of the gate (the gate entrance of the house was

separated from the living quarters by a courtyard).

b. A “damsel” (paidi,skh – a young female slave – Abbott & Smith – ill. Acts

16:16) who was named Rhoda “hearkened” (upakousai—aor. inf. – to answer

the door. Used technically of the doorkeeper, whose duty it is to listen for

the signals of those who wish to enter, and to admit them if they are entitled

to do so – Reinecker/Rogers)

i. She “knew” (e`pigno/usa --- to recognize) the voice of Peter. vs.15

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ii. She opened not the “gate” for gladness.

iii. She “ran in” and “told how” Peter stood before the gate.

iv. The believers told her “thou art mad”. vs.15

v. Rhoda “affirmed” (diisxuri,zeto – to insist; an old word of vigorous

and confident assertion) that it was so.

vi. The other believers thought, “it was his angel” (Heb. 1:13-14)

(Guardian angel, according to popular belief among the Jews that

every individual has his guardian angel, who may, on occasion,

assume a visible appearance resembling that of the person whose

destiny is committed to him. – Marvin Vincent)

8. The believers finally opened the door to let Peter in. vs.16-17

a. Peter “continued” knocking.

b. They were “astonished” (e`xe,sthsan –to be amazed, to be beside one’s self)

when they opened the door.

c. Peter “beckoning” (katasei,saj – to signal or motion with the hands –

Reinecker/Rogers ill. Acts 21:40) them to be silent.

d. Peter “declared” (dihghsato ---to relate, narrate) to them how the Lord led

him out of the prison. ill. Lk. 8:39; 9:10

e. Peter “said” to them to report to James and the other brothers “these” things.

i. James, the Lord’s half brother was the leader of the Church at

Jerusalem. (Acts 21:17-18; Gal. 1:19)

ii. “The bretheren” – other believers.

d. Peter “went” into another place.



A. A disturbance arose among the guards over Peter’s disappearance. vs.18

1. The word “small stir” (ta,raxoj – a commotion)

2. The term “what was become” is e`ge,neto – what developed.

B. The disturbance over Peter’s disappearance occurred due to Herod’s summoning him.vs.19

1. Herod “sought” (epizhth,saj – to look for) Peter.

2. Herod “found him not”.

3. Herod “examined” (a`nakri,naj – examine, to question thoroughly) the guards.

4. Herod upon examination “commanded” they be “put to death” (apacqn/ai – to lead

away to execution; a guard who allowed a prisoner to escape became liable to the

same penalty as had awaited the prisoner). ill. Acts 16:27; 27:42

C. Herod departed from Judea and went down into Ceasarea and “abode” (dietriben— vs.20

1. Herod was “displeased” (qumomacw/n --- to fight desperately; to be furious; to be

exasperated – Reinecker/Rogers) with the people of Tyre & Sidon.

2. The people of Tyre & Sidon asked peace with Herod because of they were

“nourished” (trefe,sqai – to feed, to support, to provide with food. The Phoenician

cities depended largely on the grain fields of Galilee for their food and Herod had

cut off their supply) by his country.

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D. Herod addressed the people of Tyre & Sidon. vs.21-22

1. “A set day” (taktoj – set, appointed, According to Josephus, it was a festival in

honor of the emperor, possibly on the first of Aughus, the anniversary of his


2. He was “arrayed” in “royal” (e`sqh,j – clothing, raiment. A robe made of silver which

glittered in the sun – Reinecker/Rogers ) clothing.

3. He was sitting upon his “throne” (bematoj ---

4. He made an “oratation” (e`dhmhgo,rie –to speak in an assembly -- Reinecker/Rogers)

to them.

5. The “people” (dh/moj – used to denote the common people) cried:

i. It is the voice of a God.

ii. It is not the voice of a man.

E. God rendered judgment upon Herod at that moment. vs.23

1. The word “immediately” denotes the swiftness of the judgment.

2. An angel from the Lord “smote” him because he didn’t give glory to God.

3. Herod was “eaten of worms” (skw,lhkoBrwtoj --- to be eaten by worms the kind

which preys upon dead bodies; the word is used of diseased grain; it is used by

medical writers of intestinal worms).

4. He “gave up the ghost” (exe,fuxen –to die, to breathe out)

F. The removal of Herod caused the Word of the Lord to continue to flourish. vs.24

1. The “Word of God” is used defined in Acts 8:12.

2. The “Word of the Lord” “grew” (huxanen --- was growing) after Herod’s death.

3. The “Word of the Lord” “multiplied” (eplhquneto –increased, multipied)

G. Paul and Barnabas returned from their ministry to the saints suffering at Jersusalem and

“took with them” (sumparalaBo.ntej – to take someone along) John Mark. vs.25

1. John Mark served as their attendant. Acts 13:5

2. He left them after problems in Pamhylia. Acts 13:13

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Chapter 13

(A.D. 46-48)



A. The Church at Antioch had ones with the spiritual gift of prophet and teacher. Acts 13:1

1. Baranabas

2. Simeon who was called Niger was possibley of African descent.

4. Lucius of Cyrene an important Greek colony in North Africa. Men of this area were

some of the early converts of the Church (Acts 11:20)

5. Manaen “brought up” (suntrofoj – foster brother, intimate friend of) Herod the

tetrarch – one who rules over the 4th

part of a kingdom or province).

6. Saul

B. The Church at Antioch was the home base for Saul’s apostolic journeys. vs.2-3

1.They “ministered” (leitourgou, rntwn –used in classical Greek to describe the

service voluntarily rendered to the state. Later it indicated the performing of

services which the state required. Still later it was used to describe any kind of

service rendered in a temple. —Reinecker/Rogers) at Antioch for approximately a

year’s time. vs.2 (Acts 11:26)

2. The Holy Spirit separated them for “the work”. vs.2

a. “Separated” (aforizw – to mark off with a boundary, to separate).

b. “The work” (eij to ergon – into the work)

c. “I have “called” (proskeklhmai – to call to one’s service. The perfect

emphasizes that the divine decision was already made before it was revealed.

– Reinecker/Rogers) ill. Acts 16:10; Ja. 5:14

3. The Church at Antioch authenticated Saul and Barnabas’ ministry: vs.3

a. Paul and Barnabas’ authentication was signified by their “laying their hands”

(Epiqentej -- to place upon. The laying on of hands here expressed the

fellowhip with the two and the recognition of the divine call –

Reinecker/Rogers) on them. ill. Acts 8:17; 19:6; 1 Tim. 5:22

b. They “sent” (apoluw – to release, to let go, to send off) them away.

C. Seleucia was the first stop on their first apostolic journey. vs.4

D. The sailed from Seleucia into Cyprus. vs.4

1. Salamis was a city on the island of Cyprus. vs.5

a. They preached the “Word of God” in the synagogues of the Jews.

i. The “Word of God” was the oral preaching by the apostles of the

entrance into the Kingdom of God by believing in the name of Jesus

Christ. (ill. Acts 8:12,14; 10:34-42; 11:1; 13:35-43)

b. John Mark served as their “minister” (uphre, thj – assistant, attendant, a

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helper who willing submits himself to the carrying out of the will of the one

over him. – Reinecker/Rogers) ill. 1 Co. 4:1; Acts 26:16

2. Paphos was a city situated on the southwest side of the island of Cyprus. vs.6

a. Saul and Barnabas went “through” (dielqontoj – to pass through – no other

stops) Cyprus into Paphos.

b. They came upon a guy named Bar-jesus.

i. He was a “sorcerer” (magon – magician)

ii. He was a “false prophet” – one who made false prophecies.

iii. He was a Jew.

c. Bar-jesus was “with” the deputy, Sergius Paulus. vs.7

i. “With” is the Greek proposition sun – intimately with him – maybe

chief assistant.

ii. A “deputy” was call an anqupatoj or proconsul, one who is head of

the government in a senatorial province.

d. Sergius Paulus was a “prudent” (sunetw – sensible, acute, judicious –

characterized by sound judgment; penetrating consideration peceding

decision and action; the understanding of the matter in hand) man. vs.7

ill. 2 Tim. 2:7

i. He “called” for Barnabas and Saul.

ii. He “desired” (epezhthsen – to seek, to look for; to diligently pursue

for the purpose of finding – ill. Rom. 11:7; Matt. 6:32). to hear the

“Word of God.”

e. Elymas (Bar-Jesus) the sorcerer “withstood them” vs.8

i. Elymas means sorcerer.

ii. The term “withstood” is used throughout Scripture of those mature

sons’ opposition to the things of God. (ill. 2 Tim. 3:8)

iii. The purpose of Elymas’ withstanding them was to seek to “turn away”

Sergios Paulus away from “The Faith” vs.8

* The term “turn away” is diastefai – to twist or to pervert (Acts


* The term “turn away” is a purpose infinitive which indicates

the purpose as to why Elymas “withstood” Paul and Barnabas.

iv. Saul reacts to Elymas’ attempts to undermine his ministry to Sergios

Paulus. vs.9

* He was “filled” (plhsqeij – complete mental filling) with the

Holy Spirit.

* He “set” (gazed upon) his eyes upon him.

v. Saul identifies the power energizes Elymas’ vs.10

* He identified him as being “full of all subtilty” (deceit,

treachery. Properly bait for fish, then any cunning

contrivance for deceiving or catching – Reinecker/Rogers).

ill. Rom. 1:29; 2 Co. 4:2

* He identified him as being a “child” (uie. – son) of the devil.

* He identified him has being an “enemy of all righteousness.”

* He identified his relentlessness in not “ceasing to pervert” the

right ways of the Lord.

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vi. Elymas’ receives judgment for his behavior. vs.11

* “The Hand of the Lord is upon thee”

* “Thou shalt be blind not seeing the sun for a season”

* A “mist” (a`clu.j – cloud; used by medical writers of an

inflammation which brings a cloudy appearance into the eye)

and a “darkness” fell upon him.

* He went about “seeking” (the imperfect of zhtew denotes that

he was looking searching around, but doesn’t say whether he

found someone – ill. Acts 9:8) to “lead him by the hand”.

vii. Sergios Paulus was impacted by the things that happened to Elymas.

* He “believed” when he saw (idw.n-- seeing) what was done.

* He was “being astonished” (e`kplh, ssomenoj -- to strike one


of self-possession, to strike with panic, shock, astonish—

Joseph Thayer -- ill. Matt. 7:28; 22:33) at the “doctrine” of the


E. Paul, Barnabas and company leaves Paphos and travel to Perga in Pamphylia. vs.13

1. Pamphylia was a stretch of coastland in Asia Minor.

2. Perga was a town in Pamphylia.

3. The term “ company” (oi, peri. – the ones concerning – an idiom used to denote

certain ones bound together for a particular purpose – Jude 7; Matt. 20:9; Mk.


4. They were “loosed” (to set sail) from Paphos.

5. John “departing” from them “returned” into Jerusalem (where they met him – Acts


a. The word “departing” is a`pocwrh, saj – to depart, to leave, to desert—

Reinecker/Rogers) ill. Acts 15:39

b. Paul thought him useful later in his ministry. 2 Tim. 4:11

F. Paul and company departed from Perga and went into Antioch in Pisidia. vs.14

1. They went into the synagogue on the “Sabbath day” and sat down.

a. Entering the Jewish synagogue was a habit of Paul’s in his first two apostolic

journeys. Acts 13:14; 14:1; 17; 1-2, 10,17

b. The order of service of in the synagogue was: (Reineker/Rogers)

i. The Shema (“Hear O Israel the Lord our God is one God”)

ii. Prayer by the Leader.

iii. Reading of the Law (ill. Lk. 4:16-21)

iv. A sermon by a member of the congregation. (ill. Acts 13:15)

2. The “ruler” of the synagogue “sent unto” them after the reading of the “law

and the prophets”. (it was his job to select the speaker for the service) vs.15a

3. The leaders asked them if they had any word of “exhortation” for “the

people”. vs. 15b

a. The term “exhortation” is paraklh, sewj with logos (word) denotes a

persuasive discourse, stirring address, instructive, admonitory,

consolatory; powerful hortatory discourse. ill.1 Thess. 2:3

b. The term “the people” is (the Jews).

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A. Paul rose to the occasion of addressing the audience. vs.16

1. Paul “stood up”

2. Paul “beckoning” with the hand he addressed the audience.

3. Paul addressed two different groups that was in the synagogue:

a. “Men of Israel” --

b. “Ye that Fear God” – (Jewish proselytes – see vs.26, 43)

c. The term “give audience” means listen.

B. Paul gives a historical narrative of Israel that connects the promise made to Abraham

to Jesus. vs.17-25

1. The God of Israel “chose” (eklegw in the middle voice meaning to choose for

Himself) our Fathers. vs.17 (ill. Deut. 4:32-37; 10:14-15)

2. He “exalted” them when they “dwelt as strangers” in the land of Egypt. vs.17a

a. The term “exalted” is u`fo, w – to lift up on high. (ill. Acts 7:10)

b. “Strangers” is paroikia – soujourn, living in a place as a stranger or

foreigner. ill. 1 Pet. 2:11

3. He brought them out of Egypt with a “high” arm (Braxiwn – with might and power –

Joseph Thayer -- ill. Lk. 1:51; John 7:38). 17a (Deut. 9:26-29)

4. He “suffered” their “manners” in the wilderness about the “time” of forty years. vs.


a. “Suffered” is the Greek word etropofo, rhsen – to bear or put up with

someone, endure. (1 Co. 10:1-6; Num. 14:25-34)

b. “Manners” is actually the personal pronoun autou – them.

5. He destroyed seven nations in the land of Cannan and divided their land to them by

lot. vs.19

a. “Destroyed” is the Greek word kaqelwn – to take down; cast down. (ill. Lk.


b. The seven nations destroyed were the Canaanites, Amorites, Hittites,

Perizzites, Hivites, and the Jebusites and the Girgashites. (Deut. 7:1)

b. He “divided by lot” (kateklhronomhsen – to divide according to lots, to

distribute an inheritance, to take for a possession, to give for a possession—

Reinecker/Rogers) their land to Israel. Joshua Chapter 14

6. He gave to them judges. vs.20

a. “After that” (rather – after these things).

b. He gave the “judges” (kritaj – one who passes or arrogates to himself,

judgment on anything—Joseph Thayer. Judges 2:11-17

c. Judges judged Israel for about 450 years (until – ewj – up to the edge of


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d. Samuel introduced the time of the prophets.

7. Israel “desired” a king. vs.21-22

a. “Aitew” is the word used which for desired which means to ask for one’s

self. (1 Samuel Chapter 8)

b. God gave them Saul the son of Kish of the Tribe of Benjamin. (1 Samuel.

Chapter 9)

b. Saul ruled Israel for about 40 years. (1 Samuel 10-16)

c. God removed Saul. vs.22a (1 Sam. 15:1-28)

d. God “raised up” (e`gei, rw – to raise up—to cause to appear, bring before the

public. – Joseph Thayer) unto them David to be their king. vs.22b

e. He gave “testimony” (witness) to David:

i. David was a man after God’s “own heart”.

* After is the Greek preposition kata – according to, measured


* The term heart here denotes desires, will.

ii. David would “fulfil (poihsei – to do or to make) all my will (qelhmata – the things desired)”

iii. God removed Saul because he was self-willed. He did not desire to do

God’s will, but his own. (ill. 1 Sam. 15:17-24); David was seen as a

man after God’s own heart because he generally desired to do God’s

will in spite of his flaws.

8. God raised a Savior to Israel out from David’s seed. vs.23 (2 Sam. 7:11-13; Lk. 1:68-


a. The term “seed” (spermatoj – offspring, progeny, family, race, prosterity –

that which is derived from the male to propagate the family line)

emphasizes physical lineage. (ill. Matt. 1:6; 15; 22; Mk. 10:46-48)

b. God raised Him “according to his promise” (Gen. 22:18)

c. God raised a “Savior” to Israel. vs.23

i. Christ was born to be Savior of Israel in a physical sense. Lk. 1; 68-74

ii. Christ was born to be Savior of Israel in a spiritual sense. (ill. Lk.

2:11; Matt. 1:21)

9. John the Baptist introduced Jesus to the Nation Israel. vs.24-25

a. The word “when” denotes the time that the Savior was presented to Israel.

b. John “preached” (prokhru, xantoj – to proclaim beforehand):

i. He preached a “baptism of repentance”. Matt. 3:11

ii. He preached to all the Nation Israel. John 1:31

10. John acknowledged that he was not the one Israel was awaiting. vs.25

a. John acknowledged it when he “fulfilled (e`plh, rou – filled up what was

lacking of) his course”.

b. John questioned others concerning their view of him. John 1:19-26

c. John acknowledged that he wasn’t worthy of latching the sandals of Jesus.

John 1:27

C. Paul noted that the salvation promised to the Nation Israel was now been made available to

all men. vs.26

1. Its sent to men.

2. Its sent to brethren.

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3. Its sent to children of the stock of Abraham.

4. Its sent to “whosoever among you feareth God”.

5. The word concerning “this salvation” (Acts 10:34-40) sent to “you”.

D. The apostle Paul recounts Israel’s rejection of Christ. vs.27a

1. Paul recounts that “They that dwell at Jerusalem” rejected Him.

2. Paul recounts that “Their rulers rejected Him.

E. Paul recounts why they rejected Christ. vs. 27b-28a

1. They “knew” (agnoh,santej – to be ignorant, not to recognize) him not. (ill. Rom.


2. They “knew” not “touton” (this thing—God’s plan for their salvation?)

3. They “knew not” the voices of the prophets (which are read every Sabbath day)

F. Paul gives two indictments against those accused of killing Jesus. vs.28b

1. They “condemned” Him, fulfilling Scripture. (ill. Matt. 26:65-66)

2. They “desired” Pilate that He should be “slain” (anaire,w— to put out of the way, to

slay—Joseph Thayer – ill. Matt.2:16).

3. They desired this of Pilate even though they found “no cause” (aiti,a –

charge, reason for a capital punishment) of death in Him. (ill. John 19:6-16)

G. The apostle Paul reminded the Jews that God allowed the things that happened to the Lord.


1. The things the rulers did “fulfilled” (completed) all that was written of Christ. vs.29a

2. They took Him down from the “tree”, and laid Him in a sepulcher. vs.29b

3. God raised him from the “dead” (nekrw/n-- to be destitute of life, with out life,

inainimate – Joseph Thayer) out from among . vs.30

i. He was seen “many days” of them which came up with him from Galilee to

Jerusalem. (Lk. 24:19-31; 1 Co. 15:5-8)

ii. Those who saw him are (His) “witnesses” unto “the people” (Israel).

H. God fulfilled the promise made to the “fathers”. vs.32

1. Paul “declared” unto the Jews “the promise” (A savior -- vs.23)

2. Paul declared the “glad tidings”

J. God “fulfilled” the promise unto the children of the “fathers”.

1. The promise was fulfilled in that He raised Jesus again. vs.33

2. The resurrection of Jesus was prophesied. vs. 33 (Ps. 2:7)

3. David also spoke of the resurrection of Jesus. vs.34-37

K. Paul exhorts the Jews that Jesus’ life prove that He was the fulfillment of the promise made

to the “fathers”. vs.38-39

1. “Through Him” was preached “unto you” forgiveness of sins. vs.38 (Acts 5:31)

2. All that believe are justified from all things:

a. Which they “could not” (hdunh,Qhte – were not able; did not have the ability)

b. Be “justified” (dikaiwQhnai – to justify, to declare righteous) by the law of

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Moses. vs. 39 ill. Heb. 7:19; Rom. 3:21-26

L. Paul warns the Jews of rejecting the good news about Jesus. vs.40

1. The term “beware” is the Greek word blepete – to glance at.

2. Rejection could lead them to the prophecy made about the prophets. (Hab. 1:5)

a. “Despisers” (katafronhthj – one who despises, one who thinks down on

another – Reinecker/Rogers – ill. Matt. 6:24; 18:10)

b. “Wonder” (Qaumasate – to be amazed) and “perish” (a,fani,sqhte –

emphasizes to vanish away, to destroy utterly so as to be invisible—


c. I will “work a work” in your days.

d. Ye shall not believe though one tells you in “detail” (ekdihgh/tai – to declare,

to relate in detail).



A. The Gentiles “besought” that the “words” Paul spake might be preached to them on the next

Sabbath. vs.42

1. The Gentiles “besought” (parakalew – to ask, to beseech, -- inceptive impf. –they

began to beseech—Reinecker/Rogers)

2. The Gentiles “besought” them as they were “gone out” of the synagogue.

B. Two groups of people were intent on hearing more after the congregation was “broken up”:


1. “Many” (belonging to) the Jews.

2. “Many” Religious proselytes (sebomenwn proshlutwn – men dededicated in service

to God who had converted over to Judism).

C. The two groups “followed” (hkolou, qhsan -- they were made to follow – i.e. because of

their message; possibly the Holy Spirit drew them to Paul and Barnabas) Paul and

Barnabas. 43b

1. “Speaking” to them,

2. They “persuaded” (e, piei/qon – to persuade, urged) them to continue in the Grace of


3. “To remain” – (epimenein – to remain, to abide; to stay with; continue in) purpose


D. The “whole city” (Antioch) came to hear “the word of God” the next Sabbath. vs.44

1. “Almost” – scedo,n -- in some languages is 'all the people in the town came, but

some did not' or 'only a few of the people in town didn't come.

2. The word “came” is suna, gw (pass. voice) means they were brought (probably as a

result of the good news)

3. The phrase “to hear” is an infinitive of purpose which denotes the sole reason why

they came.

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E. The Jews responded with disdain to the multitudes. vs.45

1. They were filled with “envy”

2. They “spake against” (avntile,gw -- to speak against, gainsay, contradict;

absolutely—Joseph Thayer) ill. Acts 28:19,22; Tit. 1:9; 2:9 those things which were

spoken by Paul:

a. They spake against them by “contradicting”.

b. They spake against them by “blaspheming”.

F. The Jews’ response to Paul and Barnabas results in a turning point in their ministry toward

the Jews. vs.46

1. It was “necessary” (avnagkai/oj, -- necessary; what one cannot do without,

indispensable – Joseph Thayer) that the word of God should first have been spoken

to you. 2 Co. 9:5; Phil. 1:24

2. “First” is prowton -- either in time or place, in any succession of things or of

persons. Rom. 1:16; 2:9,10

3. “Seeing” (Epeidh. --markers of cause or reason, often with the implication of a

relevant temporal element - 'because, since, for, inasmuch as – Louw Nida 1 Co.

15:21) that you “put it from you.

4. “You put it from you” (a, pwqei/sqe -- to use force in pushing or thrusting someone

or something away or aside - 'to push away, to thrust aside – Louw- Nida) Acts

7:27, 39; Rom. 11:1,2

5. “Judged yourselves” (reflexive pronoun emphasizes that their rejection stand in

judgment of the fact) unworthy of “everlasting life” (eternal.

6. “We turn” to the Gentiles.

G. Reaching the Gentiles was prophesied in the O.T. vs.47 (Lk. 2:32; Isaiah 40:17;


42:6; Isaiah 49:6)

1. I have “set” thee to be a “light” to the Gentiles. Lk. 2:32

2. Thou shouldest be “for salvation” unto the “ends” of the earth. Lk. 2:32

H. The Gentiles responded to the message with joy. vs.48

1. They were “glad” (ecai, rw -- to enjoy a state of happiness and well-being - Acts

11:23; 15:23)

2. They “glorified” (edoxa, zon -- to speak of something as being unusually fine and

deserving honor – Louw-Nida) the Word (from) the Lord.

3. Those “ordained” to eternal life believed.

a. The term “believed” is episteu, w -- to believe something to be true and,

hence, worthy of being trusted - 'to believe, to think to be true, to regard as

trustworthy. —Louw-Nida ill. Acts 4:4; 5:14; 8:12; 15:7; 16:31; 19:5

b. “As many as” is an adverb (osoi --pertaining to a comparative quantity of

objects or events - as many as, as much as) which limits who believed.

c. “Ordained” (pres. pass. part.) tetagme, noi -- to assign someone to a

particular task, function, or role - 'to appoint, to designate, to assign, to

give a task to. ill. Acts 22:10; 28:23; Rom. 13:1

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I. The “Word of the Lord” was “published” (diaferw – to carry through – Reinecker/Rogers)

throughout the region. vs.49

J. Paul’s message peaked the anger of the Jews. vs.50 a

1. The Jews “stirred up” (tarwtrunan --to stir up hostility against - 'to stir up, to incite

to -- hapox) others against Paul and Barnabas.

2. They stirred up the “devout and honorable (eusch, monas -- pertaining to having an

attractive form - 'attractive, presentable) women”

3. They stirred up the “chief men” of the city.

4. They “raised” persecution against Paul and Barnabas. vs.50 b

5. They “expelled” them out of their coasts (eo[rion --region or regions of the earth,

normally in relation to some ethnic group or geographical center, but not

necessarily constituting a unit of governmental administration - 'region, territory,

land' (and even district, though this might imply too precisely a governmental

area). vs.50 c

K. Paul and Barnabas responded allow the Jews to oppose themselves.

1. They “shook of the dust of their feet” against them. vs.51a (ill. Matt. 10:14)

2. They left and “came” unto Iconium. vs.51b

L. The disciples responded the way they did due to being filled by the Holy Spirit. vs.52

1. They were filled with joy. vs. 52a

2. They were filled with the Holy Spirit. vs.52b

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Chapter 14

(A.D. 46-48)


A. Paul reaches both Jews and Greeks in Iconium.

1. Paul begins as had become his custom, in the Jewish synagogue. vs.1

2. A “great multitude” believed from the Jews and Greeks.

B. The unbelieving Jews were unhappy with the response to Paul & Barnabas’ message.vs.2

1. They “stirred up” (to awaken, rouse up-Pass. to be roused, wake up, --

Liddell& Scott – ill. Acts 13:50) the Gentiles.

2. They made their minds “evil affected” (ekakosan—to make evil, injure, to irritate)

against “the brethren”.

C. Paul and Barnabas were undeterred by the commotion caused over them. vs.3

1. They abode a “long time” in Inconium.

2. They spoke bodly (to be confident, unrestrained in the face of adversity – ill. 1

Thess. 2:2; Eph. 6:20) “in the Lord”

a. They gave testimony unto the word of (concerning) His grace.

b. Signs and wonders were granted to be done by their hands. (ill. Heb. 2:1-4)

D. The Jew’s subversion of Paul and Barnabas eventually caused a “divide” (esci,sQh – a split

or a tear –ill. John 19:24 (physical); Acts 23:7 (metaphorical)) among the people of

Iconium. vs. 4

1. Part “held” (sun –were intimately together with) the Jews.

2. Part “held” (sun –were intimately together with) the apostles.

3. The Gentiles, the Jews and their rulers made an assault against the apostles. vs.5

a. They tried to use them “despitefully” (to mistreat, to treat shamefully, it

expresses insulting and outrageous treatment which is calculated publicly

to insult and openly to humiliate a person – Reinecker/Rogers. Ill. 1 Thess.

2:2; Acts 16:16-24

b. They tried to stone them.

4. Paul and Barnabas fled when they “were ware” (sunido, ntej – to have intimate

knowledge) of the plot. vs.6

a. They fled into Lystra & Derbe, cities of Lycaonia.

b. They preached (per. act. of euaggelw – to proclaim) the gospel there. vs.7

E. A disturbance arises among the people of Lycaonia when Paul and Barnabas refused

worship over their healing of an impotent man.

1. The impotent man was of Lystra descent. vs.8

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a. He was “impotent” (adu, natoj—without ability, strength – Joseph Thayer) in

his feet.

b. He was cripple from his mother’s womb.

c. He had never walked.

2. The impotent man responded to the message of the apostles. vs.9-10

3. Paul began interacting with the man:

a. He “steadfastly beheld” (to gaze upon intently) him. ill. Acts 1:10; 3:12;

6:15; 13:19

b. He “perceived” (idwn --to see with discernment of thought) ill. Acts 8:23;

11:23;13:21 that he had faith to be healed.

c. He instructed the man to stand upright on his feet.

F. The people of Lystra’ response to the healing was to offer worship to Paul and Barnabas.


1. They lifted up their voices the Lyconian speech (the speech of the natives of the land

as opposed to the Romans or military officials who were affluent in the Greek

language) “the gods have come down in the likeness of men.”

a. Hermes was considered the god of eloquence; the attendant, messenger and

spokesman of the gods. (I.S.B.E.)

b. Zeus was attributed to Barnabas because of his commanding presence.

2. The Lyconian worship of these deities included sacrifices. vs.13



A. Paul and Barnabas were appalled over their attempts to worship them. vs.14

1. They “rent” (diarrh, xantej – in New Testament the tearing of clothes was a symbol

of horror associated with sacriledge – Louw-Nida) their clothes. Ill. Matt. 26:65;

Mk. 14:63

2. They ran in among “the people” in an attempt to dissuade them.

B. Paul made two points in his attempt to dissuade their worship of he and Barnabas. vs.15

1. They were “like passion” (having similar desires and feelings—Paul

tries to lead these away from worshipping men to worshipping the true God) as the


2. Their message was for the Lyconians to turn from these “vanities” (pointless things

– ill. Eph. 4:17) to the true God.

a. He made heaven

b. He made earth.

c. He made the sea all things that are therein.

C. Paul offers justification for why the Lyconians may not have been familiar with the true

God. vs. 16-17

1. He allowed all “nations” Gentiles to walk in their own ways in times past.

a. The term “allowed” means to allow someone to do something, to let,

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b. “Walk” is the Greek term poreu, esQai –to go on a journey with a purpose in

mind) ill. Acts 18:6; 19:21; 20:1

c. The time frame in which God allowed them to walk in their own ways was in

“(the) generations past” (parwxhmenaij – to be gone by, past – emphasis is on

the passage of time). ill. Eph. 2:11-13; Rom. 11:25-30

2. He gave them a witness by “doing good”

a. He gave them rain from heaven.

b. He gave them fruitful seasons.

c. He filled the Gentiles hearts with food and gladness.


A. They “restrained them” (caused them to rest -- barely) from offering sacrifice to them. vs.18

B. Jews from Antioch and Iconium, however, “persuaded” the people. vs.19

1. They “stoned” (to kill or attempt to kill by means of hurling stones,

normally carried out by angry mobs - 'to stone to death —Louw-Nida) Paul.

2. They “drew” (dragged by force –ill. Acts 8:3; Rev. 12:4) him out of the city

supposing (drawing a conclusion about a matter based upon available

information–ill. Acts 7:25; 8:20; 16:27; 17:29) he had been dead.

C. Paul “rose up” as the disciples “stood round” (to surround, encircle, encompass – Joseph

Thayer aor. act. part. ill. John 10:24; Heb. 11:30) about him.

1. He went into the city.

2. The next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe.




A. They preached the gospel in Derbe. vs.20

B. They “taught” (were discipling) many.

C. They returned again to Lystra, Iconium and Antioch.

D. Paul and Barnabas engaged in four things when revisiting Lystra, Iconium and Antioch.


1. They “confirming the souls” (episth,rizwn –establishing, causing one to be able to

stand firm) of the disciples. (ill. 15:32; 41; 18:23)

2. They exhorted them to “continue” in the faith.

3. They reminded them that it was necessary that the entrance into the Kingdom of God

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was through “much tribulation”.

4. They ordained elders in every church.

a. They prayed with fasting.

b. They commended them to the Lord.

C. Paul and Barnabas preached “the word” in Perga. vs. 24-25

D. Paul and Barnabas returned to Antioch where they had began their apostolic journey. vs.26

1. It was the place where they had been “recommended” to the grace of God for “the


2. The apostles fulfilled all that was laid out for them to complete.

E. Paul and Barnabas discussed their journey with the church at Antioch. vs.27

1. They “gathered” the church together.

2. They “rehearsed”:

a. All that God had done “with” them.

b. How God had opened the door of “faith” unto the Gentiles.

F. They spent a considerable amount of time in Antioch. vs. 28

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Chapter 15




A. Judiazers taught the brethren in Antioch that it was necessary for the Gentiles to be

Circumcised after the customs of Moses. vs.1

1. The term “from Judea” is used elsewhere in Acts to denote those coming from the

the region of Jerusalem. (ill. Acts 12:10; 28:21)

2. They were continually teaching as doctrine to be practiced (edida,skon).

3. The customs (eqoj --a pattern of behavior more or less fixed by tradition and

generally sanctioned by the society - 'custom, habit – ill. Heb.10:25) of Moses.

(Acts 21:21; 28:17)

4. The phrase “ye cannot be saved” is used elsewhere in Scripture with reference to

initial salvation. Matt. 19:25; Acts 4:12; 14:9; 2 Thes. 2:10; 1 Tim. 2:4

B. Two words are used to describe the uproar that developed over the assertion that the

Gentiles should be under law. vs. 2a

1. The term “dissension” is stasews which means to rise up in open defiance of

authority, with the presumed intention to overthrow it or to act in complete

opposition to its demands - 'to rebel against, to revolt, to engage in

insurrection, rebellion. (Acts 19:40:23:10)

2. The second word used is a form of zeteo which is a debate.

C. Paul, Barnabas and others apostles and elders from Antioch determined to go up to

Jerusalem concerning the debate. vs.2b

D. The group headed for Jerusalem on the one hand, was focused on spreading the news about

the Gentiles. vs.3

1. They were officially “brought on their way” (to send someone on in the

direction in which he has already been moving, with the probable

implication of providing help - 'to send on one's way, to help on one's way)

sent forth to Jerusalem by the church at Antioch.vs.3a

2. They declared the conversion of the Gentiles to the brethren in Phoenicia and

Samaria. vs.3b

3. The news of the conversion of the Gentiles brought great joy to the brethren.


E. On the other hand, the group head to Jerusalem were singularly focused on resolving the

question of whether the Gentiles had to observe the customs of Moses. vs.4

1. The group was welcomed by the apostles and elders upon their arrival. vs.4

2. Paul and Barnabas gave the church at Jerusalem an accounting of their first apostolic

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journey. vs.4

F. Some of the believing Pharisees believed the Gentiles should be under law. vs.5

1. “Certain” ones from (out of) the sect of the believing Pharisees rose up to voice

their opinion over the direction of the Gentiles. vs. 5a

2. “Needful” is the Greek word Dei which is a logical necessity (ill. Matt. 16:21; Lk.

24:44; John 3:7)

a. They thought that it was necessary they be circumcised. vs.5b

b. They thought that it was necessary they keep (obey – Acts 21:25). 5b

G. The apostles and the elders gathered to consider the matter. vs.6-7

1. The issue brought together the apostles and the elders to “consider” (I,dei/n – to view

with mental discernment of thought)

2. The term “matter” goes back to the saying in verse 5. vs. 6

3. A considerable amount of “disputing” (debating) developed over the topic. vs.7a

H. Peter rose to bring perspective to the debate by telling what God led him to do. vs.7b

1. Peter began with what all assembled “understand” (e,pi,stasqe --to possess

information about, with the implication of an understanding of the

significance of such information) ill. Acts 10:28; 19:25 2. They all understood that God had chosen Peter to go to the Gentiles. vs.7b

a. God chose in ancient days that through the mouth of Peter the Gentiles

would hear the word of the gospel.

b. God chose in ancient days that through mouth of Peter the Gentiles

would believe the word they heard.

G. Peter established that God made no distinction any longer between the Jew and the

Gentile. vs.8-9

1. He “bare them witness” (testified of them) by giving to them (for their advantage)

the Holy Spirit just as he did to those at Pentecost. vs.8

2. God “put no difference” (he didn’t make a distinction) between the Jews and the

Gentiles. vs.9

a. God “purified” their hearts. (ill. 2Pet. 1:9; Tit. 2:14)

b. The instrument of their hearts being purified is by “the faith”.

H. Peter warned the Jews not to put a yoke on the Gentiles. vs.10

1. The term “now therefore” brings Peter’s point to a summation.

2. Peter warned that putting the Gentiles under the customs of Moses would be

tempting God. (putting God to the test -- ill 1 Co. 10:9)

3. Peter warned that putting the Gentiles under the customs of Moses would be a yoke

upon their necks.

4. Peter warned that neither the current Jews nor their fathers could “bear” (bastasai –

to carry a load; a heavy or burdensome object) the customs of Moses.

I. Peter established that the Gentiles in this dispensation are saved as are the Jews. vs.11-12a

1. The word “but” (on the contrary) is contrasted to the customs of Moses.

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2. It is “through Grace” (generally concerning) the Lord Jesus (Peter and others there)

were saved (initially) just as the Gentiles are saved.

3. Peter’s addressed silenced the crowd. vs.12a

J. Paul and Barnabas chimed in with their account of how the Lord used them among the

Gentiles. vs.12b

1. They “declared” (to draw out in narrative, unfold in teaching; a. to recount,

rehearse) Lk. 24:35 2. They declared how God had done signs in among the Gentiles.

3. They declared how God had done miracles in among the Gentiles.

K. The Judiazers remained upon hearing the reports. vs.13

L. James (the brother of Jesus) connected the reports to Old Testament prophecy.

1. Peter’s account was in accord (sumfwnh,swsin – joined together with –ill. Matt.

18:19) with prophecy concerning the Gentiles. vs.14-15

a. God foretold that he would visit the Gentiles. (Deut. 14:2)

b. God foretold that he would take out from the Gentiles a people for his name

(character) ill. Tit.2:14

2. God prophesied that He would return. (Amos 9:11 – Note: there is a difference of

quotation in Amos than in Acts – the difference being “in that day” verses “after

these things” (The difference in quotation is the difference between the actual and the

potential in God’s decree)

3. God prophesied that he would build the tabernacle of David. 2 Sam. 7:16-17; Lk.


4. God prophesied that setting up the tabernacle of David would cause the residue of

men perhaps might seek after the Lord.

5. God knew that this would happen from the (ages). vs.18

M. James proposed an answer as to how to handle the Gentiles.

1. “Wherefore” (because of the information provided by Peter, Paul and Barnabas).

2. James proposed that they be not “troubled” (to cause extra difficulty and hardship

by continual annoyance – Louw-Nida). Vs. 19

3. James proposed that they be given four instructions. vs.20

a. That they abstain (to beware of pollution from the use of meats left from the

heathen sacrifices) from pollutions of idols.

b. That they abstain from fornication.

c. That they abstain from “things strangled” (pertaining to choked or strangled

– Louw-Nida)

d. That they abstain from the blood.

4. Preventing offense of the Jews was the basis of the instructions given by James.




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A. The apostles and the elders wrote letters to the Gentiles to be taken back into Antioch in

order to settle the matter of whether they had to obey the Mosaic law. vs. 22-23

B. The letter sent by the apostles and elders was meant to put the Gentiles at ease concerning

the issue of the Mosaic law. vs.24

1. The Judiazers had “troubled” (to cause one inward commotion, take away his

calmness of mind, disturb his equanimity; to disquiet, make restless) them with


2. The Judiazers had “subverted” (to turn away violently from a right state, to unsettle ) their souls.

3. There were two sources of the troubling and subverting done by the Judiazers.

a. They contended that the Gentiles must be circumcised.

b. They contended that the Gentiles must “keep” the law.

4. The authority of the apostles and elders is seen in the statement “to whom we gave

no such commandment” (diaste,llomai – to admonish, order, charge – Thayer)

Matt. 16:20

a. They chose men who had “hazarded” (given over, betrayed) their lives

(souls) to travel with Barnabas and Paul vs.25-26

b. They sent Judas and Silas also to tell them the same thing by mouth. vs.27

C. The edict the apostles and elders gave the Gentiles was inspired by the Holy Spirit. vs. 28-


D. The group was dismissed and delivered the letter to Antioch. vs.30

1. They assembled the multitude.

2. They gave them the epistle.

E. The Gentiles were glad to receive the letter. vs.31

1. They rejoiced. vs.31a

2. They were encouraged – which led to their joy. vs.31a

3. Prophets Judas and Silas “exhorted” them with “many words”.

4. Prophets Judas and Silas “confirmed” (epesthrixan -- to cause someone to become

stronger in the sense of more firm and unchanging in attitude or belief - 'to

strengthen, to make more firm—Louw—Nida) them.

F. Judas and Silas remained in Antioch awhile before they where “let go in peace”

1. From the brethren”

2. To the apostles.

G. Silas remained in Antioch. vs.34 (textual problem, not in best manuscripts)

H. Paul and Barnabas continued in Antioch. vs.35

1. They continued, “teaching” the word of the Lord.

2. They continued, “preaching” the word of the Lord.

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MARK. Acts 15:36-41

A. Paul asked Barnabas to “go again” to see the brethren in every city in which they preached

the word of the Lord to see “how they do”. vs.36

1. The term “go again” is a form of epistrepheo which is to turn to or toward


2. Paul wanted to go back into every city in which they proclaimed the word

concerning the Lord.

B. Barnabas “determined” to take John Mark with them. vs.37

C. Paul thought it “not good” to take him with them. vs.38

1. John Mark “departed” from them from Pamphylia.

2. John Mark “went not with them” to the work.

D. A disagreement developed between Barnabas and Paul over the issue.

1. The contention was “sharp”.

2. They departed one from the other.

3. Barnabas took John Mark and sailed into Cyprus (the first stop on the 1st journey).

4. Paul “chose” Silas.

a. He departed being “recommended” by the brethren into the

Grace of God.

b. He went through Syria and Cilicia, “confirming” the churches.

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Chapter 16




A. In addition to Silas, Paul meets Timothy, a man who becomes one of his trusted co-


1. Timothy was raised in Derbe.

2. Timothy’s mother was a Jewess who believed the gospel. (See also 2 Tim. 1:

3. Timothy’s father was a Greek (a person who participates in Greek culture and in so

doing would speak the Greek language, but not necessarily a person of Greek

ethnic background – Louw-Nida).

4. Timothy was “well reported of” (he was continually having had a good testimony

or witness) by the brethren at Lystra and Iconium. (this indicates that Timothy had

possibly become a believer during Paul’s first apostolic journey --- ill. 1 Tim. 1:2; 2

Tim. 2:2)

5. Paul desired to take Timothy with him on his apostolic journey. vs.3

a. The term “would” is he desired.

b. “Go forth” is the term exelqein–to go out.

c. “With him” is an intimate term used to denote partnership in Scripture. (ill.

Acts 5:17,21; 19:38)

d. He had Timothy circumcised “because” of the Jews they would encounter.

(A practice of the Jews based upon the covenant of circumcision given to

Abraham in the third Abrahamic Covenant -- Acts 7:8;Gen. 17; 10-14)

i. The Jews existing in that area was acquainted with Timothy’s father.

ii. The Jews existing in that area knew the facts that his father was living

as a Greek

B. The “we” term in vs.10 (11,12,13) indicates the first time that Dr. Luke joins Paul and

begins to give a first hand account Paul’s episodes.

C. Paul and Silas and the ones with them delivered the decrees (do, gmata -- a formalized rule

(or set of rules) prescribing what people must do - 'law, ordinance, rule.' The difference

between 'a law' and 'a command' is that a law is enforced by sanctions from a society,

while a command carries only the sanctions of the individual who commands. When,

however, the people of Israel accepted the commands of God as the rules which they

would follow and enforce, these became their laws. – Louw-Nida) from the council at

Jerusalem to the Gentiles. vs.4

D. Two things result from the decrees handed down by the church in Jerusalem. vs.5

1. The believers were “established” (stere, ow -- figuratively, of firm beliefs and

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attitudes be strengthened -- Friegberg) by “the faith”.

2. The church “increased” (abounded) in number daily.



A. They passed through Phyrgia and the region of Galatia. vs.6

1. They were “gone through” (die, rcomai: to complete movement in a particular

direction - 'to move on to, to go on to—Louw-Nida – ill. Acts 13:14; 14:24)

2. The term “region of Galatia” appears also in Acts 18:23

B. They were “forbidden” (to withhold a thing from anyone, i. e. to deny or refuse one a

thing – Joseph Thayer -- ill. Mk. 10:14) by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in Asia.

1. They were “forbidden” to by the Holy Spirit.

2. They were “forbidden” to speak the Word in Asia (Ephesus, Philadelphia etc..)

C. They “assayed” (could be translated, they kept on attempting) to go (proceed for

themselves) into Bithynia.

1. Bithynia is the nearest point to Europe; bounded by Paphlagonia on the E., by the

Euxine on the N., by the Propontis on the W, by Mysia, Phrygia, and Galatia on

the S. Bithynia was originally bequeathed to Rome by Nicomedes III, 74 B.C., the

last of the kings, one of whom invited the Gauls; whence the central province was

called Gallo-Graecia or Galatia. – Fausset’s Bible Dictionary

2. The Holy Spirit “suffered them not” (evpitre, pw -- to allow someone to do

something - 'to allow, to let, to permit – Louw-Nida) to go there. ill. Acts 14:16;

1 Co. 10:13

D. They passed by Mysia and entered into Troas. vs.8-10

1. Paul spent a lot of time at Troas throughout his apostolic journeys. Acts 20:6-12

2. Paul saw a “vision” (the result of an act of gazing—the eyes are open – ill. Acts


a. He saw a man (avnh, r -- an adult male person of marriageable age - man) of


b. The man “prayed” (parakalew – to beech; beg) him: “come over” (pass

through, to come over) into Macedonia, and help us” (aor. imper. of

BonQhson – to help).

3. After Paul had seen the vision they “endeavored” (zhte, w: to try to learn the

location of something, often by movement from place to place in the process of

searching - 'to try to learn where something is, to look for, to try to find) to go (for

the purpose of going) into Macedonia.

a. They were “assuredly” (to cause to coalesce, to join together, put together)

because of the vision. (ill. Acts 9:22)

b. They concluded that the Lord had “called” (summoned) them to (for the

purpose of) preaching the gospel unto them. (see 2 Co. 2:12)

E. They loosed from Troas and headed for Macedonia.

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1. They made a “straight course” into Samothracia (an island of the Aegean Sea,

about 38 miles distant from the coast of Thrace where the river Hebrus empties

into the sea) and then into Neapolis. vs.11

2. They left Neapolis and entered into Philippi.

F. Philippi was the chief city of the part of Macedonia. vs.12

1. Philippi took its name from Philip I. of Macedon, who built it up from a village.

2. Philippi was a colony (kolwni, a -- a city or town with special privileges in that

the inhabitants of such a town were regarded as Roman citizens (such towns were

originally colonized by citizens of Rome).

2. They “abode” (remained) there certain days.


A. Paul and Silas don’t seek out a synagogue in Philippi but go down to the riverside. vs.13

1. They went “outside” the city.

2. They went alongside a river.

3. It was on the Sabbath.

4. It was the “wont”(They were supposing it to be a place) for prayer to be made


5. Paul and Silas sat down and began speaking unto the women, which “resorted”

(come together, gather, assemble) there.

B. A certain woman stood out to Paul and Silas. vs.14-15

1. Her name was Lydia.

2. She was a seller of purple (Thyatira was famous for its dyeing. There was a great

demand for this fabric as it was used for the official toga at Rome and in the

Roman colonies – Reinecker/Rogers) from the city of Thyatira.

3. She “worshipped” (to express in attitude and ritual of one's allegiance to and

regard for deity - 'to worship, to venerate) God.

4. The Lord “opened” her heart that she should “attend” to the things, which were

spoken of Paul.

a. The term for opened is to open the mind of one, i. e. cause him to

understand a thing, to open one's soul, i. e. to rouse in one the faculty of

understanding or the desire of learning, (ill. Lk. 24; 32,45)

b. The term for attend is to be in a continuous state of readiness to learn of any

future danger, need, or error, and to respond appropriately - 'to pay

attention to, to keep on the lookout for, to be alert for, to be on one's guard

against the things spoken by Paul. (ill. Heb. 2:1)

5. She and her household (relatives, servants etc…) were baptized.

6. She “besought” Paul and his entourage to abide at her house.

a. She besought them “since” they “judged” (kekrinw -- to come to a conclusion

in the process of thinking and thus to be in a position to make a decision –

to come to a conclusion, to decide, to make up one's mind – perf. Act.) her

faithful “in the Lord” (rather to the Lord)

b. She “constrained” (compel by employing force (Polybius 26, 1, 3): tina, to

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constrain one by entreaties. -- Luke 24:29) them to stay there.

C. Paul cast a demon out of a slave girl in Philippi. vs.16-18

1. The “damsel” was possessed with a “spirit” of divination. vs.16a

a. A damsel is a young female slave girl. (ill. Acts 12:7)

b. A spirit of divination is the Greek word puqwn – phthon, prophecy. The word

was used for the serpent that guarded the Delphic oracle and later was

slain by Apollo. The word came to designate spirit of divination, then also a

ventriloquist, who was believed to have such a spirit dwelling in his belly.

2. The “damsel” brought her masters much gain by means of her “soothsaying” (to

function as a more or less professional predicter of future events for the sake of a

fee - 'to tell fortunes). vs.16b

3. The damsel “followed” (katakolouqe, w-- to come/go behind or after, with the

possible implication of continual and determined action - 'to follow along behind,

to keep on following—Louw-Nida) Paul and his entourage. vs.17

a. She cried, “these men are the men of the most high God”.

b. She cried that they “show unto us the way of salvation”.

4. The “damsel” followed them for “many” days. vs.18

a. She kept on doing the same thing over the course of many days.

b. She “grieved” (diapone, omai -- to be strongly irked or provoked at

something or someone - 'to be irked, to be provoked, to become angry –

Louw-Nida – ill. Acts 4:2) Paul with her persistent crying.

c. Paul “turned” and spoke to the spirit.

i. He commanded the spirit to come out of her in the name of Jesus

Christ. (ill. Acts 3:6;4:10)

ii. The spirit came out in the same hour.

D. The masters of the “damsel” reacted to her loss of ability due to the casting out of the spirit.


1. They “caught” (evpilamba, nomai --to take hold of or grasp, with focus upon the goal

of the motion - 'to take hold of, to grasp – Louw-Nida) Paul and Silas. vs.19a

2. They “drew” (dragged) them into the market place (court house) unto the rulers.


3. They “brought” them to the magistrates (governmental officials). vs. 20a

4. They gave these charges against them. vs.20b-21

a. They pointed out that the men “being” () Jews.

b. They pointed out that they “exceedingly trouble” (evktara,ssw -- to cause

people to riot against - 'to stir up against, to start a riot, to cause an uproar -- Ac 17.5. Lk 23.5. Acts 21.30) the city.

c. They “teach”(proclaim) customs (religious practices), which are not “lawful”


i. “For us to receive” (welcome).

ii. “For us to observe (practice), being Romans”

5. The multitude “rose up together” (sunefi, sthmi-- rise up together, against one)

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against them. vs.22a

6. The magistrates: vs.22b

i. “Rent off” their clothes

ii. “ Commanded they “beat” (rabidzein – to beat with rods. The beating

with rods was done by the lectors as a means of police coercion –

Reinecker/Rogers) them.

7. They “cast” them into prison. vs.23

a. “Having laid many stripes (wounds) upon them”.

b. “Charging the jailer to keep them safely (under close guard) ”.



A. The jailers tied their best to secure their prisoners. vs.24

1. They “thrust” them into the inner prison.

2. They made their feet “fast” in the stocks (xu, lon – wood, stock. A Roman

instrument of torture with more than two holes for the legs so that they could be

forced widely apart unto a position, which soon became intolerably painful).

B. The response of Paul and Silas to their circumstance was consistent with their trust in God.


1. They “prayed” (were worshipping – ill. Eph. 6:18at midnight.

2. They “sang praises” (hymn zing – a sign of being spiritual – Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16)

unto God at midnight.

3. The “prisoners” heard them.

C. God provided for the release of Paul and Silas from prison through a great earthquake. vs.26

1. The “foundations” of the prison were shaken (saleu, w-- to cause something to move

back and forth rapidly, often violently - 'to shake).

2. All the doors were opened immediately.

3. The “bands” of all were loosed.

D. The keeper of the prison resigned himself to the doom he would face for escaped prisoners.

vs. 27-28

1. Seeing the prison doors opened after awakening out of his sleep, he: vs.27

a. Drew out his sword to kill himself

b. He was supposing the prisoners had fled.

2. Paul and Barnabas stayed put after the earthquake and urged the keeper not to do

harm to himself. vs.28

E. The decision of Paul and Barnabas not to escape left an impression upon the keeper of the

prison. vs.29-30

1. He called for a light.

2. He sprang (rushed quickly) in.

3. He came trembling and fell down before Paul and Silas.

4. He brought them out (of the prison).

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5. He inquired as to what (dei/ -- to be that which must necessarily take place, often

with the implication of inevitability - 'to be necessary, must) he could do to be


F. Paul and Silas led the Philippian jailer to the Lord. vs.31-32

1. They told him to “believe” upon the Lord Jesus Christ.

a. This belief would result in him being saved.

b. This belief would result in his household being saved.

2. They spake unto him the word of the Lord.

3. They spake unto all that were in his house.

G. The jailer tried to make amends for his part in Paul and Silas’ problems. vs.33-34

1. He washed their stripes.

2. He was baptized.

3. All his household were baptized.

4. He took Paul and Silas into his house.

a. He fed them.

b. He rejoiced.

c. He continued believing in God with his entire house.

H. The magistrates had a change of heart by morning. vs.35-37

1. They order them to be let go. vs.35-36

2. Paul refused to leave due to the unjust treatment they received. vs.37

a. He asserted that they had beat them “openly”

b. He asserted that they had beaten them “uncondemned”, even though they

were Romans. (It was unlawful to beat an uncondemned Roman citizen --

Acts 23:25-29)

c. Paul asserted that they “cast us” into prison.

d. Paul asserted that they were now trying to “thrust” them out “privily”.

e. Paul asserted that the magistrates should come to them to let them out.

J. Paul’s comments brought fear to the magistrates. vs.38-39

1. They “feared” because they were Romans.

a. This was a fact that the rebel rousers neglected to point out when they

brought Paul and Silas before the magistrates. (vs.20)

2. They “besought” them.

3. They “brought” them out.

4. They “desired” them to depart out of the city.

K. Paul and Silas left the prison after the magistrates’ personal appearance.

1. They went out of the prison.

2. They entered into the house of Lydia.

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3. They “comforted” the brethren and departed.

Chapter 17

(A.D. 51-54 )



A. Paul renews his custom in Thessonalica of taking the message of the gospel into the Jewish

synagogue. vs.1-2

1. Thessonalica was a large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the capital

of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was ruled by a praetor. It

was named after Thessalonica, the wife of Cassander, who built the city. She was

so called by her father, Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his

gaining a victory over the Thessalians. 2. Paul demonstrated two customs when he entered a city with a Jewish synagogue:

a. He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath.

b. He lectured to the adherents from “the Scriptures” (Old Testament

Scriptures). Rom. 15:4; Acts 18:28

3. Paul had two directives in mind when he lectured the Jews:

a. He “opening” -- to open the mind of one, i. e. cause him to

understand a thing. Luke 24:45

b. He “alleging” – setting something before someone with the

expectation of a response. – Context. ill.1Co. 10:27

4. The object of Paul’s opening of Scripture and alleging was the fact

that Jesus, the one whom the Jews killed was the Messiah they had expected and that

the Old Testament proved that two things were necessary for the Messiah to

experience: vs.3

a. Paul asserted that the Old Testament Scriptures prove that it was

necessary for Messiah to suffer. Ps. 22:1-19; Is. 53

b. Paul asserted that Old Testament Scriptures prove that it was

necessary for Messiah to be raised from the dead. Lk. 9:22; 18:32-33

c. Paul asserted that Jesus was the Messiah that the Jews had anticipated.

B. Paul’s persuaded a few of those meeting in the Synagogue. vs.4

1. Those out from among the Jews that believed “consorted” -- to begin an association

with someone, whether temporary or permanent - 'to join, to join oneself to, to

become a part of. -- Louw-Nida (ill. Acts 5:36)

2. There were two groups of people who joined them:

a. Some of those who were devout Greeks.

b. Some of the Jewish women.

C. The Jews who were not persuaded, took action against Paul and Silas. vs.5

1. They gathered for themselves lewd fellows of the “baser sort” (porneros – ill. Lk.

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6:45) men.

2. They formed a mob with the evil men.

3. They “set the city in an uproar” -- to stir up against, to start a riot, to cause an

uproar. – Lowa-Nida (ill. Mt 26.5)

4. They confronted Jason, Paul and Silas’ host desiring to lead him into the crowd.

D. The Jews made false accusations against Jason and other brethren. vs.6a

1. When they couldn’t find Paul and Silas, they drug Jason and other brethren to the

administration of civil affairs (Louw-Nida).

2. They accused Jason and the believers of “turning the world upside down”. vs.6b-7

a. The word for world in this passage is oikomena which is used of the

inhabited world – everywhere people dwell as opposed to areas that are


b. They accused them of “turning the world upside down” is the Greek word

anastatountes which means to cause people to rebel against or to reject

authority - 'to incite to revolt, to cause to rebel. – Louw-Nida (ill. Gal. 5:12)

c. They accused Jason of welcoming them for his own benefit. vs.7a

d. They accused them of practicing decrees contrary to Cesar by saying there

was another (of a different kind of king) Jesus. vs.7b

E. The people and the rulers of the city were “troubled” (to render anxious or distressed, to

perplex the mind of one by suggesting scruples or doubts -- Joseph Thayer) over the

accusations. vs.8 (ill. Acts 15:24)

F. The authorities took “security” (either by accepting sponsors, or by a deposit of money

until the case had been decided – Joseph Thayer) from Jason and the other believers they

released them. vs.9

G. The brethren set Paul out of Thessonalica due to the danger. vs.10

1. They immediately sent him “through the night” (under the cloak of darkness –

ill.Acts 23:31) Paul and Silas out of Thessonalica.

2. They sent them to Berea (A town of southwestern Macedonia, in the district of

Emathia. It lay at the foot of Mt. Bermius, on a tributary of the Haliacmon, and

seems to have been an ancient town, though the date of its foundation is uncertain.

A passage in Thucydides (i.61) relating to the year 432 BC probably refers to

another place of the same name, but an inscription (Inscr Graec, II, 5, 296i)

proves its existence at the end of the 4th century BC, and it is twice mentioned by

Polybius (xxvii.8; xxviii.8). After the battle of Pydba in 168 BC Berea was the first

city to surrender to Rome and fell in the third of the four regions into which

Macedonia was divided -- I.S.B.E. 3. Upon their arrival they entered into the synagogue of the Jews.


A. The Bereans accepted the word of God spoken to them by Paul and Silas. vs.11

1. They were “more noble” (euvgene, steroi --pertaining to having high status, with the

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possible implication of special family relations contributing to such status - 'high

status, important. – Lowa- Nida) ill. Lk. 19:12; 1 Co. 1:26

a. The term eugenesteroi is used in the comparative degree to denote the

superiority of their status.

b. The Bereans “received” (to receive favorably, give ear to, embrace,

make one's own, approve, not to reject – Joseph Thayer) the word of


c. The Bereans “received” the Word of God with all “readiness of mind”

(eagerness to engage in some activity or event - 'eagerness, desire –


2. Because the Bereans were “more noble” they “searched the Scriptures” daily. vs.11

a. The word “searched” is avnakri, nw which means to try to learn the nature or

truth of something by the process of careful study, evaluation and judgment

- 'to examine carefully, to investigate, to study thoroughly – Louw Nida (ill.

1 Co. 9:3)

b. The Scriptures they searched were the Old Testament Scriptures that were

available, but expensive.

c. The purpose of their search was to see if the things in the Scriptures were as

Paul and Silas said they were. (ill. vs.3)

3. Many out from among the Bereans believed. vs12

a. The term “honorable women” were those women who were of good standing,

honorable, influential, wealthy, respectable – Joseph Thayer

b. The term “not a few” means there were many who believed among the Jewish


B. The Jews from Thessonalica gained knowledge that the Word of God was preached in Berea

by Paul and travel there to undermine him. vs.13

1. The Jews got experiential knowledge of the fact that Paul was proclaiming the Word

of God in Berea.

2. The Jews “stirred up” (is made up of two different Greek words) the crowd in Berea.

a. Saleuo (saleu, w-- to cause something to move back and forth rapidly,

often violently - 'to shake – Louw-Nida – ill. 2 Thess. 2:2)

b. Kakei – is the word for to do that which is lacking in character – in this case,

they cause the minds of the crowd to be shaken towards consideration of that

which is evil.

C. Paul was sent away by the brethren from Berea, while Silas and Timothy remained there.


1. The word “remained” (to endure, bear bravely and calmly: absolutely, ill-treatment

– Joseph Thayer) ill. Heb. 12:2; 1 Pet. 2:20 emphasize the fact that Silas and

Timothy were not having a good time while they stayed in Bereaa.

2. Paul was sent as far as the sea (the Aegaean Sea where he sailed into Athens).

a. The ones that “conducted” (assign to someone a position of authority over

others - 'to put in charge of, to appoint, to designate – Louw-Nida) ill. Acts

13:5 vs.15a

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b. Paul summoned Silas and Timothy to join him in Athens. vs.15b


A. The pagan conditions in Athens “stirred’ (aroxusmo, j -- to irritate, provoke, rouse to anger – ill. 13:50; Heb. 10:24) to debate the validity of the heathen practices with those on Mars

hill. vs.16

B. Several words are commonly used of Paul’s spreading the Word of God up this point in the

book of Acts.

1. Proclaim (katagge, llw -- to announce, with focus upon the extent to which the

announcement or proclamation extends - 'to proclaim throughout, to announce, to

speak out about). (Acts 13:5; 15:36)

2. Preached (lale, w: to speak or talk, with the possible implication of more informal

usage (though this cannot be clearly and consistently shown from NT contexts) –

'to speak, to say, to talk, to tell) (Acts 13:42, 43; 14:1; 16:6)

3. Speaking boldly (parrhsia, zoma -- to speak openly about something and with

complete confidence - 'to speak boldly, to speak openly). Acts 14:3

4. To speak Good News (euvaggeli, sasqai -- in the N. T. used especially of the glad

tidings of the coming kingdom of God, and of the salvation to be obtained in it

through Christ, and of what relates to this salvation – Joseph Thayer) Acts

14:21; 15:7; 16:10

C. Provoked by the idolatry in Athens, Paul turns to debate as a means of winning those in

Athens. vs.17

1. The word for debate is Dialegeto (diele, geto – to argue about differences of

opinion - 'to argue, to dispute --Acts 18:4; 20:7) which is only used in this form two

other times in the book of Acts.ill. Lk. 9:46

2. Paul disputed in the synagogue with the Jews and those who were devout.

3. Paul disputed in the “market” (a commercial center with a number of places for

doing business - 'market, marketplace, business center -- Louw-Nida) with those

that (happen to be present, to meet by chance) met him there.

D. Certain philosophers were eager to debate with Paul.

1. The Epicureans --pertaining to the philosophical system of the Greek philosopher

Epicurus, who taught that the world is a series of fortuitous combinations of atoms

and that the highest good is pleasure.

2. The Stoics -- - pertaining to the philosophical system of the Greek philosopher

Zeno, who taught that people should be free from excessive joy or grief and submit

without complaint to necessity.

3. These two “encountered” (to give careful consideration to various implications of

an issue - 'to reflect on, to think about seriously, to think deeply about –

LouwNida) Paul.

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E. The Greek philosophers were condescending towards Paul’s message.

1. Some called him a “babbler” (spermolo,goj -- a figurative extension of meaning of a

term based on the practice of birds in picking up seeds, one who acquires bits and

pieces of relatively extraneous information and proceeds to pass them on with

pretense and show - 'ignorant show-off, charlatan).

2. Some thought he advocated strange (demons) because he preached the resurrection

of Jesus Christ from the dead.

F. Paul was taken by the philosophers up to the Areopagus (a rocky height in the city of

Athens not far from the Acropolis toward the west; pa, goj a hill,: Areioj belonging to

(Ares) Mars, Mars' Hill; so called, because, as the story went, Mars, having slain

Halirrhothius, son of Neptune, for the attempted violation of his daughter Alcippe, was

tried for the murder here before the twelve gods as judges) for further examination of his

teaching. vs.19-20

1. The philosophers wanted to know the details of Paul’s “new” (kind) doctrine. vs.19

2. The new kind of doctrine raised the curiosity of the philosophers.vs.20

3. The Athenians and visitors to the Areopagus spent much of their time doing two


a. To speak some new thing.

b. To hear some new thing.



A. Paul begins the message focused upon the Athenian’s faith in a higher being.

1. The word “superstitious” (deisidai,mwn) may occur in either a good or a bad

sense; that is to say, it may mean either 'very religious' or 'superstitious,'

although the meaning of 'superstitious' is primarily a later development in

the meaning of this word. In Ac 17.22 there seems every reason to believe

that Paul was using the term in a positive sense. – Louw-Nida (ill. Acts

25:19) vs.22

2. Paul came that conclusion based as he “perceived” (to view attentively, take a

view of, survey; to view mentally, consider – Joseph Thayer --John 4:19

3. Paul observed their “devotions” (objects of worship). vs.23a

4. Paul noticed among their devotions an altar (an elevated place; very frequent in

Greek writings from Homer down, a raised place on which to offer sacrifice) to an

“unknown” God. vs.23b

5. The Athenians were ignorant (ill. Rom. 10:3) of the true God. vs.23c

B. Paul gives the Athenians a discourse on the true God. vs. 24

1. He made the world (Kosmos – technical usage for all of creation). vs.24a

2. He made all the things in it. vs.24b

3. He is Lord (Master) of Heaven and Earth. vs.24c

4. He does not dwell in temples made with hands. (ill. Acts 7:47-50)

5. He is not “worshipped” (served for the need of survival) by the hands of men. vs.25a

6. He is the one that gives life (the state of one who is possessed of vitality or is

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animate) and breath (pne,w -- air in relatively rapid movement, but without

specification as to the force of the movement - 'wind, blowing, to blow) and all

things. (out of His goodness) vs.25c

7. He made out of one “blood” (man) all nations of men (Gen. 10:5) to “dwell” (settle

down and feel at ease) upon all the face of the earth. vs.26a

8. He “determined” (orisas—marked off) the times (kairous – seasons—proper

time for something to occur – 1 Co. 4; 5; Acts 1:7 ;) “before appointed” (to give

detailed instructions as to what must be done - 'to order, to instruct, to tell, to

command). vs. 26b

9. He “determined” the “bounds of their habitation” (orothesias --a setting of

boundaries, laying down limits).

C. Paul explains to the Athenians why God made determinations for the times and habitation of

men. vs.27

1. So that men could seek God. vs.27a

2. The term “if haply” (eiv a; ras) means that a possibility exist that something

could happen as a result of God’s action. (ill. Mk. 11:13) vs.27b

a. God’s determinations make it possible that men might “feel after” (to

touch by feeling and handling, implying movement over a surface -

'to touch, to feel, to handle, to feel around for) Him.

b. God’s determinations make it possible that men might “find” Him. 3.

3. God is not existing away from men. vs.27b-28

a. Men live in (the essence) Him.

b. Men move in (the essence) Him.

c. Men exist in (the essence) Him.

4. An Athenian poet Aratus advanced the idea that men originated from God.

D. Paul tried to steer the Athenians away from paganistic concepts of the true God. vs.29

1. Paul warned that the members of the Godhead should not be liken to corruptible

things which is man’s habit to do. vs.29a (ill. Rom. 1:23)

2. God “winked” (to overlook, to purposely pay no attention to, disregard) at this

view of him in the “times of ignorance”. vs.30a

3. God now commands all men everywhere to “repent” (have a change of mind about

the true God --- Acts 26:20; 1 Thess. 1:9) vs. 30b

4. They should repent because He has appointed a day of judgment for the

world. vs.31 (ill. 2 Tim. 4:1)

C. The Athenians were cool to Paul’s assertion of Christ’s resurrection from the dead.


E. Paul departed out of their midst. vs. 33

F. Certain ones out from the Athenians believed and joined themselves to Paul. vs. 34

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Chapter 18

(A.D. 51-54 )


A. Paul entered into Corinth upon his departure from Athens. vs.1

1. The term “departure” is in the passive voice denoting someone caused Paul to

leave Athens and go into Corinth (possibly the Holy Spirit)

2. Corinth -- the Phoenicians, who settled in Corinth, left many traces of

their civilization in the industrial arts, such as dyeing and weaving, as well

as in their religion and mythology. The Corinthian cult of Aphrodite, of

Melikertes (Melkart) and of Athene Phoenike are of Phoenician origin.

Poseidon, too, and other sea deities were held in high esteem in the

commercial city. Various arts were cultivated and the Corinthians, even in

the earliest times, were famous for their cleverness, inventiveness and

artistic sense, and they prided themselves on surpassing the other Greeks in

the embellishment of their city and in the adornment of their temples. There

were many celebrated painters in Corinth, and the city became famous for

the Corinthian order of architecture: an order, which, by the way, though

held in high esteem by the Romans, was very little used by the Greeks

themselves. It was here, too, that (hymn to Dionysus) was first arranged

artistically to be sung by a chorus; and the Isthmian games, held every two

years, were celebrated just outside the city on the isthmus near the Saronic

Gulf. But the commercial and materialistic spirit prevailed later. Not a

single Corinthian distinguished himself in literature. Statesmen, however,

there were in abundance: Periander, Phidon, Timoleon. –I.S.B.E.

B. Paul met two trusted companions Aquila and his wife Priscilla at Corinth. vs.2

1. The couple along with other Jews were dismissed from Rome around a.d. 52

because of a reported uprising among the Jews.

2. Aquila and Paul were both tent makers.

3. The couple were an encouragement to Paul and to others during the course of

his ministry.

a. Paul considered them his “co-workers” in the Lord. Rom. 16:3

b. The couple hosted a church in their home. 1 Co. 16:19

c. The couple helped guided Apollos to the correct doctrine for the

Dispensation of grace. Acts 18:26



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A. Before Silas and Timothy’s arrival, Paul reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath.


1. He “reasoned” (lectured, debated) in the Synagogue on the sabbath.

2. He “persuaded” (to persuade, i. e. to induce one by words to believe --

Joseph Thayer) Jews and the Greeks.

B. Paul got back to the message when Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia. vs.5

1. Their arrival caused Paul to be “pressed in the spirit”

a. Joseph Thayer -- to hold completely, i. e. a. to hold fast; properly,

a prisoner; metaphorically, in the passive, to be held by, closely

occupied with. Acts 18:5

b. Liddell & Scott -- to constrain or force one to a thing,

c. Friberg Lexicon -- being totally claimed by a task devote oneself

completely to, be occupied with; he was wholly absorbed in


2. Their arrival caused Paul to witness to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ (the

Messiah in whom they had awaited)

C. The Jews in Corinth rejected Paul’s message that Jesus was the Messiah. vs.6

1. They “opposed themselves” (avntita,ssw only middle in the NT; strictly set in

array against; as setting oneself against oppose, resist, be hostile toward – Friberg Lexicon)

2. They “blasphemed” (specifically, of those who by contemptuous speech

intentionally come short of the reverence due to God or to sacred things --

Joseph Thayer)

3. Paul “shook his raiment” (by this symbolic act a person expresses extreme

contempt for another and refuses to have any further contact with him –

Joseph Thayer – ill. Matt. 10:14)

4. Paul “turned” (to pursue the journey on which one has entered, continue

one's journey) to the Gentiles.

D. Paul departed the synagogue and entered the house of Justus whose house “joined

hard” (sunomoroj-- having joint boundaries, bordering on) to the synagogue. vs.7

E. Paul’s ministry bore fruit in Corinth. vs.8

1. Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue believed.

2. Many of the Corinthians believed and were baptized.

F. Paul’s time in Macedonia took a toll on him to the point he had to be reassured by a

personal appearance from the Lord. vs.9

1. The Lord appeared to Paul in a vision (one of many times He had promised to

appear to Paul – Acts 26:16; 2 Tim. 4:16-17)

2. The Lord encouraged Paul to “be not afraid” (The negative in the imperative

tense should read: “stop being afraid” for Paul was afraid as he wrote to the

Corinthians of his state of mind when he came to them. – 1 Co. 2:3)

3. On the contrary, the Lord told Paul to “speak”. (He had been afraid to do so

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until Silas and Timothy arrived from Thessonalica – vs.5)

4. The term “hold not thy peace” (don’t think about being silent).

G. The Lord gave Paul three reasons as to why he should stop being afraid. vs.10

1. The Lord was “with” (meta ) you.

2. No man shall “set on thee” (to attack or make an assault upon – Joseph

Thayer) you.

3. The Lord had “much people” (many people that belonged to Him) in Corinth.

H. Paul continued there a year and six months teaching them the Word from God. vs.11



A. Gallio was (according to extra-canonical references) was born at Cordova, but

came to Rome in the reign of Tiberius. He was the brother of the philosopher

Seneca, by whom, as also by Statius, reference is made to the affable nature of his

character. As Achaia was reconstituted a proconsular province by Claudius in 44

AD, the accession of Gallio to office must have been subsequent to that date, and

has been variously placed at 51-53 AD The trial was not of long duration. Although

Gallio extended his protection to the Jewish religion as one of the religions

recognized by the state, he contemptuously rejected the claim of the Jews that their

law was binding upon all. In the eyes of the proconsul, the only law universally

applicable was that of the Roman code and social morality: under neither was the

prisoner chargeable; therefore, without even waiting to hear Paul's speech in his

own defense, he summarily ordered his lictors to clear the court. – I.S.B.E.

B. The Roman policy was not to get involve in the laws of Israel that didn’t conflict

with Roman law.

1. This is illustrated in the Jews bringing of Jesus before Pilate. John 18:31

2. This is illustrated in the Jews bringing of Paul before Festus. Acts 25:17-19

C. The Jews “made insurrection” (to use sudden physical force against someone as

the outgrowth of a hostile attitude - 'to attack, to assault. – Louw-Nida) with one

accord against Paul and brought him to the “judgment” (bema) seat. vs.12

D. Their one accusation against Paul is that he “persuadeth men to worship God

contrary to the law”. vs.13

1. The word “persuadeth” means to solicit, incite (Thayer).

2. Worship is the word sebesqai (to be devoted or dedicated to) God.

E. Gallio would not “bear with” the Jews’ attempts to prosecute Paul upon the basis of

Roman law giving two standards for Roman intervention. vs.14

1. A “wrong” (adikhma -- a completed act of deliberate wrongdoing wrong,

crime—Freiberg Lexicon—ill. Acts 24:20)

2. “Wicked lewdness” is thoughtless, reckless action, prank, regarded as a

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serious offense against law that is lacking and character and influences

others into that same type of behavior (i.e. one who spurs an insurrection).

F. Gallio argued that matters concerning the Jews’ religion should be judged under

Israel’s law. vs.15

1. The idea of “questions” (to express forceful differences of opinion without

necessarily having a presumed goal of seeking a solution - 'to dispute,

dispute – Louw-Nida – Acts 23:29; 25:19; 26:3)

a. Some disputes were concerned “words” concerning the law.

b. Some disputes concerned “names” (the proper name of a person or

object – Louw-Nida) concerning the law.

2. Gallio determined not to be a judge over matters of Jewish law.

3. Gallio dismissed them from the judgment seat. vs.16

G. In lieu of Gallio’s response, some of the people took matters into their own hands.

vs. 17

1. The “Greeks” in the crowd seized Sosthenes, the “synagogue ruler” (It was

the ruler's business to control the synagogue services, as for instance to

decide who was to be called upon to read from the Law and the Prophets

and to preach (Acts 13:15; compare Lk 13:14); he had to look after the

discussions, and generally to keep order. – I.S.B.E.) and beat him before the

judgment seat.

2. Gallio (because it was concerning Jewish law) “ cared for none of these

things” (to think about something in such a way as to make an appropriate

response - 'to think about, to be concerned about – Louw -- Nida).



A. Paul remained in Corinth a sufficient amount of days. vs.18a

B. “Took his leave” means (to separate oneself, withdraw oneself from anyone, i. e. to

take leave of, bid farewell to—Joseph Thayer) ill. Mark 6:46; Luke 9:61; Acts

18:21 of the brethren. vs. 18b

C. Paul sailed into Syria with Priscilla and Aquila. vs. 18 c

D. A shaven head followed the completion of a Nazirite vow which was conducted

under law. vs.18d

1. There were three kinds of vows in the Old Testament.

a. A vow of devotion.

b. A vow of abstinence.

c. A vow of destruction.

2. The Nazirite vow was made by a layperson of either sex who was bound by a

vow of consecration to God’s service for a specific period of time or in some

cases for life (Lev. 27:2). He could drink no fruit of the vine; coul not cut

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his hair and could not defile himself by going near a dead person. These

outward signs served as a public testimony of his dedication to God. (ill.

Samson—Judges 13; Samuel—1 Sam. 1:9-11) – Ryrie Study Bible note

3. Paul could shave his head because he had completed his vow.

C. Paul traveled from Syria into Ephesus with Priscilla and Aquilla. vs.19

1. He left the couple in Ephesus.

2. He lectured in the Jewish synagogue while in Ephesus.

D. The Jews asked Paul to remain awhile with them and he consented not do stay but

promised to return if it were God’s will. vs.20-21

E. Paul went from Ephesus to Caesarea, greeting the church there and then heading

down into Antioch. vs. 22

F. Paul passed through all the country of Galatia and Phrygia. vs.23

1. Paul passed through them “in order” (kaqexh/j-- a sequence of one after

another in time, space, or logic - 'in order, in sequence, one after another –


2. Paul spent time “strengthening” (to cause someone to become stronger in

the sense of more firm and unchanging in attitude or belief - 'to strengthen,

to make more firm – Louw--Nida) all the disciples. ill. Acts 14:22; 15:41



A. Apollos was a citizen of Alexandria, Egypt an ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt,

so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long

period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been

destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings

of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only

incidentally in the New. Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they

had a synagogue Ac 6:9 at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said

that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It possessed a famous library of

700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the

Hebrew Bible—Easton’s Bible Dictionary

B. Apollos’ upbringing in Alexandria made him an impressive speaker. vs.24a

1. He was an “eloquent” (skilled in speech learned, educated, skilled

in knowledge – Friberg Lexicon) man.

2. His eloquence was the source of problems at Corinth. 1 Co.1:12;3:3-6, 22;


C. Apollos was “mighty” in “the Scriptures”. vs.24b

1. The term “mighty” means strong; powerful; able, capable of; influential,

leading; person of strong faith or conscience; well versed. – UBS Lexicon.

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2. “The Scriptures” is a term used pertaining to the Old Testament Scriptures.

(ill. Matt. 21:42; Lk. 24:47)

D. Apollos was proficient in God’s program up to the Day of Pentecost. vs.25

1. He was taught well in the way of the Lord. vs.25a

a. The term was “instructed” (to inform by word of mouth; passive to

be orally informed – Joseph Thayer – ill. Lk. 1:4; Acts 21:21)

b. The “way of the Lord” pertains to the expectation of the coming

Messiah (ill. Matt. 3:3; Mk. 1:2-3; Lk. 3:4;7:27; John 1:23

2. He was “fervent” (to show great eagerness toward something - 'to show

enthusiasm, to commit oneself completely to -- Louw Nida) in spirit (mind).

vs. 25b

3. He spoke and taught “accurately” (pertaining to strict conformity to a norm

or standard, involving both detail and completeness - strict, strictly -- Louw

Nida) “the things of the Lord”. vs. 25c

a. “The things” can be better translated the particulars concerning.

b. “The Lord” can be better translated “Jesus”.

E. Apollos was limited in his knowledge in that he was “knowing” (evpi,stama -- to

possess information about, with the implication of an understanding of the

significance of such information) only the purpose of John’s baptism concerning

Jesus. (Acts 13:24-25).

F. Apollos began to speak bodly in the synagogue at Ephesus. vs.26

1. Priscilla and Aquila “heard” (continually listening) to him.

2. “Took him unto them” denotes that they received him warmly (ill. Acts 27:36;


3. “Expounded” means that they (to place or set out, expose-- Joseph Thayer --

ill. Lk. 24:27; Acts 11:4).

4. “The way” (the things concerning the Kingdom of God – ill. Acts 10:34-43;

Lk. 1:2-3,14-15) “more accurately” (precisely -- Acts 23:15,20; 24:22).

G. Apollos determined to go into Achaia. vs.27-28

1. He “was disposed” (Boulomenou – determining for himself).

2. The brethren in Ephesus wrote to those in Achaia “exhorting” (protre,cw -- to run ahead of someone else, with the implication of arriving at a

destination sooner - 'to run in front of, to run ahead of – Louw-Nida) the

disciples to welcome him.

3. Apollos “helped” (give assistance to, contribute to—Friberg Lexicon) those

who had believed through Grace).

a. He “convinced” (as maintaining a discussion strenuously and

thoroughly vigorously or powerfully refute, confound completely ill.

1 Co. 14:24; Ja. 2:9) the Jews.

b. He convinced by “publicly shewing” (set forth to be known and

acknowledged as causing to be seen show, exhibit, demonstrate;

figuratively, as proving to be true show beyond doubt, prove,

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demonstrate convincingly—Friberg Lexicon) from “the Scriptures”

(Old Testament).

c. He public shewed that “Jesus was Christ” (cristo,n (cri,w), the

Septuagint for, anointed; king of Israel (see cri/sma), as 1

Sam. 2:10,35; (1 Sam. 24:11; 26:9,11,23); 2 Sam. 1:14; Ps. 2:2; Ps.

17 (Ps. 18:51); Hab. 3:13; (2 Chr. 22:7. --- Joseph Thayer).

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Chapter 19

(A.D. 54-58)



A. Ephesus was the next major stop for Paul as he continued his second apostolic

journey. vs.1

1. He traveled to Ephesus while Apollos was in Corinth.

2. He made his way to Ephesus by “passing through” (denotes to advance on the

journey without stopping – ill. Acts 13:6; 14:24) the “upper coasts” (i. e. the

part of Asia Minor more remote from the Mediterranean, farther east –


3. Paul had promised the Ephesians that he would return to them if God willed

(Acts 18:21).

B. Paul found certain disciples of John the Baptist residing in Ephesus. vs.1b-2

1. Paul quizzed the disciples as to whether they received the Holy Spirit when

“believing”. Several points need to be made about these disciples:

a. They were disciples of John the Baptist who had disciples as Jesus

had disciples (ill. Matt. 11:2; Lk. 11:1)

b. They were already believers.

2. The disciples responded that they had not only had they not received Him,

they hadn’t heard (of being informed about something; learn or hear (of))

that “there be any Holy Spirit”

a. They Holy Spirit hadn’t been given during the time John’s or Jesus’

ministry. (John 7:37-39)

b. The Holy Spirit did not play a role in salvation until the Dispensation

of Grace. (Acts 10:44-47)

c. These disciples probably had not been in or around Jerusalem for

them not to have heard of the gift of the Holy Spirit in this

Dispensation of Grace (ill. Apollos Acts 18:24).

3. Paul quizzed the disciples as to what they were baptized into. vs.3

a. The word “what” signifies what belief, doctrine, hope, end?

b. The word “unto” is the Greek preposition eis denoting they entered

into some type of situation when they were baptized.

c. They disciples responded they were baptized into (literally) the result

of an act of John’s baptizing.

C. Paul points out the result of John’s baptism and three insufficiencies of that baptism

for this dispensation. vs.4

1. John’s baptism was a baptism resulting from repentance.

2. John’s baptism was to “the people” (Israel). (ill. Acts 4:10; 5:12,20,34; 6:8)

3. The purpose of John’s baptism was for Israel to believe on Him that

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was to come after him (John) – that He (Jesus) was the Christ.

D. Paul’s baptizing of the disciples in to the name of the Lord Jesus is proof of a major

distinction that exist between the ministry of John the Baptist and belief in this

Dispensation of Grace. vs.5

1. “Hearing” (having heard) this.

2. They were baptized into “the name” (character – that only He alone has

power to save –ill. Acts 4:12).

3. The term “Lord Jesus” emphasizes one who has authority and power to

accomplish all He sets forth to do (ill. Acts 4:33; 19:13; 2 Co. 4:10)

E. The disciples received the Holy Spirit upon Paul “laying his hands upon” them,

which only an apostle could do. vs. 6 (ill. Acts 8:14-17)

1. The Holy Spirit “came upon” them (also in Acts 11:15 the key to

understanding upon and not in is the statement “as He did us at the


2. They began speaking (a quality of) tongues.

3. They began (a quality of) prophesying.

F. There were 12 men total. vs.7

G. Paul went into the synagogue at Ephesus and spoke for three months. vs.8

1. He was disputing (to converse, discourse with one, argue, discuss:

absolutely – Thayer) the things concerning the Kingdom of God.

2. He was persuading (to persuade, the capacity to persuade or convince -

persuasive power, convincing ability.' evn peiqoi/ sofi, aj 'with the


power of (human) wisdom—Thayer – ill. Act 28:23) the things concerning

the Kingdom of God.

H. Reception to Paul’s doctrine was harsh. vs.9

1. Some in the group were “hardened” (to render obstinate, stubborn – Thayer)

ill. Heb. 3:13; Deut. 2:30)

a. Their hardness resulted in them not “believing” (not to allow oneself

to be persuaded; not to comply with; a. to refuse or withhold


b. Their hardness resulted in them “speaking evil” (to insult in a

particularly strong and unjustified manner - to revile, to denounce.

– Louw-Nida – ill Matt. 15:4) of “that way” before the multitude.

2. Paul departed when it became apparent that he had been rejected.

a. He “departed” (strictly mark off by boundaries; hence separate,

sever, take away -- Friberg) from them.

b. He “separated” (ori, zw to make a boundary; "to mark off from

(avpo,) others by boundaries, to limit, to separate oneself from others,

Gal.2:12 (in this instance, from those unwilling to obey the gospel),

the disciples (those who believed), daily.

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c. He “disputed” (lectured) daily in the school (a building where

teachers and students met for study and discussion - 'lecture hall,

school) of Tyrannus (A private synagogue (called beeyt midrash by

the Jews), or rather the hall of a Gentile sophist or lecturer on

rhetoric and philosophy; his name is Greek, and the "one" prefixed

implies that there was no definite leaning to Christianity in him. He

probably hired out his school when not using it himself. Paul in

leaving the synagogue would be likely to take a Gentile's hall to gain

access to the Gentiles – Fausset’s Bible Dictionary.

I. Paul continued in Ephesus for two years. vs.10

1. All that dwelt in Asia heard the Word of the Lord Jesus.

2. The audiences included both Jews and Greeks.


A. God did “special” (of miracles extraordinary, uncommon --ill. Acts 28:2) miracles

by the hands of Paul. vs.11-12

1. Handkerchiefs or aprons from Paul’s body healed diseases caused by evil


2. The evil spirit that caused the disease departed from those touched by

handkerchiefs and aprons from Paul.

B. Other Jews tried to duplicate the miracles God was accomplishing through Paul.


1. The term “vagabond” is (in order to communicate the meaning of to wander

about' or to travel about, it may be necessary to be rather specific, for

example, they first go in one direction and then in another or they first go

to one place and then off to another). ill. 1 Tim. 5:13

2. “Exorcists” are -one who drives out evil spirits, usually by invoking

supernatural persons or powers or by the use of magic formulas - 'exorcist,

one driving out evil spirits. Louw-Nida

3. They tried to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus as Paul had done.

a. They “adjured” (to demand that a person take an oath as to the truth

of what is said or as to the certainty that one will carry out the

request or command - 'to put under oath, to insist that one take an

oath, to require that one swear – Louw-Nida) the demons in the

name of the Jesus that “Paul preacheth”

b. Those involved were the seven sons of a Jewish chief priest named

Sceva. vs.14

4. The demon had no respect for the sons of Sceva. vs.15-16

a. The demon said that he experientially knew Jesus.

b. The demon said he was acquainted (to put one's attention on, fix

one's thoughts on—Mk. 14:68) with Paul.

c. The demon was perplexed as to who the seven sons of Sceva were.

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d. The demon left the man and leaped on them. vs.16

e. The demon “overcame” (to bring under one's power, to subject to

oneself, to subdue, master – Matt. 20:25) them.

f. The demon prevailed against them so that they:

i. fled out of the house.

ii. They were naked and wounded

C. News of the event became know to those in Ephesus. vs.17

1. The news of the event resulted in “fear” (emphasis is on reverential fear –

ill. Lk. 7:16; Rom. 3:18) falling upon them all.

2. The news of the event caused the name of the Lord Jesus to be “magnified”

(figuratively, as recognizing the greatness of someone's name or reputation

extol, praise, magnify; as recognizing the importance of someone pay great

respect to, highly honor—Thayer).

D. Those believing turned away from the things that they were doing. vs.18-19

1. They came and confessed.

2. They showed (announced) their “deeds” (practices – ill. Rom. 8:13).

3. Many that used “curious arts” (Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the

"Ephesian spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with

certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner of

evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written out in

books, which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a great price)

brought them together and burned them before “all men”.

4. The amount added up to fifty thousand pieces of silver.

E. These events caused the Word of God to grow mightily (Acts 6:7; 12:24) and

“prevail”. (to have power; to have a power evinced in extraordinary deeds, i. e. to

exert, wield, power: Hebraistically, to have strength to overcome) vs.20

F. Paul made plans to leave Ephesus. vs.21-22

1. He was “purposing” (to set or to place) in his spirit to pass through

Macedonia and Achaia for the purpose of making it to Jerusalem.

2. He also planned to go to Rome after Pentecost.

3. Paul sent Timothy and Erastus ahead into Macedonia.

4. Paul remained in Asia for a “season” (an indefinite unit of time (the actual

extent of time being determined by the context) - 'time, period of time). (1

Co.16: 8-9)



A. The loss of wages due to the conversion of many from serving idols in Ephesus led

To “no small stir” (a serious disturbance - 'commotion, serious trouble. – Louw-

Nida) vs.23

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B. The main culprit leading the uprising was an entrepreneur by the name of Demetrius.

vs. 24

1. He was a “silversmith” (one who makes objects out of silver --especially

jewelry and fine utensils) which made silver shrines for the temple of Diana.

2. He made much money from his craft.

C. Demetrius spearheaded the uprising by agitating and organizing other craftmen.


1. He called together the craftmen as well as other workmen of “like craft”.

2. His concern was that “by this craft (the idols those who came to believe were

serving) we have our wealth”.

3. His complaint was that Paul had: vs.26

a. “Persuaded” (the capacity to persuade or convince - 'persuasive

power, convincing ability –Louw-Nida) many people saying that they

be no gods, which are made with hands.

b. “Turned away” (metanoia) many people saying that they be no gods

which are made with hands.

4. Demetrius outlines three concerns over Paul’s actions: vs.27

a. “Our craft is in danger to be set at nought”

b. The temple of the great goddess Diana should be “despised” (to

convict, expose, refute; conviction, refutation, censure, repudiation

of a thing shown to be worthless).

c. The “magnificence” (a state of greatness or importance -

prominence, greatness, importance) of Diana should be “destroyed”.

D. Demetrius’ assertions were enough to cause tempers among the group to flare.vs.28

1. They were full of “wrath” (to rush along or on, be in a heat, and breathe


2. They cried out in support of Diana.

E. The dissention spread to the broader city. vs.29-33

1. The whole city was “filled” with “confusion” (disorderly mob revolt, with

special implications of uproar and disturbance - 'uproar, revolt--Louw-


2. The capture two of Paul’s traveling companions and took them into the

“theatre” (was anciently in the open air; semicircular; the seats in tiers

above one another the stage on a level with the lowest seats. Besides the

performance of dramas, public meetings were often in the theater, as being

large enough almost to receive "the whole city").

3. Paul desired to enter into the theatre, but many prevented it.

a. The disciples “suffered” him not to. vs.30

b. The chief of Asia, friends of Paul, did not permit him. vs.31

4. The majority of the crowd was “confused” (to pour together, to mix, to cause

such astonishment as to bewilder and dismay - 'to cause consternation, to

confound) and did not know why they were assembled. vs.32

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a. Some cried one thing.

b. Some cried another thing.

c. The majority “knew not” (oida –know the facts) as to why they were


5. The Jews tried to use a certain Alexander to direct the uprising, but the

crowd rejected him because he was a Jew. vs.33-34

6. The crowd cried out for about two hours saying “Great is Diana of the


F. The “towns clerk” (a clerk, scribe, esp.a public servant, secretary, recorder, whose

office and influence differed in different states) appeased the crowd and tried to

allay their concerns. vs.35

1. The townsclerk tried to “appease” (to put or keep down one who is roused or

incensed, to repress, restrain, appease, quiet) the crowd by convincing them

of the widespread appeal of the “great goddess Diana”.

a. Ephesus was a “worshipper” (one who had responsibility to tend to

and to guard a temple - 'temple-keeper) of the great goddess Diana.

b. Diana’s (Artemis, name of a Greek goddess) image had reportedly

fall down from Jupiter (literally-- that fell from Zeus).

2. The “towns clerk” emphasized Diana’s credibility could not be “spoken

against” (not contradicted and not to be contradicted; undeniable—Thayer).


a. He urged them to be “quiet” (to put or keep down one who is roused

or incensed, to repress, restrain, appease, quiet -- Thayer).

b. He urged them to do nothing “rashly” (pertaining to impetuous and

reckless behavior - 'reckless, impetuous; to calm down and not do

anything reckless as 'without thinking' or 'without counting the cost – Louw-Nida)

3. The “towns clerk” emphasized the illegality of the gathering.vs.37

a. The men were brought there not being robbers of churches.

b. The men were brought there not being blasphemers of “your


4. The “towns clerk” urged them of the proper channels available for their

charges. vs.38

a. The law is “open”.

b. There are “deputies” (proconsuls)

c. “Let them “implead” (to call to account, bring a charge against,

accuse) one another (of the same kind).

d. He urged that if there were matters of a different concern, these also

should be taken up in a lawful assembly. vs.39

5. The “towns clerk” identifies the problem of their assembly. vs.39

a. All those there were in danger of being “called into question” for the


i. Because there was no “cause” (reason or cause for an event or

state - reason, cause) for it.

ii. Because they could not “give an account of this concourse” (a

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secret combination, a coalition, conspiracy).

b. The “townsclerk’s” discourse was effective in breaking up the crowd.


Chapter 20

(A.D. 54-58)


A. Paul calls the disciples together after the uproar ceased in Ephesus. vs.1

1. The word for “called” is (proskalesamenoj) means to send for, or to summon.

2. The term “disciples” probably refers to those believers that came to believe during

his time there.

3. Paul “embraced” (aspazomai – to greet, to draw to one’s self in embrace either in

greeting or farewell) the disciples.

4. He “departed” (went on a journey to accomplish a particular goal) into Macedonia.

B. Paul did not spend much time in Macedonia, but he “gone over” (dielQw.n – to travel

through, as opposed to stopping for an extended period of time – ill. Acts 19:21—the

second time during this trip that he passed through) “those parts” (different cities). vs. 2a

1. Paul gave the believers there much “exhortation” (parakale, saj – to encourage, to

exhort – ill. 2 Co. 9:5; 1 Th. 1:3; 2 Thess. 2:17)

2. The basis of Paul’s exhortation was “many words” (not in King James translation).

C. Paul left Macedonia and went into Greece. vs.2b

D. Paul spent three months in Greece, and was about to depart into Syria when the Lord

prevented it. vs.3

1. Paul left Greece after certain Jews “laid wait” (to make a plot against – ill. Acts

9:24; 23:30) for him as he was preparing to leave (perhaps to take a ship).

2. Paul “purposed” (gnw, mh – to decide, to have an opinion – Reinecker/Rogers) to

“return” through Macedonia.

E. Paul’s destination was Asia, but he doubled back through Macedonia in order to

reach Asia with others who accompanied him. vs.4

1. Sopater of Berea accompanied him.

2. Aristarchus and Secundus of Thessonalica accompanied him.

3. Gaius of Derbe accompanied him.

4. Timothy of Derbe accompanied him.

5. Tychicus and Trophimus of Asia accompanied him.

F. Those who organized Paul’s trip went before him and waited for the group at Troas. vs.5 The chief city in the Northwest of Asia Minor, on the coast of Mysia in the Roman

province of Asia. In 133 BC Troas came into the possession of the Romans, and later,

during the reign of Augustus, it was made a Roman colonia, independent of the Roman

governor of the province of Asia. Its citizens were then exempt from poll and land tax.

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During Byzantine times Troas was the seat of a bishopric. – I.S.B.E.

G. Paul trailed from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread and arrived in Troas five days

later. vs.6

1. “The days of unleavened bread” (or the Passover ill. Lk. 22:1,7; Matt. 26:17; Acts

12:3) Passover, the name given to the chief of the three great historical annual festivals of

the Jews. It was kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the

Israelites Ex 12:13 when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called also the "feast of unleavened bread” Ex 23:15; Ac 12:3 because during its celebration

no leavened bread was to be eaten or even kept in the household.

2. Paul was in Troas for seven days.


A. The “disciples” came together on the “first day” of the week. vs.7

1. “First day” is used to denote the day for believers assembling together in the

church, also known as the Lordian Day. (1 Co. 16:2;Rev. 1:10)

2. Paul preached unto those who gathered.

a. He “continued” (Pareteinen – to stretch beside, to prolong) his speech until

midnight (Mk. 13:35)

b. He continued late into the night because he was preparing to leave the next


3. The group gathered in the “upper chamber” (ill. 2 Kings 1:2; 23:12; Acts 9:37,39)


B. Paul’s extended preaching caused Eutychus to fall into a deep sleep. vs.9

1. The term “sunk down with sleep” is kataphero, to bear down, to drop off to sleep.

(Reinecker/Rogers describes the present tense of the verb to mean that the hot, oily

atmosphere of the lights from the torches in the upper room along with the crowd

made it difficult for one who probably put in a hard days work to keep awake)

2. He fell down from the third loft (out of the window).

3. He was “taken up” (picked up by those who went to him) dead.

C. Paul went to Eutychus and raised him from the dead. vs.10

1. Paul went to him and fell upon him.

2. Paul embraced him.

3. Paul insisted the believers “trouble not yourself” (Mh. Qorubei/sQe – to throw into

disorder, to be troubled, to be distressed) his “life” (soul) is in him.

D. Paul, having raised Eutychus from the dead joined the other believers in the breaking

of bread and talking. vs.11-12

1. “Breaking of bread” – (the Lordian Table).

2. The “break of day” (brightness, radiance, daylight -- ill. 2 Sam. 2:32)

3. Eutychus (a young man under the age of manhood) was brought up to the event


4. The believers were “comforted” (encouraged – ill. Acts 15:32; 16:40).

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E. Dr. Luke gives a narrative of the events that occurred from Troas to Miletus. vs.13-15

1. “We” – Luke and others.

2. They sailed in to Assos where Paul had “appointed” (diata, ssw -- to arrange,

appoint, ordain, prescribe, give order).

3. Paul had determined to go by foot and meet them there from Troas (30 mile journey

by sea).

4. Taking Paul in at Assos, they all sailed to Mitylene.

5. From Mitylene they went the next day to Chios, then to Samos and Trogyllim where

they tarried for one day, the next day they went into Miletus. vs.15

F. Paul skips Ephesus and determines to go into Miletus. vs.16-17

1. The word “determined” is (to come to a conclusion in the process of thinking and

thus to be in a position to make a decision - 'to come to a conclusion, to decide, to

make up one's mind. ill. Acts 3:13; 1 Co. 2:1) to sail by Ephesus.

2. It was not Paul’s purpose to “spend time” (to wear away time, spend time) in Asia.

3. Paul didn’t want to wear away time because he “hastened” (to do something

hurriedly, with the implication of associated energy - 'to hasten to, to hurry to, to

do quickly—Joseph Thayer).

4. Paul’s hurry was to get to Jerusalem for the Day of Pentecost, if it were “possible”

(he was able).

5. Paul called the elders of the church at Ephesus to meet him in Miletus in order to

save time on his way to Jerusalem. vs.17



A. Paul reviews his ministry to the elders of Ephesus. vs. 18-21

1. Paul reminds the elders of his behavior among them. vs.18

a. The word “know” is the Greek word e , pi, stasqe and it us used to emphasize

primarily the knowledge obtained by proximity to the thing known; then

knowledge view as a result prolonged practice. —Reinecker/Rogers (ill.



b. The elders “knew” Paul-- “what manner I’ve been” (emphasizes his

his purpose while he was with the elders of Ephesus over a period of time).

2. Paul outlines three crucial elements of the focus that he displayed while with the

elders at Ephesus. vs.19

a. “Serving” (metaphorically, to obey, submit to; a. in a good sense:

absolutely, to yield obedience, to obey one's commands and render to him

the services due,-- Joseph Thayer) the Lord (master).

i. With all “humility of mind” (the recognition of one’s own weakness

as well as the recognition of God’s power – Reinecker/Rogers –ill.

Phil. 2:3; 1 Pet. 5:5)

ii. With “tears”(over the plight of saints 2 Co. 2:4).

iii. With “trials” (testing).

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b. “Kept (concealed) back nothing that was profitable (beneficial) unto you”.


c. “Testifying” (to confirm a thing by (the interposition of) testimony, to

testify, cause it to be believed – Joseph Thayer) to both Jews and Greeks:


i. Repentance (change of mind) toward God.

ii. Faith towards the Lord Jesus.

B. Paul addresses his future. vs.22-25

1. Paul was going to Jerusalem “bound (bound or constrained in my spirit, i. e.

compelled by my convictions) in the spirit (human spirit)” vs.21

2. Paul was going to Jerusalem not know the facts about the things what would “befall”

(the Greek word sunantao is a compound word made up of sun – come together in

an intimate way and antao – to meet – the emphasis is on those things planned for

him to encounter) vs.22

3. The Holy Spirit gave Paul a general idea of what was ahead when He told him

“bonds” (imprisonments) and “afflictions” (pressures) were awaiting him. vs. 23

4. Paul assured that the things that lay ahead: vs.24a

a. Doesn’t “move” (doesn’t do anything to distract him from going there).

b. Neither did he count his life “dear (of great value) unto myself”.

5. Paul identified two goals that he had relative to his ministry. vs. 24b

a. “Finish my course with joy”.

b. Finish the “the ministry I have received of the Lord Jesus” (to testify of the

gospel of the Grace of God).

6. Paul had apparently been given revelation that this would be his last trip to Ephesus.

vs. 25

a. He notes that he “knows” (oida –knows the facts).

b. No one “among whom I have gone preaching the Kingdom of God would

“see” (to gaze at with the eyes) his face again.

C. Paul assures that he had fulfilled his responsibility to the Ephesians. vs.26-27

1. Paul claims innocence over the blood of those with whom he had preached the

gospel. vs.26-27

2. The word “for” explains why Paul claimed innocence from their blood. vs.27a

3. The word “shunned” is concealed. vs.27b

4. “All the counsel (decree) of God” (Lk. 7:30; Eph. 1:11) is those things

determined by the members of the Godhead in eternity past. vs.27c

D. Paul exhorts the elders to take advantage of the things he taught them so that they rake care

of God’s people. vs.28-32

1. The word “therefore” connects what Paul is about to say to the previous verses (18-

27). vs.28a

2. Paul lists three things the elders needed to be engaged in: vs.28b

a. “Take heed” means to be in a continuous state of readiness to learn of any

future danger, need, or error, and to respond appropriately - 'to pay

attention to, to keep on the lookout for, to be alert for, to be on one's guard

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against. – Louw-Nida (ill. 1 Ti.4: 16; Lk. 21:34; Matt. 16:6)

b. The pastor/teacher is supposed to first take heed to himself (doctrine and life

– 1 Tim. 4:16)

c. The pastor/teacher is supposed to take heed to the flock in his charge.

d. The pastor/teacher is supposed to “feed” (to furnish pasturage or food; to

nourish – Joseph Thayer).

3. Paul was given knowledge that “grievous wolves” would come into Ephesus after his

departure. vs.29

a. “Wolves” (metaphorically, as a person with dangerous pretenses,

such as a false prophet, false teacher, or false leader vicious person, fierce

person – Friberg Lexicon—ill John 10:10-12)

b. The adjective “grievous” describes the mindset of the wolves which is

violent, cruel, unsparing – Joseph Thayer

c. Paul noted that these wolves would come “in among you” (from the outside).

d. Paul also noted that would not be ones “sparing” (to spare in using, to

refrain from using, use sparingly—Liddell & Scott – in other words, they’ll

take full advantage of the flock)

4. Paul also warns the Ephesians that trouble will arise from within. vs.30

a. Men shall arise from among the Ephesians speaking “perverse” (to corrupt

and so turn one aside from. (twisting the truth). Acts 13:8,10 – Joseph

Thayer) things.

b. Men shall arise from among the Ephesians “to draw away” (to be dragged

away, detached, separated from—Liddell & Scott) disciples after


5. In lieu of this, Paul exhorts the elders: vs.31

a. To “watch” (give strict attention to, be cautious, active —Joseph Thayer).

b. While they were watching, Paul instructed them also to be “remembering”

(keep in mind) that he never ceased to “warn” (admonish --to provide

instruction as to correct behavior and belief - 'to instruct, to teach,

instruction, teaching).

6. Paul puts the believers in Ephesus in the hands of the Father.

a. The term “commend” means to place one before another for protection,

safety, etc. ill. Acts 14:23

b. Paul commended the believers to the Father. vs.32

c. Paul commended the believers to the Word “of” (concerning) His Grace.

i. That Word has an ability to “build the believers up” (make one grow

in the Christian life).

ii. That Word has an ability to give believers an “inheritance” (the

share, which an individual will have in that eternal blessedness –

Joseph Thayer) among all them which are sanctified.

E. Paul offers his time among the Ephesians as an example of how a shepard is supposed to

behave. vs.33-35

1. He didn’t covet another man’s finances. vs.33

2. He worked to minister unto his necessities and others with him. vs. 34a

3. He graphically demonstrated the necessity of supporting the “weak” (contextually, to

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be weak in means, needy, poor—Joseph Thayer).

F. Paul gives his final farewell to the believers at Ephesus. vs.36-38

1. Paul prayed with the elders of Ephesus. vs.36

2. They “fell on Paul’s neck” (To "fall on the neck" of a person is a very usual mode

of salutation in the East. In moments of great emotion such salutation is apt to end

in weeping on each other's neck. —I.S.B.E.—ill. Lk. 15:20). vs. 37

3. Their greatest source of sorrow as the words Paul spake to them that they would see

his face no more. vs.38

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Chapter 21

(A.D. 54-58)


Acts 21:1-16

A. Dr. Luke narrates Paul and his entourage’s departure from Miletus.

1. They took a “straight course” (from one point to the next) into Coos (The

Greek word means "summit"; an island off the coast of Caria, Asia Minor,

one of the Sporades, mountainous in the southern half, with ridges

extending to a height of 2,500 ft.; identified with the modern Stanchio. It

was famous in antiquity for excellent wine, amphorae, wheat, ointments,

silk and other clothing. 2. The next day they traveled into Rhodes (an island to the south of the

western extremity of Asia Minor, between Coos and Patara, about 46 miles

long and 18 miles broad. Here the apostle probably landed on his way from

Greece to Syria Ac 21:1 on returning from his third missionary journey) –

Eason’s Bible Dictionary, then into Patara (A coast city of ancient Lycia.

Because of its excellent harbor, many of the coast trading ships stopped at

Patara, which therefore became an important and wealthy port of entry to

the towns of the interior).

3. They sought a ship that crossed into Phenice, (Phoenicia, in the apostolic

age a tract of the province of Syria, situated on the coast of the

Mediterranean between the river Eleutherus and the promontory of

Carmel, some thirty miles long and two or three broad -- Joseph Thayer)

embarked on it then “set fort” (put out to sea).

4. They “sighting” Cyprus and “leaving it” on the left they came into Syria.

5. They left Syria going down the coast into Tyre.

B. Paul receives his first warning not to go into Jerusalem.

1. The group remained in Tyre seven days for the ship to “unload” (to

disburden oneself; to lay down a load, unlade, discharge: -- Joseph

Thayer) its cargo.

2. They “found” (avneuri, skw --to learn the location of something by

intentional searching - 'to find by searching, to look for and find – Louw-

Nida ill. Lk. 2:16) “disciples” (obviously Christians).

3. Those disciples warned Paul against going to Jerusalem.

a. They “said” (they kept on saying) to Paul.

b. They said it “through” (the Greek here expresses the idea of


the intermediate agency of – in other words, the Holy Spirit used

them to convey this message to Paul) the Spirit.

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c. They told him “not” (Mh) to go up to Jerusalem (There are two

primary Greek words for “not” in Scripture).

i. Ou is the stronger of the two negatives and can be translated –

it is clear-cut point-blank negative, objective, final – Dana &

Mantey Greek Grammar.

ii. Mh is a weaker, milder negative, denying subjectively and

with hesitancy. It leaves the question open for further remarks

or entreaty while Ou closes the door abruptly. – Dana &


C. Paul and the group left when those days were “accomplished”. vs.5-6

1. Some of disciples (women and children included) of that city followed them

(to the edge out of the city.

2.They all knelt upon the seashore and prayed.

3. They “took leave” (to say goodbye - 'to bid goodbye to, to take leave of --

Louw-Nida) and embarked into the ship.

4. The disciples returned to their own home.

D. The trip toward Jerusalem continued from Tyre (a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient

Phoenician city, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of

Sidon. Sidon was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more

illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was gathered into the

warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate

the Mediterranean waters -- Easton’s Bible Dictionary) into Ptolmais (a maritime

city of Phoenicia, which got its name, apparently, from Ptolemy Lathyrus, who

captured it 103 BC, and rebuilt it more beautifully). vs.7

1. They saluted the “brethren”.

2. They abode with them one day.

E. Paul’s and his entourage departed and went into Caesarea. vs.8-9

1. They entered into the house of Philip the evangelist (one of the seven deacons

– Chapter 6)

2. They “abode” with him.

3. He had four daughters who “prophesied” vs.9

a. Prophesying is generally, of speaking with the help of divine

inspiration proclaim what God wants to make known, preach,

expound; as speaking out divinely imparted knowledge of future

events foretell, prophesy; as bringing to light what was concealed

and outside the possibility of naturally acquired knowledge. –

Friberg Lexicon

b. It was announced that both men and women would prophesy when the

Holy Spirit was poured out. Acts 2:17-18.

c. Men and women prophesied in the early Church. 1 Co. 11:5.

d. Prophecy edifies the Body. 1 Co. 14:3,5

4. Paul and his entourage abode with Phillip “many” days. vs.10

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F. Paul is warned again, this time by the prophet Agabus (with a graphic illustration),

not to go into Jerusalem. vs.10

1. Agabus took Paul’s “girdle” (belt, serving not only to gird on flowing

garments, but also, since it was hollow, to carry money in – Joseph Thayer

– Acts 21:11)

2. Agabus “bound” (tied) his own hands and feet (Symbolic of how God

revealed future events to Israel in the Old Testament – Jer. 13:1-11; Act


3. Agabus asserted that the Holy Spirit warned: vs.11

a. The man to whom the girdle belonged will in like manner be bound by

the Jews at Jerusalem.

b. The man to whom the girdle belonged would be delivered into the

“hands” (authority) of the Gentiles.

G. The disciples gathered at Phillip’s house and those in Paul’s entourage responded

with concern when they heard the prophecy.vs.12-13

1. Hearing the prophecy, they “besought” (kept on begging) him not to go up

to Jerusalem.

2. Paul “answered” the disciples:

a. “What mean ye to weep and “break my heart” (A frequent equivalent

of 'to break one's heart' is 'to cause one to cry.' In some languages

one may even have 'to cause one's heart to cry. —Louw Nida)

b. He was ready to be “bound” in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord


c. He was ready to “die” at Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.

H. Paul refused to be influenced by the pleas of the disciples. vs.14

1. He was in a continual state of “not to be persuaded”. (pei, qw: to convince

someone to believe something and to act on the basis of what is

recommended - 'to persuade, to convince – Louw-Nida) ill. Matt. 27:20;

Acts 12:20; 1Co. 2:4

2. The disciples “ceased” (h`suca, zw -- to keep quiet; to rest, cease from

labour; to lead a quiet life, said of those who are not running hither and

thither, but stay at home and mind their business; to be silent, i.e. to say

nothing, hold one's peace) their plea.

3. The disciples “the will of the Lord be done”.

I. Paul and his entourage left Caesarea and Phillip’s house and went into Jerusalem.


1. “We took up our carriages” (having gathered and made ready the things

necessary for the journey).

2. They “went up” to Jerusalem.

3. Some of the disciples from Caesarea accompanied Paul and his entourage.

a. Manson of Cyprus was one of the disciples from Caesarea

accompanying them.

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b. Manson was an “old” (pertaining to having existed for a long time in

the past, with the possible implication of such existence from the

beginning of an event or state - 'for a long time, from the beginning,

ancient) disciple


AT JERUSALEM. Acts 21:17-20a

A. Paul’s entry into Jerusalem was cordial, initially. vs.17

1. They were “received” (welcomed) by the brethren in Jerusalem.

2. They were received with “gladly” (pertaining to experiencing happiness,

implying ready and willing acceptance).

B. Paul and his entourage met with James and the elders of Jerusalem the next day.


1. He “greeted” them.

2. He “declared” (to draw out in narrative, unfold in teaching; a. to recount,

rehearse – Joseph Thayer – ill. Lk. 24:35; Acts 15:12) to them “what things”

(each thing) God “wrought” (did) among the Gentiles through his ministry.

C. James and the elders responded favorably to Paul’ report before addressing a

concern running rampant among the Church in Jerusalem. vs.20

1. They “glorified” (to cause the dignity and worth of some person or thing to

become manifest and acknowledged – Joseph Thayer) (the) God. ill Acts

4:21; 11:18; 13:48

2. They then addressed the issue of Paul teachings about the law. vs.20b



A. They addressed three issues: vs.20c

1. Thousands of Jews “believed” (to think to be true; to be persuaded of; to

credit, place confidence in—Joseph Thayer) and were all “zealous” (to

defend and uphold a thing, vehemently contending for a thing)

of the law.

2. They were “informed” (to inform by word of mouth; passive to be orally

informed – i.e… “the word on the street”) that Paul’s teaching on his

apostolic journeys encouraged Jews to “forsake” (falling away, defection,

apostasy; in the Bible namely, from the true religion – Joseph Thayer).

a. That he “teaches” all the Jews which are among the Gentiles that they

ought not to circumcise their children. vs.21a

b. That he teaches all the Jews which are among the Gentiles neither to

“walk” after the “customs” (a pattern of behavior more or less fixed

by tradition and generally sanctioned by the society). vs.21b

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3. What should happen when at the events of the feast the zealots hear that Paul

is in Jerusalem. vs.22

B. James and the elders at Jerusalem take the lead in instructing Paul on a course of

action that they think will appease the Judiazers. vs.23-24

1. They informed him to “do therefore this thing”.

2. Paul was to take four men who had a “vow” (Num. 6:18; Acts 18:18):

a. He was to “take” (to take with oneself, to join to oneself) them and

be “purified” (to take upon oneself a purification, and is used of

Nazarites or those who had taken upon themselves a temporary or a

life-long vow to abstain from wine and all kinds of intoxicating

drink, from every defilement and from shaving the head). ill. Num.

6:3 together with them.

b. He was to “be at charges” (dapana, w: to pay out money (or other

assets) as a means of obtaining benefits or in payment for benefits –

'to spend, to pay out, to pay expenses) with them that (for the purpose

that) they might “shave” their heads. (Numb. 6:13-21)

3. The purpose of this action was that “all may know”(experientially): vs.24b

a. The things they are informed concerning thee are “nothing”

(absolutely, nothing whatever, not at all, in no wise—that Paul,

even at that time, had been observing the law as proved by the vow)

ill. Acts 24:17

b. Contrarily, though “walkest” (keep in step) “keepest” (guards) the


4. Their plan concerning Paul’s relationship to the Gentiles was to have him

follow the conclusions reached by the first council at Jerusalem. vs.25

a. That they “keep” themselves from “idols”.

b. That they “keep” themselves from things “strangled and blood”.

c. That they “keep” themselves from fornication.

C. Paul adheres to the directives of James and the elders. vs. 26

1. He took the men and the next day “purifying” himself together with them.

2. He entered into the temple:

a. To “signify” the accomplishment of the “days of purification”.

b. “Until” an offering should be offered for “every one of them”.

D. James and the elder’s instruction did not prevent the Jews from attacking Paul. vs.27

1. The waited until the seven days of purification had ended. vs. 27a

2. The Jews of Asia “stirred” (to disturb, the mind of one, to stir up to tumult

or outbreak, to confound or bewilder -- Joseph Thayer – ill. Acts 2:6; 9:22)

up “the people” (Israel) when they saw him in the temple.

3. They “laid hands” (cast) upon him.

4. They “cried” out for help from other Jews saying: vs.28

a. This is the man that “teacheth” all men everywhere against “the

people” (Israel).

b. This is the man that teacheth all men everywhere against “the law”

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c. This is the man that teacheth all men everywhere against “this place”.

d. He brought Greeks into the temple and has “profaned” (to cause

something to become unclean, profane, or ritually unacceptable - 'to

make unclean, to defile, to profane – Louw-Nida ill. Ez. 44:6-9) the

holy place.

i. The last accusation was made because they had seen

Trophimus which was an Ephesian, together with Paul in the


ii. They “supposed” (to regard something as presumably true,

but without particular certainty - 'to suppose, to presume, to

assume, to imagine, to believe, to think) since they saw them

together in the city that he had brought him into the temple.

E. The accusation of defiling the temple caused an uproar. vs. 30

1. The whole city was “moved” (to throw into commotion) ill. Acts 24:5.

2. The people “ran together” (to throw into commotion, to come together

quickly to form a crowd - 'to rush together, to run together, to assemble

quickly – Louw-Nida).

3. They “took” Paul.

4. They “dragged” (pull or drag, requiring force because of the inertia of the

object being dragged - 'to pull, to drag, to draw – Louw-Nida) him “outside”

the temple.

5. The “doors were shut”.

F. Those who captured Paul were seeking to kill him until the chief captain arrived. vs.


G. The chief captain responded quickly to squelch the uprising. vs.32-33

1. He took soldiers and centurions and “ran down” () to them.

2. The Jews “left” (ceased) “beating” (to strike or hit an object, one or more

times - 'to hit, to strike, to beat) of Paul when they arrived.

3. He “took” Paul and:

a. “Bound” him with two chains.

b. “Demanded” (inquired as to) who he was.

c. “Demanded” (inquired as to) what he had done (per.tense).

H. The chief captain got a varied response from Jews. vs.34a

1. “Some” (of the same kind) cried (to speak with considerable volume or

loudness - 'to cry out, to shout, to call out, to speak loudly) one things.

2. “Some” (of the same kind) cried another.

I. The chief captain realized the futility of gathering information within the mob.vs.34b

1. He was not able to “know” the “certainty” (a state of knowledge certain,

reliable, sure; as what is certain or definite the truth, the facts) because of

the uproar.

2. He commanded him to be taken into the “castle” (the barracks of the

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Roman soldiers, which at Jerusalem were in the castle Antonia).

J. The crowd was in such a vicious state of mind to get Paul the soldiers had to take

extra precautions to protect him. vs.35-36

1. He was “borne” (to take up in order to carry or bear; to put upon oneself

(something) to be carried) of the soldiers for the “violence” of the people.

2. The multitude of “the people” followed crying “away” (to take from

among the living, either by a natural death, or by violence—Joseph

Thayer) ill. Matt. 24:39; Luke 23:18; John 19:15; Acts 21:36) with him.

K. Paul requested of the chief captain an audience with the chief captain. vs. 37

1. He made the request as he was “led” into the castle.

2. The chief captain was still bent on finding out who Paul was.

a. He assumed he was an Egyptian rebel who had led an uproar in the

desert. vs.38

b. Paul introduced himself to the chief captain. vs.39

i. He informed him that he was a Jew.

ii. He informed him that he was from Tarsus “no mean city”

(pertaining to being obscure or insignificant, with the

possible implication of lacking in noble descent - 'low,

insignificant, inferior. pertaining to being obscure or

insignificant, with the possible implication of lacking in

noble descent - 'low, insignificant, inferior --- Louw-Nida)

iii. He request the opportunity to “speak” (to make known one's

thoughts, to declare; to say) to “the people”.

L. The chief captain gave Paul permission to speak to the crowd. vs.40

1. Paul “stood” on the stairs.

2. Paul “beckoned” with the hand unto “the people”.

3. A “great silence” was made when he began speaking to them in the Hebrew


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Chapter 22



A. The word for “defense” in verse 1 is the word apologia (defense; as a legal technical term,

a speech in defense of oneself reply, verbal defense – Friberg Lexicon)

. 1. Paul was given by the Lord to give a defense for Christianity. Phil. 1:17

a. At his first defense, none of his companions stood by him. 2 Tim. 4:16

b. He gave a defense before Felix. Acts 24:10

c. He gave a defense before Festus. Acts 25:8

d. He gave a defense before Agrippa. Acts 26:2,24

2. Believers are told to give a defense when one asks. 1 Pet. 3:15

B. Paul spoke to them in the Hebrew “tongue” (dialect, which is the form of speech

characteristic of a nation or region dialect, language, way of speaking) in

order to reach the Jews.

1. The term “tongue” is the same one used to denote speaking in tongues. Act 2:6,8

2. Speaking to them in the Hebrew tongue caused the Jews to keep “the more silence”

(hsuci,a -- as characterized by inward calm tranquillity, quietness) vs.2

C. Paul offers his Jewish roots as proof #1 to justify his preaching among the Gentiles. vs. 3-5

1. Paul addressed his origin. vs.3

a. He himself was a Jew.

b. He was born in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia.

c. He was brought up in Jerusalem “at the feet of” Gamaliel (The son of rabbi

Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi Hillel. He was a Pharisse, and

therefore the opponent of the party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his

learning, and was president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius,

Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen years before the

destruction of Jerusalem – Easton Bible Dictionary)

d. He was taught according to the “perfect manner” (exactness, minute

accuracy, precision, with minuteness or precision, -- Liddell & Scott –ill.

Acts 26:5 Matt. 2:8) of the “law of the fathers” (what belongs to or is

derived from one's father or ancestors paternal, inherited, ancestral –

Friberg Lexicon).

e. He was “zealous” toward God (like the rest of the Jews – ill. Act 21:20; Gal.

1:14; Rom. 10:2) up to that time.

2. Paul addressed his disdain for the Christians at the beginning. vs.4

a. He “persecuted” (to follow with haste, and presumably with intensity of

effort, in order to catch up with, for friendly or hostile purpose - 'to run

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after, to chase after, to pursue—Louw-Nida ill. Acts 26:11; Gal.1: 13; 1 Co.

15:9) them “unto the death”.

b. He persecuted them “binding and delivering into prisons”(men and women).

3. Paul provided witnesses who could attest to his prior attitude towards Christianity.


a. The “high priest” (a principal priest, in view of belonging to one of the

high priestly families - 'chief priest – Louw-Nida)

b. All the “estate of the elders” (group of elders functioning with

administrative authority body or council of elders; in Jerusalem equivalent

to the Sanhedrin, the Jewish high court as a Christian church council

presbytery, group of elders – Friberg Lexicon) who gave him “letters” (a

message, command, commission, whether verbal or in writing) unto the

brethren to bring them bound from Damascus to Jerusalem to be punished.

D. Paul offers his encounter with the Lord as proof #2 to justify his preaching among the

Gentiles. vs.6-13

1. It was on the road to Damascus that Paul had an encounter with the Lord. vs.6

a. He encountered the Lord as he “made” (proceeded on) his journey and was

near Damascus.

b. Paul stated that “suddenly” (unexpectedly, out of nowhere) saw a light (a

heavenly light, such as surrounds angels when they appear on earth and

illumines the place where they appear – Joseph Thayer).

i. The light occurred about “noon” time.

ii. The light came “from” (the preposition ek – out of) “the” heaven

(presence of the article indicates the origin of the light to be from the

throne room of God).

iii. The light shined “round about” (denotes giving out light with

lightning like quality; transitively shine around someone) him.

c. Paul’s reaction to the light was to “fell unto the ground” (ground, soil, land).


d. As Paul was on the ground he “heard a voice” asking why he was persecuting

Him. vs.7b

e. Paul inquired as to whom was speaking to him. vs.8

i. The term “Lord” is used in Scripture for a polite address as well as


ii. “Jesus (the One who came to save Israel from their sins – Matt. 1:21)

of Nazareth” emphasized the one whom people rejected in his


2. Paul indicated that his traveling companions were not privy to the conversation. vs.9

a. They “saw” (to behold, look upon, view attentively, contemplate --- Lk.

23:55) the light.

b. They were “afraid” (because of the light)

c. They “heard not” the voice.

3. Paul was given directive as to what he was to do. vs.10

a. He was to go into Damascus.

b. He was instructed that he would be told all things which are “appointed” (to

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assign someone to a particular task, function, or role - 'to appoint, to

designate – Louw-Nida) for him to do.

4. Paul adhered to the Lord’s directions. vs.11

a. Looking at the glory blinded Paul vs.11

i. He was not able to “see” (to direct one's vision and attention to a

particular object - 'to look straight at, to look directly at —Louw-


ii. His vision was hindered because of the “glory” (God’s opinion as

manifested in light) Heb. 1:3; 2 Pet. 1:17) of the light.

b. Paul was led by the hand of them that were with him into Damascus.

5. God provided Ananias to help Paul. vs.12-13

a. Ananias was a “devout” man (dedicated in the things according to the law –

ill. Lk.2: 25). vs.12

b. Ananias had a “good report” (testimony) of all the Jews with were in

Damascus. vs.13

c. Ananias “came unto me” to Paul.

d. Ananias restored Paul’s sight (the same hour).

E. Paul offers his destiny as proof #3 to justify his preaching among the Gentiles. vs.14

1. Ananias offered two reasons for Paul’s encounter with the Lord.

a. God of our fathers chose him that he should know His will.

i. The “fathers” mentioned here are the 12 sons of Israel (Jacob).

ii. The word “chose” means to designate beforehand. ill. Acts 10:41.

iii. The word “know” is ginomai and should be translated, to come to an

experiential knowledge of.

iv. The term for “will” is those things that God wishes to be done by us –

Joseph Thayer Rom. 12:2; Co. 4:12

b. God chose him that he should:

i. “See” the Just One.

ii. Should “hear” the “voice of His mouth”.

iii. To be a “witness” unto all men of (the things) he saw and heard. vs.15

2. Ananias instructed Paul as to his next actions: vs.16

a. Be baptized.

b. Have thy sins washed away (by) “calling upon ” (to appeal to one, make

appeal unto – Joseph Thayer) the Name (character) of the Lord. (ill. 1 Co.

6:11; 1:2)

3. The Lord appeared to Paul when He went into Jerusalem subsequent from leaving

Damascus. vs.17

a. The Lord appeared to Paul in the temple.

b. Paul saw the Lord while he was in a “trance” (Friberg --as an abnormal state

of mind distraction, terror, amazement; as a partially suspended conscious

nessecstasy, trance) Acts 10.10

4. The Lord instructed Paul to leave Jerusalem. vs.18

a. “Make haste” is better translated “get out quickly”.

b. The Lord instructed Paul as to why he was to leave Jerusalem.

i. Paul was told to leave Jerusalem because they would not “receive”.

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(welcome; to admit i. e. not to reject, to accept, receive – Joseph

Thayer) Mark 4:20; Acts 16:21

ii. Paul was informed that what they wouldn’t receive was his

“testimony” (see verse 15) concerning the Lord.

5. Paul was hesitant to leave Jerusalem thinking his background in persecuting

Christians would be sufficient justification to the Jews. vs.19-21

a. He said “they know” (understand; to turn oneself or one's mind to, put

one's thought upon a thing – Joseph Thayer) how he persecuted those that

believed on the Lord. vs.19

b. He said that they know that he “consented”(to be pleased at the same time

with, consent, agree to 2a) to applaud – Joseph Thayer) unto the death of

Stephen. vs.20

c. The Lord ignored Paul’s pleas and sent him “far hence unto the Gentiles”.



A. The Jews listen to him until he mentioned the Gentiles. vs.22

1. “Gave him audience” means to attend to (use the faculty of hearing), consider what

is or has been said – Joseph Thayer.

2. They responded vehemently against Paul’s assertion.

a. “Away” means to take up or take away. ill. Lk. 23:18

b. “It is not fit” (proper).

B. The Jews responded violently to Paul’s assertion. vs.23

1. They cried out.

2. They cast off their clothes (tore their garments).

3. They “threw dust into the air” – a symbolic of renunciation, as we would say

"washing one's hands of him," an intimation that all further intercourse was at an

end. – I.S.B.E

C. The Roman captain responded to the uprising by taking Paul in for further examination.

1. He commanded Paul be taken into the castle. vs.24a

2. He resorted to “examining” Paul by “scourging” so that he might know why the Jews

had such a disdain for him. vs.24b Note on “scourging” --A Roman implement for severe bodily punishment.

Horace calls it horrible flagellum. It consisted of a handle, to which several

cords or leather thongs were affixed, which were weighted with jagged pieces of bone or metal, to make the blow more painful and effective. The victim was tied to a

post (Acts 22:25) and the blows were applied to the back and loins, sometimes even,

in the wanton cruelty of the executioner, to the face and the bowels. In the tense

position of the body, the effect can easily be imagined. So hideous was the punishment that the victim usually fainted and not rarely died under it. Eusebius

draws a horribly realistic picture of the torture of scourging. By its application secrets

and confessions were wrung from the victim. It usually preceded capital punishment. It was illegal to apply the flagellum to a Roman citizen, since the Porcian

and Sempronian laws, 248 and 123 BC, although these laws were not rarely broken in

the provinces. I.S.B.E.

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D. Paul relied upon his Roman citizenship to avoid an unwarranted beating. vs.25

1. “They bound (stretch or spread out) him with thongs”.

2. As they were binding him Paul asked a question of the centurion that stood next to

him whether it was “lawful” (predominately as denoting that an action is not

prevented by a higher court or by law it is permitted, it is lawful, it may be done) to

scourage a man who is a Roman who was “uncondemned” (pertaining to not

having gone through a judicial hearing, with the implication of not having been

condemned - 'without trial – Louw-Nida). vs.25

E. The centurion alerted the chief captain to “take heed”, that Paul was a Roman. vs.26

F. The chief captain quizzed Paul about his Roman citizenship.

1. He asked Paul if he was a Roman. vs.27

Note on Roman citizenship: availed for him not in one city only, but throughout

the Roman world and secured for him everywhere certain great immunities and

rights. Precisely what all of these were we are not certain, but we know that, by

the Valerian and Porcian laws, exemption from shameful punishments, such as

scourging with rods or whips, and especially crucifixion, was secured to every

Roman citizen; also the right of appeal to the emperor with certain limitations.

This sanctity of person had become almost a part of their religion, so that any

violation was esteemed a sacrilege. Yet Paul had been thrice beaten with rods, and

five times received from the Jews forty stripes save one (2 Cor 11:24,25). Perhaps

it was as at Philippi before he made known his citizenship (Acts 16:22,23), or the

Jews had the right to whip those who came before their own tribunals. Roman

citizenship included also the right of appeal to the emperor in all cases, after

sentence had been passed, and no needless impediment must be interposed against

a trial. Furthermore, the citizen had the right to be sent to Rome for trial before

the emperor himself, when charged with capital offenses (Acts 16:37; 22:25-29; 25:11). – I.S.B.E

2. The captain offered that citizenship could be purchased. vs.28

a. “With a great sum”

b. I “obtained” (acquire, get or prucure a thing for oneself – Joseph Thayer)

this freedom.

c. Paul informed the captain that he was “free-born” (born a Roman).

3. They ceased preparing Paul for scourging. vs.29a

4. The chief captain was “afraid” (literally – made to fear) because he had bound him.


G. Being stripped of scourging as a means for arriving at an answer for the Jew’s hatred of

Paul, the chief captain resorts to assembling the two sides in a trial.

1. He “wanted” (determined) to know “for certainty” (the facts) as to why he was

“accused” (to bring serious charges or accusations against someone, with the

possible connotation of a legal or court context - 'to accuse, to bring charges) by

the Jews. vs.30a

2. He “loosed” him from his bands.

3. He “commanded” the Jewish leaders to appear before him.

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a. The Jewish leaders included the chief priests (According to the Mosaic law

no one could aspire to the high priesthood unless he were of the tribe of

Aaron, and descended moreover from a high priestly family; and he on whom

the office was conferred held it till death. But from the time of Antiochus

Epiphanes, when the kings of the Seleucid and afterward the Herodian

princes and the Romans arrogated to themselves the power of appointing the

high priests, the office neither remained vested in the pontifical family nor

was conferred on anyone for life; but it became venal, and could be

transferred from one to another according to the will of civil or military

rulers. Hence, it came to pass, that during the one hundred and seven years

intervening between Herod the Great and the destruction of the holy city,

twenty-eight persons held the pontifical dignity). – I.S.B.E.

b. The Jewish leaders included the “all their council”. (The Sanhedrin was, at

and before the time of Christ, the name for the highest Jewish tribunal, of 71

members, in Jerusalem, and also for the lower tribunals, of 23 members, of

which Jerusalem had two. It is derived from Grk: sun, "together," and Grk:

hedra, "seat."). -- I.S.B.E.

c. He set Paul “before” (among) them.

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A. Paul revealed to the “council” that he had a “good conscience” concerning the

doctrine that he was preaching. vs.1-5

1. The term “earnestly beholding” is the word atenias which means to fix

one's eyes on some object continually and intensely - 'to look straight at, to

stare at, to keep one's eyes fixed on. – Louw-Nida (ill. Acts 14:9--- possibly

gazing for the purpose of gaining perception of a situation as he addressed

them) vs.1a

2. The “council” was the Sanhedrin (a local Jewish tribunal; the ecclesiastical

court of the Jews – Abbott & Smith) vs.1b

3. A “good conscience” is one that doesn’t bother the believer due to the fact

that he is living up to God’s standard over and above knowledge that is

inconsistent with God’s rule of life... (ill. 1 Pet. 3:21; 1 Ti. 1:19)


a. The “good conscience” Paul held was “before” (facing) God.

b. The “good conscience” Paul held was even held to up to the time Paul

was speaking to the Sanhedrin.

4. The term “smite” meant to strike, smite, beat (with a staff, a whip, the fist,

the hand—Joseph Thayer) vs. 2 (ill. Matt. 5:39; Luke 12:45)

5. Paul responded uncharacteristically to the event. vs.3

a. He charged (the one who instructed him to be smitten) to be a “white-

washed” wall – i.e. a hypocrite. Ill. Matt. 23:27

b. The basis of Paul’s charged was that the command to strike him was

“contrary” (to act contrary to established custom or law, with the

implication of intent - 'to disobey, to break the law, to transgress,

disobedience – Louw-Nida) to the law. ill. Matt. 15:2

6. Paul was rebuked for his “reviling” (to reproach, rail at, revile, heap abuse

upon)—Joseph Thayer) the high priest. vs.4 (ill. John 9:28; 1 Cor. 4:12; 1

Pet. 2:23)

a. Paul acknowledged that he was unaware that He was speaking to the

high priest.

b. It was against the law to speak “evil” (kakws) against the ruler of

Israel. ill. Ex. 22:28

B. Paul sought to divide the members of the Sanhedrin over the question of the

resurrection of Christ (probably a result of his perception gained when gazing at the

Sanhedrin). vs.6-10

1. The word “perceived” (ginosko – gained an experiential knowledge)

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a. He perceived that part of the Sanhedrin were Pharisees.

b. He perceived that part of the Sanhedrin were Sadducees.

2. Paul exploited a point of contention between the two groups. vs. 6

a. He cried out that he was being judged due to the “hope of the

resurrection” from the dead.

b. Paul’s contention caused a “dissension” (politically taking a stand,

especially a rebellious insurrection, uprising, revolt; as sharp

dissension or unrest within a community strife, heated quarrel,

conflict. between the two groups. vs.7 (ill. Acts 15:2)

c. The “dissension” developed into a “division” (to be split into factions,

be divided) ill. Matt. 27:51; Acts 14:4

d. The Sadducees did not believe in the resurrection, angels or spirit.


e. The Pharisees “confessed” both. vs.8b

3. Those from among the Pharisees joined Paul’s side due to the possibility that

a spirit or an angel could have spoken to him. vs.9a

a. They “strove” (diama, comai to fight or contend with, involving

severity and thoroughness - 'to protest strongly, to contend with –


b. They concluded to “find no evil (kakos) in this man”. vs.9b

4. The “dissention” over the matter increased to the point the chief captain

feared for Paul’s life. vs.10

a. He feared that Paul was going to be “pulled in pieces” (to pull or tear

an object apart – Louw—Nida) ill. Mk. 5:4

b. He ordered his men to go down and “by force” (harpazo – the word

for rapture, to seize or to snatch) him and take him into the castle.

C. The Lord appeared to Paul to reassure him of the things that he was suffering. vs.11

1. He told Paul to “be of good cheer” (a term of assurance given by our Lord to

encourage believers facing trouble) ill. John 16:33

2. Paul was assured that he was to “bear witness” (for all the apostolic

instruction came back finally to testimony respecting things which they

themselves had seen or heard, or which had been disclosed to them by

divine revelation—Joseph Thayer)of the (things concerning) the Lord in

Rome as he had at Jerusalem. (Acts 1:21;5:32; 10:41)


A. They “banded” together (a twisting up together, a binding together. b. a secret

combination, a coalition, conspiracy—Joseph Thayer) in a plot to kill Paul. vs.12-


1. They placed themselves under a “curse” (to invoke divine harm if what is

said is not true or if one does not carry out what has been promised -to

curse.—Joseph Thayer)

2. The curse include them neither eating or drinking until the pledge to kill Paul

was fulfilled. vs. 12

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B. Paul’s nephew gained knowledge of the plot. vs.16-21

1. Paul nephew heard of the plot, possibly from information being passed

around – the word akouo is used here to denote to be informed of something

being passed around – Friberg Lexicon.

2. Upon hearing the information, Paul’s nephew entered to into the castle where

Paul was being held to inform him. vs.16

3. Paul instructed that his nephew be taken to the chief captain to report the plot.


4. The term for “young man” is one beyond the age of puberty, but normally

before marriage – Louw-Nida (this context probably denotes one closer to

puberty than the latter -- ill. Mk. 14:51) vs.18

5. The word for “asked” denotes to inquire, ask, question; learn (by inquiry) –

Barclay-Neuman vs.19

6. They “agreed” is the Greek word sunti, qhmi as coming to a mutual

understanding agree together, come to an agreement with someone; as

coming to a mutual decision within a group – Friberg Lexicon and is used in

Lk. 22:5 of Judas agreeing together with the chief priests and captains about

betraying Jesus. vs.20

C. The chief captain in an attempt to thwart the plot prepared to send Paul out of the

city by stealth to Felix the governor. vs.22-24

1. The chief captain charged Paul’s nephew not to let anyone know that he had

disclosed the plot to him. vs.22

2. The chief captain made plans to move Paul in the dark of night. vs.23

a. He called for 200 soldiers who would take Paul to the edge of


b. He called for 70 “horsemen” (soldiers who fight on horseback, or the

calvary) who would escort Paul from Caesarea onward.

c. He called for 200 “spearman” (soldiers whose duty it was to guard

captives bound by a chain on the right hand, they were experts with

the lance -- Thayer)

d. He called for the plan to commence at the “third hour” (a day is seen

in New Testament time as involving sunrise to sunset – 12 hours ill.

John 11:9 – the third hour was presumably the time of sunset).

3. Two reasons are given for the chief captains actions:

a. That they may “set” (by most definitions – to be placed upon a horse,

his means of traveling i.e…horse, camel) Paul.

b. That they might bring him “safe” (to rescue completely from danger

– Friberg Lexicon) to Governor Felix.

Note on the governors of the Roman empire: A governor was an

official in the Roman empire administering a province in

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the name and with the authority of the Roman emperor –

they held the power to judge matters in the Roman empire. (ill.

Matt. 27:13-14)



A. The chief captain embellishes his role in the rescue of Paul vs. 27-28

1. He accurately writes that Paul was “taken” (seized) by the Jews. vs.27a

2. He accurately writes that he was about to be “killed” (to get rid of someone

by execution, often with legal or quasi-legal procedures - 'to kill, to execute

– Louw –Nida) vs.27b

3. He stretches the truth when he said that he “rescued” him because he was a

Roman. (see Acts 22:23-24) vs. 27c

4. The phrase “would have known” is better rendered and “determining to

experientially know” the cause wherefore they “accused” (as a legal

technical term (formal) charge, ground for accusation – Friberg Lexicon)

him (so that he could bring charges) “I brought him forth into their council”.


B. The chief captain surmised that the problems that the Jews had with Paul were

concerning questions of “their law”. vs. 29

1. He found that the Jews’ charges were based upon “questions” (debates –ill.

Acts 26:3) concerning “their law”.

2. He found that the Jews’ charges were not “worthy” (befitting, congruous,

corresponding, to a thing) of “death or of bonds”.

C. The chief captain justified his actions for sending Paul to the governor. vs. 30

1. He determined to send Paul to him when it was made known to him that a

plot was made to kill Paul.

2. He gave commandment to his accusers to make their charges to him (Felix).

D. The governor consented to hear the case against Paul. vs. 31-35

1. Antipatris was a city situated between Joppa and Caesarea, in a very fertile

region, not far from the coast. vs.31

2. The soldiers delivered Paul to Felix and returned to “the castle”.vs.32-33

3. The governor’s inquiry into what “province” Paul was from was due to the

fact that a province one derived from signified a magistrate's sphere of

administrative action (I.S.B.E.).

4. The term “judgment hall” is the word for the palace in which the governor

or procurator of a province resided, to which use the Romans were

accustomed to appropriate the palaces already existing, and formerly dwelt

in by the kings or princes (in this case, Herod’s).

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A. The Jews brought forth the “dream team” of the Sanhedrin to make their case

against Paul:

1. Ananias was high-priest in Jerusalem from 47-59 AD. He was nominated to

the high-priestly office by Herod of Chalcis. In 52 AD he was sent to Rome

by Quadratus, legate of Syria, to answer a charge of oppression brought by

the Samaritans, but the emperor Claudius acquitted him. On his return to

Jerusalem, he resumed the office of high priest. He was deposed shortly

before Felix left the province, but continued to wield great influence, which

he used in a lawless and violent way. He was a typical Sadducee, wealthy,

haughty, unscrupulous, filling his sacred office for purely selfish and political

ends, anti-nationalist in his relation to the Jews, friendly to the Romans. –


2. Tertullus was the main prosecutor against Paul, he was a hired pleader whose

services were necessary that the case for the Jews might be stated in proper

form. Although he bore a Roman name, he was not necessarily a Roman;

Roman names were common both among Greeks and Jews, and most orators

were at this time of eastern extraction. Nor is it definitely to be concluded

from the manner of his speech (Acts 24:2-8) that he was a Jew; it has always

been customary for lawyers to identify themselves in their pleading with their

clients. – I.S.B.E.

3. The term “orator” is the Greek word rh, toroj from which we get our English

word rhetoric. I.S.B.E. defines the term thusly --The word "orator" occurs

twice: (1) As the King James Version rendering of Heb: lachash; only Is. 3:3

the eloquent orator," the King James Version margin "skilful of speech,"

where the Revised Version (British and American) rightly substitutes "the

skillful enchanter." The word Heb: lachash is probably a mimetic word

meaning "a hiss," "a whisper" and is used in the sense of "incantation"

"charm." Hence, Heb: nebhon lachash means "skillful in incantation,"

"expert in magic.

B. Tertullus’ skill at rhetoric is exemplified in his currying up to Felix. vs. 2-4

1. He commended Felix due to the “much peace” obtained by the Jews (Dia –

thorough the instrumentality of Felix – in other words Felix had helped the

Jews to exist as a nation within the confines of the Roman empire). vs.2

2. The term “very worth deeds” is the word diorqwma,twn.. a. di – through

b. orQw – setting straight

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c. Used in composition the word means what has been set straight,

especially internal improvements in administration reform—Friberg


d. Those “worthy deeds” were done for Israel through Felix’

“providence” – (forethought--to think about something ahead of

time, with the implication that one can then respond appropriately

- 'to give attention beforehand, to have in mind to do – Louw-Nida)

3. Tertullus expresses the thanksgiving the Jews have for Felix’ reforms. vs.3

4. Tertullus begs for patience from Felix. vs.4

a. “The term “further tedious” is egkopto which means 'to knock in' or

'to incise,' not occurring in the NT) to use strong measures in

causing someone not to do something - 'to prevent, to hinder, to

stop someone from.' – Louw-Nida

b. I “pray thee” is to ask for forbearance.

c. “A few words” is used to denote a relatively brief period of time,

implying some measure of reduction or shortening - 'briefly, in a

short time.'—Louw-Nida

C. The crux of the Jews’ case against Paul was four-fold:

1. He was a “pestilent” (widespread contagious disease, often associated with

divine retribution - 'plague, pestilence – used that way of diseases in

Scripture --ill. Lk. 21:11; Rev. 11:6). vs.5a

2. He was a “mover” (one who cause to go, i. e. to move, set in motion; to

excite, to throw into commotion – Joseph Thayer) of “seditions” (divisions)

among all the Jews. vs.5b

3. He was a “ringleader” (one stationed in the front ranks of an army leader –

Friberg Lexicon) of the “sect” (the word is the term heresy which Christian

was described as early on by the Jews – ill. Acts 28:22) of the Nazarenes”. vs.


4. He had gone about to “profane” (to cause something to become unclean,

profane, or ritually unacceptable - 'to make unclean, to defile – Louw-Nida)

the temple. vs.6

D. The Jews desired to attend to Paul themselves, but was thwarted from this purpose.

vs.6b -9

1. We “took” (evkrath,samen -- to lay hold of, take, seize: tina, to lay hands on

one in order to get him into one's power -- Joseph Thayer) indicates that

the Jews believed it was in their power to deal with Paul themselves.

2. Note: verse seven and the first part of verse eight is not in the better


3. Verse eight should read: “By examining of whom thyself mayest take

knowledge of all these things were of we accuse him.” vs.8

a. Tertullus contended that Felix could find out the facts by “examining”

(to investigate, examine, inquire into, scrutinize, sift, question –

Joseph Thayer ill. Acts 17:11; Lk. 23:14)

b. Tertullus was certain that Felix’ examination would produce a

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experiential knowledge of the things of which the Jews were accusing


4. The Jews that accompanied Tertullus consented that the things he presented

were so.vs.9


A. Paul was optimistic of his chances before Felix because of his experience in dealing

with matters concerning the Jews. vs.10

1. Felix had been a “judge” (of a Roman procurator administering justice –

Joseph Thayer) to the nation.

2. Paul “know” (or better read, was acquainted with the fact) that Felix’

had much knowledge of Israel due to his administration of justice

concerning them over the years and was glad that it was he that he had an

opportunity to give his “answer” (apologoumai—defense).

B. Paul refutes the accusations made by the Jews. vs. 11-13

1. Argument #1 for Paul was that it had been only 12 days since he went to

Jerusalem to worship. vs.12

a. The Jews during that time period did not find him in the temple

“disputing” (to converse, discourse with one, argue, discuss:

absolutely, --Joseph Thayer) with anyone.

b. The Jews during that time period did not find him in the temple or

elsewhere “raising up” (bringing together, gathering (as of fruits),

a contracting; an assembling together of men – Friberg Lexicon)

the people.

2. Argument #2 focused on the fact that the Jews “could not” (they don’t have

an ability) to “prove” (legally prove, show to be true -- Friberg Lexicon)

the things in which they “accused” Paul. vs.13

C. Paul contends that his teaching was not inconsistent with Judaism. vs. 14-16 (note:

this argument by Paul proves that God did promise something different to Israel than

he did to the Church and belief in Christianity does not nullify the hope of the Jews

had concerning those promises).

1. Paul states that he worshipped the God of the fathers (of Israel):

a. He “worshipped” (the word latreuw means to do priestly service –ill.

Rom. 12:2) them “after” (according to a standard of measurement

of) “that way”

b. Paul’s worship according to “the way” did not hinder his “believing”

(of the credence given to God's messengers and their words, with a

dative of the person or thing – Joseph Thayer) all the things “which

are” (better understood – according to) “written in the law.” 1 Co.

14:21; Lk. 10:26; 2:23

c. Paul’s worship according to “the way” did not hinder his believing the

“things written in the prophets.” ill. John 6:45; Lk. 4:17; 20:17; Matt.


2. Paul asserts to Felix that his belief in “the way” doesn’t affect the hope that

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he has concerning Israel:

a. Paul expected a resurrection of the dead “just”. Dan. 12:2 (ill. Matt.

13:49; Lk. 14:14)

b. Paul expected a resurrection of the dead “unjust”. Dan. 12:2

3. Paul’s conscience was proof that the promises made to Israel and “the

way” were not inconsistent with God’s plan and purposes. vs.16

a. The term “herein” is better translated “by this thing” (the hope of the

resurrection of the just and unjust). vs. 16a

b. Paul’s hope of the resurrection allowed him to “exercise” (do one's

best to, strive to, exert oneself to – Frieberg Lexicon) a conscience

“void of offense” (denotes a conscience that is pertaining to being

blameless in view of not having given offense - 'blameless, without

blame. not striking against or stumbling; metaphorically, not led

into sin; blameless ill. 1 Co. 10:32) vs.16b

D. Paul explains his actions on the day in question. vs. 17-21

1. His intent was to “bring alms” (to give to those in need as an act of mercy –

'acts of charity, alms, giving to the needy—Lowa—Nida –ill. Acts 3:2;

10:4) to Israel. vs.17a

2. His intent was to bring “offerings” (that which is offered, a gift, a present –

Joseph Thayer) ill. Heb. 10:18 vs.17b

3. Jews from Asia found Paul: vs.18

a. “Purified” (ceremonially: to cleanse themselves from levitical

pollution by means of prayers, abstinence, washings, sacrifices); the

passive has a reflexive force, to take upon oneself a purification,

John 11:55; Acts 21:24) in the temple.

b. “Neither with multitude” (noise or clamor marked by confusion –

'clamor, noise ill. Acts 21:34)

c. Nor with “tumult” (a casual collection of people; a multitude of men

who have flocked together in some place – Joseph Thayer – ill. Matt.

27:24; Acts 19:33)

4. Paul asserted that it was those Asian Jews who should have brought charges

against him, if they had charges to bring. vs.19-20

5. Paul stated that the only possible charge could have been his statement

concerning “the resurrection from the dead”. vs.21

E. Felix delayed action on the matter while awaiting the appearance of the chief-captain

and his testimony. vs.22-23

1. Felix postponed a decision until he was able to more accurately gain a

knowledge concerning “that way”. vs.22a

2. He awaited the arrival of Lysias, the chief captain to “know” (to obtain

accurate and thorough information about - 'to learn about accurately, to

get detailed information, to examine thoroughly—Louw--Nida) the things

concerning Paul. vs.22b

3. Felix commanded a centurion “keep” (guard) Paul. vs.23a

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4. Felix commanded Paul be allowed “liberty” (to let loose, slacken, anything

tense, e. g. a bow, a loosening, relaxing; spoken of a more tolerable

condition in captivity: to be held in less rigorous confinement; have

indulgence—Joseph Thayer). vs.23b

5. Felix commanded Paul not be forbidden “none of his acquaintance” to

“attend” (serve) him. vs.23c



A. Felix and his wife Drusilla set before Paul to hear his argument. vs.24

1. Drusilla was a daughter of Agrippa the elder, wife of Felix, the governor of

Judaea, (a most licentious woman) per Josephus. vs.24a

2. Felix “sent” (to send after for oneself, cause to be sent for: -- Joseph Thayer)

for the purpose of satisfying Drusilla who was acquainted with Judism, be a

Jewess. vs.24b

3. He heard Paul concerning the faith “into” Christ Jesus. vs.24c

B. Paul “reasoned” (ill. Acts 19:8; 20:9) with Felix and his wife over a number of

topics related to Christianity:

1. Righteousness. ill. John 16:8

2. Temperance. Ill. 1 Co. 9:25

3. The judgment to come. Rev. 20:11-12

C. Paul’s message had a traumatic effect upon Felix. vs.25

1. Paul’s message made Felix “afraid” (terrified, startled, afraid – Friberb

Lexicon -- ill. Lk. 24:5; Acts 10:4) vs.25a

2. Felix sent Paul away promising to send for him at a later date. vs.25b

D. Felix’s corruption led him to attempt to make financial gain from Paul’s situation.

vs. 26-27

1. Felix had hoped that Paul would pay him money to get out of prison so he

sent for him often and “communed” (to associate with; to stay with; hence,

to converse with, talk with – Joseph Thayer). vs.26

2. Felix, being the consummate politician left Paul in jail after Porcius Festus

came into office “to earn a favor” to the Jews. vs.27

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A. Festus rejects the Jews’ desire to kill Paul without a hearing. vs.1-5

1. A “province” was in the most comprehensive official sense it signified a

magistrate's sphere of administrative action, which in one instance might

be the direction of jurisdiction at Rome, in another the management of

military operations against a particular hostile community. –I.S.B.E. vs.1

2. The term “informed” denotes to report or declare a thing against a person,

to inform against one. – Joseph Thayer vs.2

3. The high priest and the Jewish leaders “besought” (the word means they

begged him – it is in the imperfect tense denoting that they started begging

him with the result that they continued to do so – a sign of desperation of

getting Paul out of the judicial loop so they could attend to him themselves).

a. They desired “favor” (a benefit showed someone with the implication

that it would be reciprocated in some way) against Paul. ill. vs.9

b. The request was for Festus to summon Paul into Jerusalem so that the

Jews would ambush him along the way and kill him. vs.3

4. Festus “answered” (was made to answer – passive voice denotes it possibly

was because of Roman protocol) that Paul would remain in Caesarea. vs.4a

5. Festus assured that he was headed to Ceasarea “shortly” (without delay, at

once, speedily)

6. Festus urged those who were able among the Jews to travel together with him

to Ceasarea if they had accusations to make against Paul. vs.5

B. Festus spends time in Jerusalem before returning to Caesarea. vs 6.

1. Contrary to his statement to the Jews that he was going “quickly” to

Caesarea, Festus “tarried” (diatri, bw to remain or stay in a place, with the

implication of some type of activity – Louw-Nida) ten days “among them”

(Jews in Jerusalem).

2. Festus’s tarrying among them possibly had some effect in his actions of verse


3. After 10 days Festus goes down into Ceasarea and sits upon the “judgment”

(bh,matoj -- a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a

seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly, often on judicial matters -

'judgment seat, judgment place.' The association of a bh/ma with judicial

procedures means that there is almost always an important component of

judicial function associated with this term. Therefore in translating bh/ma, it is

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often best to use a phrase such as 'a place where a judge decides' or 'a place

where decisions are made) seat. ill. Matt. 27:19; Acts 18:16-17

C. The Jews lodged their complaint before Festus. vs. 7

1. The Jews “stood round about” (to stand around someone or to encircle –


2. The Jews made many “grevious” (of important matters very significant,

serious, momentous – Friberg Lexicon) complaints.

3. The Jews were “could not” (i; scuon -- to have special personal ability to do

or experience something - 'to be able to, to have the strength to, to be very

capable of. – Louw – Nida) “prove” (to prove by arguments, demonstrate).

D. Paul refuted the Jews’ charges in his defense. vs.8

1. Paul asserted that he had done nothing against the law of the Jews.

2. Paul asserted that he had done nothing against the temple.

3. Paul asserted that he had done nothing against Caesar.

E. Festus plays politics with Paul’s imprisonment. vs.9

1. Festus “desiring” (Qelw – wishing) to do the Jews a favor.

2. Festus ask Paul if he was desiring to go up to Jerusalem to be judged before

him. (This was contrary to what he had told the Jews upon their request for

this very thing. vs.3

F. Paul is led to take his appeal over the head of Festus directly to Caesar. vs.10-12

1. Paul assert that it was at “Caesar’s” judgment seat (Bhmatoj) in which he

stood where it was “necessary” (according to Roman protocol – not in

Jerusalem under Jewish law) him to be judged.

2. Paul asserted to Festus that he hadn’t done “wrong” (to wrong some one, act

wickedly toward him – Joseph Thayer) to the Jews. ill. Acts 7:26; 2 Co. 7:2

3. Paul was sure that Festus “knew” (epiginowskw) this and thus concluded that

he would get no justice before this man.

4. Paul made it clear to Festus that he thought his actions were not in keeping

with what was proper under Roman law. vs.11a

a. He assured Festus that he didn’t “refuse” (beg, ask that something not

take place – Frieberg Lexicon) to die if he had done some wrong

worthy of death.

b. Paul reasoned that “if” (rather, since) there be “none of these things”

(worthy of death), no man (not even Festus, under Roman law) has

(has the ability) to “deliver” (cari,zomai to give or grant graciously

and generously, with the implication of good will on the part of the

giver - 'to give, to grant, to bestow generously – Louw-Nida) me to


5. Paul asserted his right as a Roman citizen to “appeal” (epikalew – to call

upon or to invoke ones name) to Caesar. vs.11b

Note: Appeals under the Roman Empire were made by Roman citizens

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who were sent to Rome might be brought either before the senate or

emperor, but cognizance of these cases by the imperial tribunal was

more usual, and finally supplanted entirely that of the senate, the

formula of appeal becoming proverbial: cives Romanus sum, provoco ad

Caesarem (Kaisara epikaloumai: Acts 25:11).

As Roman citizenship became more and more widely extended

throughout the empire its relative value diminished, and it is obvious

that many of the special privileges, such as the right of trial at Rome,

which were attached to it in the earlier period must have been gradually

lost. It became customary for the emperors to delegate their power of

final jurisdiction over the lives of citizens (ius gladii) to the provincial

governors, and finally, after Roman citizenship had been conferred upon

the inhabitants of the empire generally by Caracalla, the right of appeal

to Rome remained the privilege of certain classes only, such as senators,

municipal decurions (Digest xlviii.19, 27), officers of equestrian rank in

the army, and centurions.

6. Festus “conferred” (talk, converse, discuss with – Friberg Lexicon) with the (Jewish)

council before pronouncing he would send Paul on to Caesar. vs.12



A. Agrippa had received a royal education in the palace of the emperor himself. But he

had not wholly forgotten his people, as is proven by his intercession in behalf of the

Jews, when they asked to be permitted to have the custody of the official highpriestly

robes, till then in the hands of the Romans and to be used only on stated occasions.

On the death of his uncle, Herod of Calchis, Claudius made Agrippa II "tetrarch" of

the territory, 48 AD. As Josephus tells us, he espoused the cause of the Jews

whenever he could. Four years later (52 AD), Claudius extended the dominion of

Agrippa by giving him the old "tetrarchies" of Philip and Lysanias. Even at Calchis

they had called him king; now it became his official title. Still later (55 AD), Nero

added some Galilean and Perean cities to his domain. vs.13a

B. Bernice was the daughter of Herod Agrippa the elder. She married first her uncle

Herod, king of Chalcis, and after his death Polemon, king of Cilicia. Deserting him

soon afterward, she returned to her brother Agrippa, with whom previously when a

widow she was said to have lived incestuously. Finally she became for a tithe the

mistress of the emperor Titus. vs.13b

C. Felix’ wife Drusilla was Agrippa and Bernice’ sister (Acts 24:24).

D Agrippa and Bernice arrived in Caesarea to “salute” (pay one's respects to, of those

who show regard for a distinguished person by visiting him – Joseph Thayer)

Festus. vs.13c

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A. Festus “declared” (as setting forth one's cause declare, refer to (for counsel)

-- Friberg Lexicon) Paul’s case to Agrippa. vs.14a

B. Festus explains that he was “left behind” (it is used of one whom on being called

away cannot take another with him. Acts 24:27; 25:14; specifically, of the dying –

Joseph Thayer). vs.14b

C. Festus explained that the Jews in Jerusalem desired “judgment” (to judge someone

as definitely guilty and thus subject to punishment - 'to condemn, to render a

verdict of guilt, condemnation. – Louw-Nida) against him. vs. 15

D. Festus informs Agrippa of his response to the Jews.

1. He said he told them it was not the “custom” (a pattern of behavior more or

less fixed by tradition and generally sanctioned by the society - 'custom,

habit – Louw-- Nida) of Rome to give one over for destruction until face to

face accusations are made. vs.16

2.A “defense” was also necessary before rendering a judgment. vs.16

E. Festus states that this was why he order Paul to be held captive and his accusers to be

brought before the “judgment seat” with their charges. vs.17

F. The Jews’ accusations were not such that Festus had “supposed” (to have an opinion

based on scant evidence, often with the implication of regarding a false opinion as

true - 'to imagine, to conjecture, to suspect, to falsely suspect, to be suspicious –

Louw-Nida). vs.18-19

1. The Jews’ accusations included “questions concerning their own

“superstitions” (a set of beliefs concerning deity, with the implication of

corresponding behavior - 'religion -- Louw-Nida).

2. The Jews’ accusations included “questions concerning Jesus” whom Paul

“affirmed” (to speak about something with certainty - 'to declare, to assert.

--Louw-Nida) to live.

G. Festus asserts that he “doubted” ("to be without resources, to be in straits, to be left

wanting, to be embarrassed, to be in doubt, not to know which way to turn --

Joseph Thayer) “such manner of questions. vs.20

1. Festus claims that it was this doubt that led him to ask Paul to go to

Jerusalem to be judged by him. (this is contrary to the insight Scripture

gives for why he asked Paul to go to Jerusalem –vs.9)

2. Festus claims that it was Paul’s appeal to Caesar that led him to not send

Paul to Jerusalem. vs.21

H. Agrippa “determined” (the imperfect voice denotes that he made up his mind before

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Festus concluded his explaination that he wanted to hear Paul’s defense). vs.22

I. Agrippa and Bernice came into the auditorium with great “pomp” (imagination, the

power by which an object is presented (fai, netai) to the mind the object presented

being fa, ntasma -- Liddell & Scott). vs.23 (ill. Heb. 12:29)

1. Members of the military hierarchy were present.

2. High ranking city officials were present.

J. Festus explained to those gathered the Jews desire for Paul’s death. vs.24

K. Festus acknowledges Paul’s innocence. vs.25

L. Fetus asked for Agrippa to “examine” (as a law-term among the Greeks, the

preliminary investigation held for the purpose of gathering evidence for the

information of the judges – Friberg Lexicon) Paul in order that he might have

something to write Caesar concerning Paul. vs.26

M. Festus thought it “unreasonable” (denotes with out thinking, absurd, without

reason) to send Paul to Caesar without a charge to “signify” (make clear) the

“crimes” against him. vs. 27

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A. Agrippa “permits” (epitre, petai, -- to allow someone to do something—Louw-

Nida) ill. 1 Tim. 2:12

1. Agrippa permits Paul to “speak”.

2. Paul’s speech was to be “for thyself” (on behalf of ones self).

B. Paul indicates his happiness with appearing before Agrippa.

1. Paul said the “think” (denotes to consider, regard) himself happy. ill. Phil.


2. The basis of Paul’s happiness was that he could answer the Jews accusations

“before” (epi - before) you.

C. Paul had knowledge of the fact that Agrippa was an expert in matters concerning the


1. Paul knew Agrippa was an “expert” (one who knows, with the usual

implication of to know well - 'one who knows, expert. – Louw—Nida) in all

the things of the Jews. ill. John 18:15,16

a. Agrippa was an expert in all the “customs” (fixed pattern of behavior

habit, custom, usage; plural morals, habits, character—Friberg

Lexicon) ill. John 19:40

b. Agrippa was an expert in the “questions” (debates) of the Jews. ill.

Acts 23:29

2. Consequently, Paul begged Agrippa to hear him “patiently” (long-

sufferingly) ill. Lk. 18:7


A. The term Paul uses for “life” in this context is bios life, which is to conduct oneself,

with focus upon everyday activity - 'to live, daily life, life, existence – Louw Nida.

vs. 4 ill. 1 John 2:16

1. Paul asserted that the Jews were familiar with his conduct “from my youth”,

or rather, from his boyhood – since he was a boy.

2. Paul asserted that his conduct took place in and among the Jews.

B. Paul asserted that the Jews had foreknowledge of his life as a Pharisee. vs.5

C. Paul states that he is on trial: vs.6

1. “For the hope” (evp evlpi, di – upon the basis of an expectation).

2. The hope was derived from the “promise” made by God to the fathers (of

Israel) – That the Christ would be raised from the dead. ill. Acts 13:33; Lk.

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24:46; Ps. 2:2

D. Paul identifies that is the hope of the resurrection of Messiah that the Jews serving as

priests (night and day), are hoping to “arrive” (of what comes to a person or

community come to, reach; happen to, befall – Louw-Nida vs.7 ill 1C o.10.11

E. Paul questions Agrippa as to why it is so “incredible” (unbelievable) that God raises

the dead. vs.8

F. Paul revealed that he too once shared the Jews thinking concerning the name of Jesus

of Nazareth. vs.9

1. He had thought it necessary to do “contrary” (opposed as an adversary,

hostile, antagonistic in feeling or act – Joseph Thayer) ill. 1 Thess. 2:15

2. The term “do” is the word prasso, which means to carry out some activity

(with possible focus upon the procedures involved) - 'to do, to carry out, to

perform, deed – Louw—Nida)

G. Paul chronicles his pursuits of believers before his conversion.vs.10-11

1. He shut saints up into prison.

2. He “gave his voice” (yh/fon---since in the ancient courts of justice the

accused were condemned by black pebbles and acquitted by white Paul

raised black pebbles against Christians) against them.

3. Paul states that he “punished” (to punish, with the implication of causing

people to suffer what they deserve – Louw-Nida) them often.

4. Paul states that he “compelled” (to necessitate, compel, drive to, constrain,

whether by force, threats, etc., or by persuasion, entreaties, etc., or by other

means – Louw – Nida) them to blaspheme.

5. Paul was “exceedingly mad” (perissw/j evmmaino, menoj -- to be so furiously

angry with someone as to be almost out of one's mind - 'to be enraged, to be

infuriated, to be insanely angry).


A. Paul explains that it was on his way to Damascus to persecute saints that the had an

encounter with the Lord. vs.12

1. At “midday” (a position in the middle of an area either an object in the

midst of other objects or an area in the middle of a larger area – Louw-

Nida) he saw a light out from heaven. vs.13

a. The light was “above” the “brightness” (radiance-- in a number of

languages a clear distinction is made between some objects, which is

bright in and of itself (that is to say, the source of brightness or

radiance) and objects which are bright because they reflect light

from some source – Louw-Nida) of the sun.

b. The light was “shinning round” (to illuminate an area surrounding

an object – Louw-Nida) about Paul and those who journeyed with


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2. Paul heard a “voice” after he had fallen to the ground. vs.14

a. The voice spoke to Paul in the Hebrew “tongue” (language).

b. The voice inquired of Paul as to why he was “persecuting” Him.

c. The personal pronoun “Me” indicates the union the believer shares

with the Lord as a member of His Body.

d. “Kick against the pricks” was a familiar proverb in both

Greek and Latin literature, and refers to the severer goading

received by an ox, which kicks back at the goad used to guide

or urge him on. The words seem to mean that Paul's

paroxysm of persecution was a painful as well as profitless

resistance to the pricks of conscience by which God was leading

him into the light. – I.S.B.E.

3. Paul enquired as to whom it was that was calling him. vs.15



A. The Lord pointed out two reasons for His appearance to the apostle Paul: vs.16

1. To “make” (to choose for a particular purpose in advance - 'to choose in

advance, to select beforehand, to designate in advance – Louw-Nida). ill.

Acts 3:20; 10:41

2. The word “minister” is hupertees which means is from u`po,, and evre, thj from

evre, ssw to row; properly, an under rower, subordinate rower; anyone who

serves with his hands; a servant – Joseph Thayer (The word is also used to

denote one who sets the pace for an endeavor – ill. Acts 13:5; 1 Co. 4:1)

3. The term “witness” denotes one who declares facts directly known to

himself; from firsthand knowledge or from firsthand experience. – Friberg


a. Paul was to be a witness of the things, which he “saw” (of visions

during sleep or ecstasy -- Joseph Thayer ill. Rev. 1:19)

b. Paul was to be a witness of the things, which he would see in future

appearances by the Lord.

B. God promised Paul deliverance from the Jews and the Gentiles. vs.17

C. The Lord explained to Paul that He would send him to the Gentiles. vs. 18

1. To “open” (with a figurative sense, literally open the eyes of the mind, i.e.

cause to understand – Friberg Lexicon) their eyes.

2. To turn them from darkness to light.

3. To turn them from the authority of Satan to God.

a. The purpose was that they might receive “forgiveness of sins”.

b. The purpose was that they might receive an “inheritance” among the


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A. Paul states to Agrippa that as a result of the things he heard, he was not disobedient

to the heavenly “vision” (an event in which something appears vividly and credibly

to the mind, although not actually present, but implying the influence of some

divine or supernatural power or agency – Louw-Nida –ill. 2 Co. 12:1) vs.19

B. Paul’s message to those in Damascus, Jerusalem and among the Gentiles was two-

fold: vs.20

1. Repentance (have a change of mind) for the purpose of turning to “the”

(true) God.

2. “Do” (practice) works “meet” (befitting of, consistent with) repentance.



A. Paul asserts that the aforementioned was the reason that the Jews sought to kill him.


B. Paul credits God with helping him to deliver the message that was consistent with

the prophets and Moses. vs.22-23 (ill. Lk. 24:27; Dt. 18:15; Ps. 22; Is. 53)

1. The Messiah would suffer.

2. The Messiah would be “first” (first in a series involving time, space, or set

-- Louw-Nida) to be raised out from the dead. (ill. 1 Co. 15:20-23)

3. The Messiah would proclaim light to “the people” (Israel).

4. The Messiah would proclaim light to “the Gentiles”.

C. Festus balks at Paul’s assertion of the resurrection from the dead. vs.24

1. Festus accused Paul of being “beside thyself” (to think or reason in a

completely irrational manner - 'to not be in one's right mind, to be insane,

to be mad, to be out of one's mind, insanity, madness.—Louw-Nida).

2. Festus attributed Paul’s manical behavior to his “much learning” (of

education letters, learning—Friberg Lexicon) ill. Jn 7.15

D. Paul refutes Festus’ claim that he was “mad”. vs.25

1. Paul states that his words are “truth”.

2. Paul states that his words are of a “soberness” (a mind reflectively thinking

on salvation) frame of mind. ill. 2 Tim. 1:7


A. Paul leans on Agrippa’s familiarity with the matters discussed to legitimize his


1. Paul stated that Agrippa “knows” (the word here is not oida – to know the

facts, but evpi, stamai which means to possess information about, with the

implication of an understanding of the significance of such information –

to be aquainted with a person or thing. – ill Acts 19:15) vs.26a

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2. Paul stated that the things he spoke of had not “hidden” (lanqa, nw to cause

oneself to not be known, with the implication of concealment and secrecy –

'to escape notice, to remain hid- den. the kings’ notice. vs.26b

3. Paul stated that the things he spoke of was not done in a “corner” (a

reference to something, which was not done in secret)

B. Paul asserts that his acquaintance with the fact of Agrippa’s belief in the Old

Testament prophets. vs. 27

1. The word “know” is oida, which means to know the facts. Paul had some

information that Agrippa did believe the prophets of Israel.

2. “Believe” is the word pisteu,w believe (in), have faith (in) (with God or

Christ as object); believe, believe in; have confidence (in someone or

something), entrust (something to another) – Barclay/Neuman ill. Ja.2: 19

C. Agrippa quizzed Paul as to whether he thought he could persuade him to be a

Christian in “a little while” (such short time). vs.28

D. The phrase “would to God” is better translated evn ovli,gw| kai. evn pollw/|, in a little

while or in much time. vs.29

E. Agrippa and the other high-ranking officials departed at Paul’s last statement. vs.30

F. Agrippa, Festus and others discussed Paul’s case when after they departed from his


1. “When they had gone aside” is the Greek word avnacwre, w -- to move away

from a location, implying a considerable distance - 'to withdraw, to retire,

to go off, to go away. —Louw Nida. They talked “between themselves” (one

another of the same kind).

2. In the conference held between the officials they concluded:

a. Paul had not done anything worthy of death.

b. Paul had not done anything worthy of imprisonment.

G. The sovereignty of God is manifested in Agrippa’s last statement to Festus in that

God allowed the circumstances where Paul would appeal to Caesar. vs.32

1. “This many might have been set free” (You had the power in the past to

release this man)

2. The “If (eiv mh. -- except) he had not” appealed to Ceasar.

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A. It was “determined” that the best course to Italy was by sail. vs.1a

B. Paul was “delivered” over to a Roman centurion for vs.1b

C. “Adramyttitum” (An ancient city of Mysia in the Roman Province of Asia. When

Pergamus became the capital of Asia, Adramyttium grew to be a city of

considerable importance, and the metropolis of the Northwest part of the province.

There the assizes were held. The coins which the peasants pick up in the

surrounding fields, and which are frequently aids in determining the location and

history of the cities of Asia Minor, were struck at Adramyttium as late as the 3rd

century AD, and sometimes in connection with Ephesus. Upon them the effigies of

Castor and Pollux appear, showing that Adramyttium was the seat of worship of

these deities. -- I.S.B.E.—the ship was from this city) was vs.2a

D. Aristarchus of Thessonalonica accompanined Paul and Dr. Luke. vs.2b

Note: Aristarchus was one of those faithful companions of the apostle Paul who shared with

him his labors and sufferings. He is suddenly mentioned along with Gaius as having been

seized by the excited Ephesians during the riot stirred up by the silversmiths (Acts 19:29).

They are designated "men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel." We learn later that

he was a native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4; 27:2). They were probably seized to extract from

them information about their leader Paul, but when they could tell nothing, and since they

were Greeks, nothing further was done to them.

When Aristarchus attached himself to Paul we do not know, but he seems ever after the

Ephesian uproar to have remained in Paul's company. He was one of those who accompanied

Paul from Greece via Macedonia (Acts 20:4). Having preceded Paul to Troas, where they

waited for him, they traveled with him to Palestine. He is next mentioned as accompanying

Paul to Rome (Acts 27:2). There he attended Paul and shared his imprisonment. He is

mentioned in two of the letters of the Roman captivity, in the Epistle to the church at Col

(4:10), and in the Epistle to Philem (1:24), in both of which he sends greetings. In the former

Paul calls him "my fellow-prisoner." According to tradition he was martyred during the

persecution of Nero. – I.S.B.E.

E. Paul was not treated as an abject prisoner by his centurion guard. vs.3

1. He “courteously entreated” (of acting in a humane manner kindly, in a

friendly way—Friberg Lexicon) Paul. vs.3a

2. He gave him “liberty” (to turn to, transfer, commit, entrust.

-- Joseph Thayer) to go to his friends and “refresh” (be cared for, get

needed care--Friberg Lexicon) himself.

F. Paul’s trip was detoured from their way because of “contrary” (literally, of direction

opposite; substantively evx evnanti, aj opposite, over against someone (MK 15.39); of

the wind contrary, blowing against -- Friberg Lexicon) winds. vs.4 ill. Matt. 14:24

G. Paul sails as far as Lycia before the centurion puts them on a ship to Italy. vs. 6

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1. They went through Cilicia and Pamphylia in to Myra.

2. The ship they caught was a ship of “Alexandria” (one of the great corn fleet

carrying grain from Egypt for the multitudes of Rome. (After the capture of

Jerusalem the emperor Titus returned to Italy in such a vessel, touching at

Rhegium and landing at Puteoil.) The size of the vessel is indicated by the

fact that there were 276 persons on board, crew and passengers all told

(Acts 27:37). Luke has made no note of the name of this or of the previous

vessels in which Paul had voyaged. Of the presumably larger vessel, also an

Alexandrian corn ship bound for Rome, which had wintered in Melita, and

which afterward took on board the shipwrecked party—I.S.B.E.

H. The ship of Alexandria faced difficulties along the journey. vs.7

1. The wind did not “suffering” (permitting) them to continue their course.

2. Due to the contrary winds, they sailed into Crete.

3. “Hardly passing” (to sail past, coast along – Joseph Thayer) they arrived in a

play called Fair Havens (Fair—Good; Havens – Harbor --a relatively small

area of the sea which is well protected by land but deep enough for ships to

enter and moor - 'harbor). vs.8

4. “Much time was spent” (a considerable time having elapsed) vs.9a

5. Sailing became “dangerous” (insecure, unsafe; of a voyage in stormy seas -

hazardous, dangerous—Friberg Lexicon) vs.9b

6. Paul intervened and to give the captain some advice due to the dangerous

conditions. vs.9c

a. He did so because the “fast” (the tenth of the month Tisri: Acts 27:9

(the month Tisri comprises a part of our September and October (cf.

B. D. under the word month (at end)); the fast, accordingly,

occurred in the autumn, when navigation was usually dangerous on

account of storms -- Joseph Thayer) was already past.

b. He “admonished” (paraine, w: to indicate strongly to someone what

he or she should plan to do - 'to advise strongly, to urged—Louw-

Nida) them.

7. The context of Paul’s admonition included: vs.10

a. He “perceived” Qewrei/n is used primarily not of an indifferent

spectator, but of one who looks at a thing with interest and for a

purpose; qewrei/n would be used of a general officially reviewing or

inspecting an army, qe, asqai of a lay spectator looking at the

parade. qewrei/n as denoting the careful observation of details --

Joseph Thayer that the voyage would end in “hurt” and “much

damage”(to suffer the loss of something which one has previously

possessed, with the implication that the loss involves considerable

hardship or suffering --Louw-Nida.

b. Paul perceived that the “lading would be damaged”.

c. Paul perceived that the lives of those aboard would be affected.

8. The centurion believed the “master” (one who commands a ship - 'captain of

a ship --Louw-Nida of the ship over Paul. vs.11

9. The haven was not “commodious” (not convenient, not commodious, not fit:

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The season for navigation in those seas in ancient times was from April to

October. During the winter the vessels were laid up, or remained in the

shelter of some suitable haven. The reason for this was not simply the

tempestuous character of the weather, but the obscuration of the heavens

which prevented observations being taken for the steering of the ship -

Joseph Thayer/I.S.B.E.) to winter in and one part “advised” to depart from

that location. vs.12

a. The hope was that they might “attain” to Phenice and winter there.

b. Phenice was a haven of Crete.



A. The ship’s captain’s decision to leave Fair Havens turns out to be a bad one. vs.13

1. They “supposed” (to regard something as presumably true, but without

particular certainty - 'to suppose, to presume, to assume, to imagine, to

believe, to think) they had obtained their purpose when the south wind blew.

2. They “loosed” (to draw up anchors from the bottom of the sea) sailing close

by Crete.

3. A “tempestuous” (Expressions for strong winds often differ on the basis of

two important features: (1) the strength or violence of the wind and (2) the

duration of the wind. For example, in English terms such as squall and

tornado indicate violent but short periods of blowing, while hurricane or

typhoon indicates a storm which takes a much longer period of time to pass.

– Louw—Nida) wind arose after they set sail. vs.14

a. The wind was called Euroclydon (from Eu=roj the southeast wind,

and klu, dwn a wave), a southeast wind raising mighty waves —

Joseph Thayer)

b. The ship was “caught” (to seize by force and carry away—Joseph

Thayer) vs.15a

i. The ship could not “bear” (avntofqalme,w strictly look in the

face; hence, of a ship against the wind bear up against, face

into—Friberg Lexicon) up into the wind.

ii. The captain “let her drive” (were borne along –ill. 2 Pet. 1:21)

4. The ship “ran under” (u`potre,cw -- to sail or move along beside some object

which provides a degree of protection or shelter - 'to sail under the shelter

of; to sail on, protected by – Louw--Nida) an island called Claudia. vs.16a

5. The ship had “much work to come by the boat” (we were scarcely able to get

the boat under control – Louw--Nida). vs. 16b

a. The ship was “taken up” vs. 17a

i. “Helps” (a nautical technical term for safety devices for a

ship supports, such as ropes – Friberg Lexicon) were used to

“undergird” the ship.

ii. They struck sail “fearing getting stuck in the quicksand”

(Syrtis, the name of two places in the African or Libyan Sea

between Carthage and Cyrenaica, full of shallows and

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sandbanks, and therefore destructive to ships—Friberg


iii. The ship was “driven” as a result of “setting sail”.

b. The ship continued to suffer so that the ship’s captain took extreme

measures. vs.18

i. The ship was exceedingly “tossed” (sfodrw/j: a very high point

on a scale of extent and in many contexts implying

vehemence or violence - 'exceedingly, greatly, violently,


ii. The ship was tossed by a “temptest” (to afflict with a tempest,

to toss about upon the waves)

iii. The next day they “lightened” (erriyan – to throw, to hurl) the


iv. The third day they cast out the “tackling” (gear, presumably

spare sails and tackle) off the ship. vs.19

B. The uncertainty of the outcome began to have an effect upon the occupants of the

ship. vs.20

1. Neither sun nor stars “appeared” for “many days”. vs.20a

2. “No small temptest” (stormy or rainy weather—Reinecker/Rogers) “lay

upon” (to lie upon or over, rest upon, be laid or placed upon; of the

pressure of a violent tempest) the ship for “many days”. vs. 20b

3. All hope of salvation was “taken way” (as a nautical technical term, of an

anchor lift, raise cut off, cast off). vs. 20c (ill. 2 Co. 3:16)

4. The word “we” included Dr. Luke (the writer of Acts and others aboard,

including Paul – see vs.24)

C. Paul encouraged those aboard to take heart. vs.21

1. There was a long “abstinence” (as going without food fasting, abstinence,

being without appetite for food -- Friberg Lexicon). vs. 21a

2. Paul stood “in the midst” of them admonishing the captain for not “heeding”

(follow advice, listen to—Friberg Lexicon) his warning. vs.21b

3. Paul encouraged those on board to be of “good cheer” (to be or to become

encouraged and hence cheerful - 'to be encouraged, to take courage, to

become encouraged – Louw Nida) vs.22a

4. Paul encouraged that the ship would not meet with the “loss of any man’s

life” vs.22b

5. Paul stated that the ship would be lossed. vs.22c

6. Paul gave the source of his knowledge. vs. 23

a. Paul received revelation from an angel of the Lord.

b. The angel instructed Paul to (stop) “fearing”. vs.24

i. The reason he was to stop fearing was that he “must” (it is a

logical necessity) be brought before Caesar.

ii. The reason he was not to fear was that God had “given” (to

give, to grant, as a present – Reinecker/Rogers – ill. Gal.

3:18) him all that were on board.

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7. Paul urged that he was confident that things would be as he was told. vs.25

8. Paul warned that it was told him that they would be “cast upon” (as a

nautical technical term, of ships drift off course, be driven onto rocks, run

aground –Friberg Lexicon) a certain island. vs.26

D. The fourteenth night of the ship’s distress brought possibilities of an end. vs. 27-29

1. The ship was “driven up and down” in the “Adria”(the Adriatic Sea, i. e., in

a wide sense, the sea between Greece and Italy).

2. The “shipmen” “deemed” (u`po, noia -- to have an opinion based on scant

evidence, often with the implication of regarding a false opinion as true –

'to imagine, to conjecture, to suspect) about midnight that they were

drawing near to some country.

3. The shipmen “sounded” (boli,zw -- to use a rope with a lead weight attached

to it in order to measure the depth of water - 'to take soundings, to heave

the lead, to drop a plummet) vs.28

4. The shipmen found the depth of the water to be 20 “fathoms” (ovrguia, -- traditionally the measurement of a man's arms stretched out horizontally,

reckoned at approximately six feet or almost two meters and used as a

technical, nautical term to measure the depth of water)

5. The depth of the water left them “fearing” that they would “fall upon the

rocks” (run aground upon uneven places; of a rocky seashore). vs.29

a. They cast four anchors out of the “stern”

b. They “wished” (to speak to or to make requests of God - 'to pray, to

speak to God, to ask God for, prayer – Louw-Nida) for the day.

E. God used Paul during the dire circumstances that led many on the ship to attempt to

flee for their lives. vs.30

1. The “shipmen” tried to flee the ship.

a. They made their attempt by letting down the boat “under colour” (to

pretend to be engaged in a particular activity - 'to pretend, pretense


b. They pretended to “cast anchors” (the cable to which the anchor is

fastened, i. e. to cast anchor (the idea of extending the cables runs

into that of carrying out and dropping the anchors – Joseph Thayer)

out of the “foreship”

2. Paul warned that their attempt to leave the vessel would result in their death.


a. Paul warned the Centurion and the soldiers.

b. The Centurion and the soldiers listened to Paul and “cut” the ropes of

the boat they were trying to escape in and “let her fall”.

3. Paul the prisoner served as an encourager in the midst of the event. vs.33

a. He “besought” (to exhort; beg) those aboard to “take meat”.

b. He assured them that not “a hair (shall) fall from the head” on any of

them. vs.34

c. Paul took the lead by “taking” bread and “giving thanks” to God.

i. Paul gave thanks in the “presence” (something is supposed to

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be done by one while standing or appearing in the presence

of another –Joseph Thayer) of them all.

ii. Paul began to eat.

d. Paul’s exhortation to them was effective as they came to be of “good

cheer”. vs.36

c. They all “took” some meat.

4. There were two-hundred and 76 “souls” (individuals) on board.

5. Those aboard ate “enough”.

6. After “eating” (satiate, fill; passive get enough of, be satisfied with, have all

one wants of something – Friberg Lexicon) enough they “cast out”

(koufi,zw -- to cause something to weigh less - 'to lighten, to make less

heavy – Louw-Nida) the wheat into the sea.


A. Daylight increased the hope that they would be saved. vs.39

1. They “knew not” (have a full experiential knowledge of) the land.

2. They discovered a certain “creek” (an inward extension of a sea bay, inlet)

with a “shore”(the shore of the sea, beach).

3. They were “minded” (katanoe,w -- to give very careful consideration to

some matter - 'to think about very carefully, to consider closely) to “thrust”

(to propel, drive—Louw-Nida) the ship (aground) into the creek (if they

were able to control it).

B. The crew tried to gain control of the vessel by: vs.40

1. “Lifting” (to take away that which surrounds or envelops a thing – Joseph

Thayer) the anchors.

2. They “committed” (to give up, let go, leave; they let down into the sea; i. e.,

abandoned –Joseph Thayer) themselves to the sea.

3. They, simultaneous to lifting the anchors, “loosed” the “rudder bands”

(ropes employed in linking two rudders of a boat – Louw-Nida)

4. They “hoisted up” the “mainsail” (avrte, mwn -- a cloth attached above a boat

in such a way as to catch the wind and thus propel the boat through the

water - 'sail) to the wind.

5. They “made toward” the shore.

C. Making it to the sea did not the ship “ran aground” where the “two seas” met.

1. On the one hand, the “forepart” (the bow) stuck fast and remained

“unmoveable” (became jammed fast – Louw-Nida).

2. On the other hand, the “hinder” (back) part was “broken” with the violence

of the waves.

D. The ship running aground caused alarm for the soldiers who were concerned about

prisoners escaping. vs.42-43

1. Guards were responsible for those in the custody. ill. Acts 12:19; 16:27

2. The soldiers’ “counsel” (or better translated, there came to be a

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determination among the soldiers) was to kill the prisoners so they wouldn’t


3. God intervened in the soldiers’ determination by causing the centurion to be

“willing” (determining for himself) to save Paul.

a. The centurion “kept”(forbid) the soldiers from their “purpose”


b. The centurion commanded those who could swim to “cast” (jump

overboard) into the sea and get to shore.

4. Those who couldn’t swim made it to shore by other means. vs.44a

a. Some made it to shore on “boards” (planks from the ship).

b. Some made it to shore on “pieces of the ship”

5. All made it “safe” (in the passive voice it can be translated all were saved

upon the land). vs.44b

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A. The ship crashed on an Island called Malta.

Note: an island in the Mediterranean, the modern Malta. Here the ship in which Paul was

being conveyed a prisoner to Rome was wrecked. The bay in which it was wrecked now bears

the name of "St. Paul's Bay", "a certain creek with a shore." It is about 2 miles deep and 1

broad, and the whole physical condition of the scene answers the description of the shipwreck

given in Ac 28:1

B. The people on the Island were “barbarous” (The Greeks used ba, rbaroj of any

foreigner ignorant of the Greek language and the Greek culture, whether mental

or moral, with the added notion, after the Persian war, of rudeness and brutality.

Hence, the word is applied in the N. T., but not reproachfully, in Acts 28:2,4, to

the inhabitants of Malta (i. e. Meli, th, which see), who were of Phoenician or

Punic origin; and to those nations that had, indeed, some refinement of manners – Joseph Thayer).

1. They “showed” (supply, grant something to someone – Friberg


2. The word “kindness” is the English word philanthrophy (filanqrwpi, an -- as

a friendly disposition toward people goodness, friendliness, love for

mankind; as a humane action hospitality, kindness – Friberg Lexicon)

1. They showed their kindness by “kindling” (to cause the process of

burning to begin - 'to ignite, to kindle, to set ablaze, to start a fire, to

light a lamp. – Louw-Nida)

3. The “received” (welcomed) because of the rain and the cold.

C. The “barbarous” people were very superstitious. vs. 3-6

1. They thought Paul to be a murderer when a viper “fastened” (to lay hold of,

fasten on – Joseph Thayer) to his hand. vs.4a

2. The word “vengeance” is Dike -- the goddess Justice, avenging justice—

Joseph Thayer. vs.4b

3. Paul shook the viper off and “felt no harm” (suffered no evil) vs.5

4. The barbarians “looked” (to await with apprehension concerning impending

danger or trouble - 'to wait with apprehension, to wait with anxiety – Louw-

Nida) vs.6

a. They waited to see if he would have “swollen” (burn with fever;

swell up from inflammation —Louw-Nida).

b. They waited to see if he would have “fallen down”.

c. They “saw” (to he a spectator, look at, behold—Joseph Thayer)

d. When no harm came to Paul they changed their mind and said he was

a god.

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D. Publius (Grk: Poplios, from the Latin praenomen Publius, derived from populus,

"popular"; according to Ramsay it is the Greek form of the Latin nomen

Popilius) was the “chief man” (the Greek title meaning "first," applied to Publius

in Acts 28:7, was an official one, and has been found on an inscription from the

island of Gaulus near Malta; Publius held office under the governor of Sicily. As

the leading official in Malta, he was responsible for any Roman soldiers and their

prisoners who might land there) of the island.

E. Paul’s healing of Publius’ father opened the floodgates for many seeking healing

from him. vs.9

1. His father was sick with a fever.

2. His father was sick with a “bloody flux” (dusente, rion – a common and

dangerous disease which in Malta is often fatal to soldiers of the garrison

even at the present day. It is also prevalent in Palestine at certain seasons,

and in Egypt its mortality was formerly about 36 percent. Its older name

was due to the d ischarge of blood from the intestine. Sometimes portions of

the bowel become gangrenous and slough – I.S.B.E.)

3. Paul did two things to heal Publius’ father:

1. He prayed.

2. He laid his hands on him.

4. The rest of those with “diseases” came to be healed. vs.9

F. The islanders helped the shipwrecked passengers with the things necessary to resume

their travel. vs.10


A. Paul and the other passengers spent three months on Malta. vs.11

B. The boarded an Alexandria ship whose “sign” (strictly, of a distinguishing mark;

hence, of a ship on which a figurehead is mounted distinguished or marked (by),

carrying an emblem; neuter as a substantive emblem, figurehead, carved figure –

Friberg Lexicon)

C. The term “Castor” denotes Dioscuri, meaning heavenly twins, name of Greek gods

Castor and Pollux, twin sons of Zeus and Leda, regarded as patrons of sailors –

Friberg Lexicon

D. They sailed from Malta to Syracuse. vs.12

E. They “fetched a compass” (the idea of encircling or "fetching a compass" (the

King James Version) is expressed by the phrase "to make a circuit -- Easton

Dictionary) and traveled into Rehegium and the next day into Puteoli. vs.13-15

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1. Paul and his company found believers in Puteoli.

2. Paul and the others exhorted them to remain with them for seven days.

3. Paul “took courage” (qa,rsoj-- an idiom, literally 'to take courage; to become

confident or courageous in the face of real or possible danger - 'to become

confident, to take courage – Joseph Thayer) because of the brethren.vs.15


A. The centurion showed Paul kindness once again by distinguishing him differently

from the other prisoners. vs.16

1. He gave the prisoners to the “captain of the guard”.

2. He allowed Paul to “dwell” (abide, remain) by himself together with a


B. Paul assembled the “chief” of the Jews of Rome together to make his defense. vs.17

1. Paul establishes that he had committed “nothing against” (opposed as an

adversary, hostile, antagonistic in feeling or act -- Joseph Thayer) the


2. Paul establishes that he had committed nothing against the “customs” (a

pattern of behavior more or less fixed by tradition and generally

sanctioned by the society - 'custom, habit – Louw-Nida) ill. Acts 21:21

of the fathers.

3. Paul noted that even in spite of the two afore-mentioned facts, he was

“delivered” prisoner.

4. Proof of Paul’s innocence was that the Romans “examined” (avnakri,nw -- to

try to learn the nature or truth of something by the process of careful study,

evaluation and judgment - 'to examine carefully, to investigate, to study

thoroughly) him and found no cause for death. vs.18

C. Paul expresses the reason for his presence in Rome. vs.19

1. The Jews “spoke against” (contradict, speak against, refute) his release. ill.

Acts 13:45; Tit. 1:9

2. Paul was “constrained” (de, w-- to compel someone to act in a particular

manner - 'to compel, to force-- Louw-Nida) to appeal to Caesar.

3. Paul assured the Jews that he had no “aught” (not as though, like) to accuse

“my nation”.

D. Paul states that it was on the basis of “the Hope of Israel” that he was in

chains. vs.20

1. He “called” for the Jews to see and speak to them because of his being forced

to appeal to Caesar (Paul did not want there to be any question as to whether

he had a problem with Israel).

2. Paul asserts that it is because of “the hope of Israel” (Christ) that he was


E. The Jews were ignorant of the issues that Paul addressed concerning his problems in

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Jerusalem. vs. 21

1. They had never received “letters” out of Judea concerning Paul.

2. They had not had any of the brethren come and “spake” any “harm”

(porneros evil, none of the Jews visiting Jerusalem had accused Paul of

conspiring against the Nation Israel for purposes that were lacking in

character) concerning Paul.

F. The Jews “desired” (to consider something of a comparable merit or worth - 'to

regard as worthy of, to consider as meriting, to regard as being valuable for –

Louw-Nida) to hear Paul’s message. vs.22

1. They wanted to know what Paul “thinkest” (reflectively think)

2. They indicated that the “sect” (a division or group based upon different

doctrinal opinions and/or loyalties and hence by implication in certain

contexts an unjustified party or group (applicable in the NT to religious

parties) - 'religious party – Louw-Nida -- ill. Acts 24:5) was spoken against


G. The Jews “appointed” (to assign someone to a particular task, function, or role –

'to appoint, to designate, to assign, to give a task to –Louw-Nida) him a day in

which to speak. vs.23 (ill. Lk. 24:44)

1. “Many” came to his lodging.

2. Paul “expounded” (evkti, qhmi-- to put or place something out of an area - 'to

put out of – Louw-Nida) and “testified” (diamartu, romai-- to make a serious

declaration on the basis of presumed personal knowledge – Louw-Nida –

ill. Acts 20:26; 18:5) the kingdom of God.

a. Paul persuaded them concerning Jesus out of the law of Moses. (ill.

Lk. 24:44-47; Acts 26:22-23)

b. Paul persuaded them concerning Jesus out of the prophets, from

morning till evening. (Is. 53; Ps.22)

H. Paul had mixed success with his message to the Jews. vs.24

1. Some “believed” the things that were spoken.

2. Some “believed not” (were not persuaded; were faithless) concerning the

things spoken.

J. Paul rebuked them for their unbelief quoting the 6th chapter of Isaiah concerning the

Jews’ rejection of Messiah. vs. 25b-27a

1. “Hearing, ye shall hear and shall not understand (put things together)”

2. “Seeing (glancing) ye shall see, and not perceive (see with perception of


3. “For the heart of this people is “waxed gross” (of mental comprehension

with difficulty, dully, stupidly – Friberg Lexicon – ill. MT 13.15).

4. “Their ears are dull of hearing”

5. “Their eyes have they closed (to be unwilling to learn and to evaluate

something fairly - 'to refuse to learn, to refuse to recognize. —Louw Nida)”

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K. Isaiah explains why the Jews were blind and deaf: vs.27b

1. “Lest they should see with their eyes”

2. “Lest they should hear with their ears

3. “Lest they should understand with their heart”

a. In which case they would be “converted” (turn).

b. In which case they would be “healed”

L. Paul declares to the Jews that two things has happened because of their rejection:


1. Salvation has been sent to the Gentiles.

2. The Gentiles will hear “it”.

M. Paul’s quotation left the Jews with “great reasoning” (debates) among themselves.


N. Paul “dwelt” in Rome for two years. vs. 30

1. He lived in his own “hired house” (rented house).

2. He “received” all that came in unto him.

3. He continued, “preaching” the Kingdom of God. vs.31

4. He continued “teaching” those things “which concern” the Lord Jesus Christ.

a. Paul taught concerning the Lord with all “confidence”.

b. Paul taught concerning the Lord with no man “forbidding” (hindered)