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  • :

    2

    2011

  • iii

    :

    2

    2011

  • iv

    Copyright 2011

    . All rights reserved.

    .

  • v

    ,

    ,

    . Quality

    Group

    .

  • vi

    2.

    , 2.

    ,

    , .

    Fespa

    .

    2, .

    .

    .

  • vii

    .............................................................................................................................. vi

    ...............................................................................................vii

    ........................................................................................................ x

    ....................................................................................................... xi

    .......................................................................................xiii

    .................................................................................................................. xiv

    ............................................................................................................................. xvi

    1 ......................................................................... 1

    1.1 :..... 1

    1.2 ................................................................ 3

    1.2.1 : .................................................................. 4

    1.3 .......................................................................... 4

    1.4 ............................................................................................. 5

    1.5 ........................................ 5

    1.5.1 : ................................................................................... 6

    1.6 ................................................................................. 8

    1.6.1 : ................................................................................... 8

    1.7 ..................................................................................... 8

    1.8 ................................................ 10

    1.8.1 ...................................................................... 10

    1.9 : ...................................................................... 11

    1.9.1 :................................................................................................................ 12

    1.9.2 ................................................................................................................. 13

    1.9.3 : ........................................................................................ 13

  • viii

    1.10 2....................................... 13

    2 A A: ........................................................................................................... 16

    2.1 : ............................................... 16

    2.2 : .............................................. 17

    2.3 ............................................................................. 17

    2.3.1 - .................................... 17

    2.3.2 - ..................................... 18

    2.4 ............................................... 19

    2.5 I ............................................................................ 22

    2.6 ................................................. 29

    2.7 ........................................................................................... 31

    3 ........................................................................................................ 32

    3.1 ............................................................................... 32

    3.2 ................................................................................ 60

    3.3 ............................................................................................... 60

    4 .......................................................................................................... 63

    4.1 ........................................................ 66

    4.2 .............................................................................................. 67

    4.2.1 : .................................................. 67

    4.2.2 : ................................................................... 71

    4.3 (ONE SPAN BEAMS) ........................................................ 79

    5 ........................................................................................ 85

    5.1 ........... 85

    5.2 .............................. 86

    6 ........................................................................................................................... 93

    6.1 .................................................................. 94

  • ix

    7 FESPA........................................................................................... 101

    7.1 H E H Y FESPA .................................................. 102

    / / ..................................................... 109

    .................................................................................................................... 111

    .................................................................................................................. 113

    8 ............................................................................................................................ 113

    8.1 ......................................................................................... 113

    8.2 ......................................................................................... 116

    8.3 ................................................................ 122

    9 .............................................................................................................................. 145

    9.1 M ....................................... 145

    9.2 (ONE SPAN BEAMS) ...................................................... 166

    9.3 ............................................................................................ 179

    10 ........................................................................................................ 188

    11 ............................................................................................... 192

    12 ........................................................................................................................ 199

  • x

    1: ........................................................................... 20

    2: x...................................................................... 23

    3: y...................................................................... 25

    4: ............................................................................ 29

    5: 3.1-3.2............................................................. 66

    6: ................................................................................................. 103

    7: ................................................................................................. 104

    8: .................................................................................................. 105

    9: .................................................................................................. 106

    10: ................................................................................................ 107

    11: ............................................................................... 108

    12: x.................................................................. 116

    13: y.................................................................. 118

    14: ....................................................... 145

    15: .......................................................................... 179

  • xi

    1: ....................................................................................... 14

    2: ....................................................................................... 15

    3: arcus...................................................................................................... 19

    4: ............................................ 22

    5: .............................................. 31

    6: (Minimum areas of reinforcement) ................. 61

    7: sic span effective depth ratios ............................................................................. 61

    8: ........................................................................ 62

    9: ............................ 64

    10: ........................... 65

    11: 1 ...................................................................................... 68

    12: 2 ...................................................................................... 69

    13: 3 ...................................................................................... 70

    14: ...................................................................................................... 71

    15: .............................................................................. 82

    16: ...................................................................... 85

    17: ...................