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Folie 1συμβατικος και υπεραγγιμους επιταχυντς

Generation, diagnosis and dynamics

normal- and superconducting accelerators

> Self introduction

Outlook

2

National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Focus in Electric Power and Biomedical Engineering

Thesis: Motion tracking in spin-tagging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

using the Harmonic Phase (HARP) method. Collaboration with Urbana University, USA

Self Introduction – University education

Self Introduction – Further education

(Basic Accelerator Physics Theory)

Theoretical and Experimental Quantum Physics

Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics

> 2013: CERN Accelerator School (CAS), Trondheim, Norway

(Advanced Accelerator Physics)

(Plasma Wake Acceleration)

(Numerical Methods for Analysis, Design and Modelling of Accelerators)

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

Experience from LHC (CERN)

Performance Evaluation Section

> LHC has ~1000 superconducting Corrector Orbit Dipoles (COD), controlled

with an auto-feedback system

> Motivation: estimate the effect of a COD failure during collision optics

> Beam dynamics calculations suggest

a significant vertical misplacement:

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (I)

Collimator TCP.D6L7.B1

Event evolution

7

Event evolution

8

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

> Misbehaving BPMs & unnecessary / undetected orbit bumps are risky!

> How reproducible are the feedback settings of the corrector magnets?

Spot strong differences between consecutive fills:

> Calculate the effect of these single kicks on the beam orbit with MAD –

cross check calculations with BPM readings

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

0.00E+00

D if

fe re

n ce

in k

ic k

(r ad

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

-1400

-1200

-1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

Magnet name MCBV.11L1.B1 MCBCV.9L1.B2 MCBCV.7L1.B3

kick [rad] 1.19E-05 0 1.11E-05

10

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

> Unwanted closed orbit bumps can be created by the feedback algorithm

> The evolution of the beam orbit might indicate undetected problems…

Magnet name MCBV.11L1.B1 MCBCV.9L1.B2 MCBCV.7L1.B3

kick [rad] (previous slide) 1.19E-05 0 1.11E-05

kick [rad] (closed bump) 9.96E-06 1.23E-06 1.30E-05

11

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

12

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

13

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

14

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

15

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

16

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

17

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

18

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

> A specific orbit corrector magnet was not powered for 5 consecutive fills

> Conclusion: the calculation of the beam orbit from the evolution of the

corrector magnets together with the monitoring of the BPM enhances the

redundancy of the LHC machine protection and optics reproducibility

> Resulted in the development of a software interlock which warns on

potential problems. It was later extended with a machine learning algorithm

-800

-600

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

800

Dif 1389-1393

Dif 1408-1418

Experience from PITZ (DESY)

to low-energy e- for radiation sources

> PhD Student (06.2011 – 10.2015)

the matching of the transverse phase space

– operation of the PITZ facility as shift leader

(conditioning, commissioning, beam diagnostics)

PITZ facility

7 MeV/c

Bucking solenoid

Main solenoid

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

> Electron bunches

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

> Several diagnostics for the longitudinal and transverse phase space:

3 slit-scan stations (EMSYs) and 1 phase space tomography [PST] module

24

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

> Several diagnostics for the longitudinal and transverse phase space:

3 slit-scan stations (EMSYs) and 1 phase space tomography [PST] module

> Various applications require transverse beam matching. Due to the constantly

changing machine parameters (test facility), fast solutions are needed

25

+ Improved SNR

(→ less sensitive to short-term machine instabilities)

− Requires beam matching and space-charge treatment

for optimal performance

26

Beam tomography & matching with space charge

> Beamline components:

> Matching requirements // strategies:

@ each screen (∝ rotation angles) // extend

MAD by scaling beam parameters with

smooth-approximation space-charge theory

M2

M3

M4

> Beamline components:

2. Matching quadrupoles for the necessary

entrance beam parameters

> Matching requirements // strategies:

@ each screen (∝ rotation angles) // extend

MAD by scaling beam parameters with

smooth-approximation space-charge theory

βx,y = 1 m, αx,y = ±1 // SC software (HZB) to

match and compensate emittance growth…

Beam tomography & matching with space charge

28

(~15 min) / 500 pC, 21 MeV/c, 12 ps \ (~3.5 h)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation benchmarking

Beginning of matching (slit scan)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation & measurement

2 m downstream, 4 quads in between (slit scan)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation & measurement

Beam matching & tomography with space charge:

simulation & measurement 8 m downstream, 9 quads in between (tomography)

X

Y

Experience from bERLinPro (HZB)

> Postdoc (10.2015 – present)

> Work summary:

- feasibility studies of ultrafast electron diffraction

33

Max. beam energy (MeV) 50

Max. beam current (mA) 100 (77 pC / bunch)

Frequency (GHz) 1.3

Bunch length (ps) < 2 ps (100 fs)

Beam losses << 10-5 @ 100 mA

SRF Photoinjector

• CsK2Sb photocathode

• 1.4-cell SRF cavity (klystron)

• ΔE = 44 MeV

2 for acceleration (klystrons)

Diagnostic line

Beam dump

bERLinPro: combine advantages of storage rings (high current) and linacs (low emittance) in

a power-efficient (100% duty cycle) small-scale accelerator

Recirculator

34

Phase

V

Photocathode transfer system

35

bERLinPro photoinjector characterization

QE at 9.5 MV/m e- beam measurements with:

• Cu cathode, 1.8 mm laser spot diameter

• UV laser with 12 kHz repetition rate

and 0.7 ps rms Gaussian pulses

• < 10 MV/m acceleration gradients

36

Superconducting solenoid magnet

• thermal conduction

• electrical insulation

• mounting complexity

Manufactured by external

company – designed, tested

Transverse deflecting RF cavity

• bunch duration

y

z

e-

E-field

38

Ultrafast electron diffraction / microscopy

Material research with fs-short MeV e- which probe samples at MHz rates

• motivation: examine time-resolved

biological & gas-phase samples

collimation, samples, detector

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

Summary & outlook

accelerators require rigorous design, simulation, diagnostics,

characterization and machine protection to achieve optimal performance

> Range of applications expand constantly to new areas in

fundamental and material research

medical and industrial fields

> Interest tends to shift from large-scale facilities to small, cost-effective

machines: compact radiation sources, plasma wake acceleration,

ultrafast electron diffraction & microscopy, …

40

Fritz Haber Institute: R. Ernstorfer, D. Zahn

DESY Zeuthen group: M. Krasilnikov, D. Malyutin, G. Vashchenko, F. Stephan

DESY Hamburg: M. Dohlus, B. Marchetti, J. Rossbach

HZB bERLinPro group: A. Matveenko, J.-H. Gwang, A. Jankowiak, T. Kamps,

Generation, diagnosis and dynamics

normal- and superconducting accelerators

> Self introduction

Outlook

2

National Technical University of Athens, Greece

Focus in Electric Power and Biomedical Engineering

Thesis: Motion tracking in spin-tagging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

using the Harmonic Phase (HARP) method. Collaboration with Urbana University, USA

Self Introduction – University education

Self Introduction – Further education

(Basic Accelerator Physics Theory)

Theoretical and Experimental Quantum Physics

Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics

> 2013: CERN Accelerator School (CAS), Trondheim, Norway

(Advanced Accelerator Physics)

(Plasma Wake Acceleration)

(Numerical Methods for Analysis, Design and Modelling of Accelerators)

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

Experience from LHC (CERN)

Performance Evaluation Section

> LHC has ~1000 superconducting Corrector Orbit Dipoles (COD), controlled

with an auto-feedback system

> Motivation: estimate the effect of a COD failure during collision optics

> Beam dynamics calculations suggest

a significant vertical misplacement:

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (I)

Collimator TCP.D6L7.B1

Event evolution

7

Event evolution

8

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

> Misbehaving BPMs & unnecessary / undetected orbit bumps are risky!

> How reproducible are the feedback settings of the corrector magnets?

Spot strong differences between consecutive fills:

> Calculate the effect of these single kicks on the beam orbit with MAD –

cross check calculations with BPM readings

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

0.00E+00

D if

fe re

n ce

in k

ic k

(r ad

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

-1400

-1200

-1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

Magnet name MCBV.11L1.B1 MCBCV.9L1.B2 MCBCV.7L1.B3

kick [rad] 1.19E-05 0 1.11E-05

10

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

> Unwanted closed orbit bumps can be created by the feedback algorithm

> The evolution of the beam orbit might indicate undetected problems…

Magnet name MCBV.11L1.B1 MCBCV.9L1.B2 MCBCV.7L1.B3

kick [rad] (previous slide) 1.19E-05 0 1.11E-05

kick [rad] (closed bump) 9.96E-06 1.23E-06 1.30E-05

11

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

12

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

13

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

14

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

15

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

16

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

17

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

18

Investigations on Orbit Correctors (II)

> A specific orbit corrector magnet was not powered for 5 consecutive fills

> Conclusion: the calculation of the beam orbit from the evolution of the

corrector magnets together with the monitoring of the BPM enhances the

redundancy of the LHC machine protection and optics reproducibility

> Resulted in the development of a software interlock which warns on

potential problems. It was later extended with a machine learning algorithm

-800

-600

-400

-200

0

200

400

600

800

Dif 1389-1393

Dif 1408-1418

Experience from PITZ (DESY)

to low-energy e- for radiation sources

> PhD Student (06.2011 – 10.2015)

the matching of the transverse phase space

– operation of the PITZ facility as shift leader

(conditioning, commissioning, beam diagnostics)

PITZ facility

7 MeV/c

Bucking solenoid

Main solenoid

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

> Electron bunches

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

> Several diagnostics for the longitudinal and transverse phase space:

3 slit-scan stations (EMSYs) and 1 phase space tomography [PST] module

24

PITZ facility

2 – 25 ps laser pulses

< 4 nC bunch charge

> Several diagnostics for the longitudinal and transverse phase space:

3 slit-scan stations (EMSYs) and 1 phase space tomography [PST] module

> Various applications require transverse beam matching. Due to the constantly

changing machine parameters (test facility), fast solutions are needed

25

+ Improved SNR

(→ less sensitive to short-term machine instabilities)

− Requires beam matching and space-charge treatment

for optimal performance

26

Beam tomography & matching with space charge

> Beamline components:

> Matching requirements // strategies:

@ each screen (∝ rotation angles) // extend

MAD by scaling beam parameters with

smooth-approximation space-charge theory

M2

M3

M4

> Beamline components:

2. Matching quadrupoles for the necessary

entrance beam parameters

> Matching requirements // strategies:

@ each screen (∝ rotation angles) // extend

MAD by scaling beam parameters with

smooth-approximation space-charge theory

βx,y = 1 m, αx,y = ±1 // SC software (HZB) to

match and compensate emittance growth…

Beam tomography & matching with space charge

28

(~15 min) / 500 pC, 21 MeV/c, 12 ps \ (~3.5 h)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation benchmarking

Beginning of matching (slit scan)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation & measurement

2 m downstream, 4 quads in between (slit scan)

Beam matching with space charge:

simulation & measurement

Beam matching & tomography with space charge:

simulation & measurement 8 m downstream, 9 quads in between (tomography)

X

Y

Experience from bERLinPro (HZB)

> Postdoc (10.2015 – present)

> Work summary:

- feasibility studies of ultrafast electron diffraction

33

Max. beam energy (MeV) 50

Max. beam current (mA) 100 (77 pC / bunch)

Frequency (GHz) 1.3

Bunch length (ps) < 2 ps (100 fs)

Beam losses << 10-5 @ 100 mA

SRF Photoinjector

• CsK2Sb photocathode

• 1.4-cell SRF cavity (klystron)

• ΔE = 44 MeV

2 for acceleration (klystrons)

Diagnostic line

Beam dump

bERLinPro: combine advantages of storage rings (high current) and linacs (low emittance) in

a power-efficient (100% duty cycle) small-scale accelerator

Recirculator

34

Phase

V

Photocathode transfer system

35

bERLinPro photoinjector characterization

QE at 9.5 MV/m e- beam measurements with:

• Cu cathode, 1.8 mm laser spot diameter

• UV laser with 12 kHz repetition rate

and 0.7 ps rms Gaussian pulses

• < 10 MV/m acceleration gradients

36

Superconducting solenoid magnet

• thermal conduction

• electrical insulation

• mounting complexity

Manufactured by external

company – designed, tested

Transverse deflecting RF cavity

• bunch duration

y

z

e-

E-field

38

Ultrafast electron diffraction / microscopy

Material research with fs-short MeV e- which probe samples at MHz rates

• motivation: examine time-resolved

biological & gas-phase samples

collimation, samples, detector

Georgios Kourkafas | 22.11.2018 Generation, diagnosis and dynamics of high-intensity particle beams from normal- and superconducting accelerators

Summary & outlook

accelerators require rigorous design, simulation, diagnostics,

characterization and machine protection to achieve optimal performance

> Range of applications expand constantly to new areas in

fundamental and material research

medical and industrial fields

> Interest tends to shift from large-scale facilities to small, cost-effective

machines: compact radiation sources, plasma wake acceleration,

ultrafast electron diffraction & microscopy, …

40

Fritz Haber Institute: R. Ernstorfer, D. Zahn

DESY Zeuthen group: M. Krasilnikov, D. Malyutin, G. Vashchenko, F. Stephan

DESY Hamburg: M. Dohlus, B. Marchetti, J. Rossbach

HZB bERLinPro group: A. Matveenko, J.-H. Gwang, A. Jankowiak, T. Kamps,