Detectors for Super-Beams and Neutrino Factories

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Detectors for Super-Beams and Neutrino Factories. Kevin McFarland University of Rochester NUFACT ’03 10 June 2003. Acknowledgements. This summary is greatly informed by: The recent FNAL study on neutrino detectors for super-beams (M. Goodman and D. Harris, chairs) J-PARC ν studies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Detectors for Super-Beams and Neutrino Factories

  • Detectorsfor Super-Beamsand Neutrino FactoriesKevin McFarlandUniversity of RochesterNUFACT 0310 June 2003

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • AcknowledgementsThis summary is greatly informed by:The recent FNAL study on neutrino detectors for super-beams (M. Goodman and D. Harris, chairs)J-PARC studiesBNL oscillation LOIRecent Annual Review on Oscillation Physics at Neutrino Factories (J.J. Gomez-Cadenas, D. Harris)Thank you!

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Organizational PreambleThis is the first of two talks reviewing detectorsAndr Rubbia will cover liquid Argon

    The rationale, courtesy of Hugh Montgomery: Should we hold off for liquid Argon, or should we proceed with the miserable technologies we have in hand?

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Miserable Technologies for Super-Beamsand Neutrino FactoriesKevin McFarlandUniversity of RochesterNUFACT 0310 June 2003

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • The Catalog of MiseryLarge (erenkov) detectorsLow Z Sampling CalorimetersMagnetized Fe Sampling CalorimetersAnd their issuesefficiencies and backgroundsconstruction and funding realitiesfor superbeams, e , accept e CC. Reject 0for neutrino factories, e (gold), (silver) accept wrong-sign CC.

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • The Ground RulesAfter the present generation of superbeams (NUMI, CNGS), order of magnitude increases in flux appear difficultcorollary: also difficult to increase the number of facilities by an order of magnitude To reach sensitivity to CP violation in oscillations, we must improve detectorssize , signal efficiency , backgrounds or add new capabilities, e.g., electron charge (Andr)

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram-Class Water erenkovPerceived widely as a straightforward extension of existing engineeringNo shortage of proposals, e.g., Hyper-K, UNONo shortage of sites, e.g., DUSEL, Frejus, Kamioka, etc.Physics case is broadproton decay, neutrino astrophysicsLabeling this a Megaton detector would be an enormous public relations mistake.We need to expunge this unfortunate jargon ASAP before someone overhears us

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures IElegant proof of e/ separation from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino resultsSub-GeV single-ring dominated: Sharpness!FC cand.e cand.Figures courtesy M. Messier

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures II (contd)e/0 separation is a more subtle businessMulti-ring topologies more difficultAt high energies, 0 more closed0 cand.e cand.Figures courtesy M. Messier

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures II (contd)Also, many processes contribute to single-ringExample: K2K (broadband) beam at Super-KAt E~3 GeV, FC 1-ring candidates are 1/3 QE, 1/3 single , 1/3 DISFigures courtesy T. Kajita

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures II (contd)Can avoid problems by sticking to low energy, quasi-elastic regime (and paying a rate price!)Flux (not rate) on and off-axisFigure courtesy A. Konaka

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures II (contd)e/0 separation demonstrated (in low E OA beam)but it will be a complicated multi-variate businessFigures courtesy T. Kajita

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Signatures II (contd)Editorial comment: e/0 separation is much tougher at high energiesBNL proposal (in my view) needs more to demonstrate feasibility of this rejectionBackground control relies on rarity of single pions at high E0Note that single-ring events in this region are mostly inelastic!Single 0 background vs E0 (M. Diwan)

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : TechnologyContained detector with instrumented wall has been extensively studied at engineering levelOpen technology (CNGT) historically riskyPhotosensorsfigure of merit at low E: (coverage)(quantum eff.)is this figure of merit identical for use of H2O as a neutrino target?

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Technology (contd)Some UNO details:depth reduced by sideways topologytwo photocathode density zones to lower sensor costsmiddle zone is high density for nucleon decay and solar edge zones lower density: suitable for atmospheric and beam

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Technology (contd)Some Hyper-K details:sideways cylinder limits depth, simplifies geometry with beamcopious segmentation (10 modules)

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Teragram H2O : Technology (contd)Photosensor R&D: can one drive down cost?

    5 inch HPD prototype(Shiozawa, NP02)

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z Sampling CalorimetryThe concept in a nutshell:Low Z absorber in a calorimeter X0 increases for fixed massimproved resolution for electromagnetic showerskey for 0/e separation

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z Sampling Calorimetry (contd)Issues: coping with increased size per unit massConstruction/building issuesStructural issues of absorberIncreased number of ionization sensors All lead to a new generation of requirements of industrial capability for detector construction

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Signatures (contd)In theoryWith long X0, two photons should rarely be degenerate

    Other final state particles well separatedfigures courtesy A. Para

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Signatures (contd)Preliminary efficiency and backgroundswith realistic detector, see ~10-3, few10-4 for NC, CC, respectivelymaintain ~40% efficiency for signalFor P(e), see high (S/B)~40m2=2.410-3, sin213=0.1, 200kTon-yr, 41020 POT/yr NUMIfigures courtesy L. Camilleri

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: TechnologiesFirst things first can we afford absorber?visions of walnut shells, cracked corn, all liquidReal question: can we afford structural absorberone idea: Particle board (wood scrap + glue)very strong against compression along boardlaminations of sheets provide sound 3D structures50 kTon of particle board is two weeks of production at one northern Minnesota plant; cost is ~15 MUSD cut & delivered

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Technologies (contd)Containerization and modular constructionshipping containers (J. Cooper) appear to be a cost-effective way to house modules

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Technologies (contd)Containing the containerSize of 50kTon of low-Z calorimeterfigures courtesy J. Cooper

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Technologies (contd)Ionization sensors: scintillator+WLS fiberextrapolation from successful MINOS experiencenew construction facility at FNAL Lab 5: continuous inline extrusion process figures courtesy A. Bross

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Technologies (contd)New and old photosensors:new: VLPCsvery high QEsuccess at D0R&D going on now to lower costs. Enough?old: IITs, APDs potentially significant cost savings!IITs: noise? timing?APDs: noise (cooling)being revisited in design studies for NUMIfigures courtesy A. Bross, J. Nelson, R. Rusack

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Low-Z: Technologies (contd)Ionization sensors: RPCsinspired by recent use at B-factoriesreliability problems at BaBar apparently understoodgas system, readout under active study for NUMI

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Magnetized Sampling CalorimetersSuccessful construction of MINOS has bolstered the case that this is an easy technologycould clearly build a longer MINOSPrecious (golden, silver) channels at a neutrino factory requires identifying muon charge in DIS eventsQuestions:intrinsic background level identification? (silver)can low cost teragram detector compensate for available flux at affordable neutrino factory?

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Magnetized Calor.: Signaturese , in presence of , (or charge conjugate)Wrong-charge background for golden channel?Cervera et alMagnetized Scint/Fe la MINOSCC -barNC -bar

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • Magnetized Calor.: Technology appearance (silver): OPERA techniquetopological tau tag to separate from +DISfully tested long before factory beam is available

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

  • ConclusionsTeragram-class detectors will be needed to access CP violation in oscillationsSuperbeams:H2O in the bag but difficult at higher energiesI look forward to the BNL proponents proving me wrong!Low-Z calorimeter work (driven by NUMI OA proposal) looks promisingNeutrino factories:extensions of MINOS (golden), OPERA (silver)Or should we wait for less miserable technology? (Andr)

    Kevin McFarland: Detectors

    these figures for some reason come with Courierneed to make sure dont imply is multi-ring eventsillustration of particle board goes hereillustration of shipping containers here