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Transcript of NEETHIPOORVAM COVERkelsa.nic.in/downloads/Neethipoorvam.pdf · Title: NEETHIPOORVAM COVER Author:...

  • \o-Xn-]q¿-Δw

    tIcf kwÿm\ \nba tkh\ AtXm-dn‰n

    sIm®n ˛ 682 031

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    MESSAGE

    Justice Mohan M. ShantanagoudarChief Justice

    MESSAGE

    It is a matter of immense pleasure that the Kerala State

    Legal Services Authority with the assistance of Akashavani

    Kochi Kendra has prepared the first volume of

    "NEETHIPOORVAM", a compilation of the messages on

    Constitutional values and principles broadcast everyday

    morning by Akashavani Kochi Kendra and that it will be

    published in Malayalam very soon.

    The initiative taken by KeLSA to educate the common-man

    of Kerala on the Constitutional values and principles through

    the medium of Akashavani deserves appreciation. I have no

    doubt, in the long run, the programme will be able to make the

    common-man aware of his rights, duties and obligations,

    which flow from the Constitution of India and transform the

    people of Kerala as law-abiding citizens of our country. I am

    sure, the book will serve the purpose for which it is published.

    I take this opportunity to compliment KeLSA for the efforts

    takenby it in bringing out the first volume of "NEETHIPOORVAM"

    and I am sure, KeLSA will be able to successfully bring out the

    subsequent volumes also in the near future.I wish this endeavour a grand success

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    MESSAGE

    Res: Sai Gayathri, B.T.S Road, Keerlhi Nagar, Elamakkara P.O., Kochi-682 026. Phone: 0484 2538141

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    BapJw

    AXp-eyX Ah-Im-is∏-Sm-hp∂ \nc-h[n khn-tij-XIƒ C¥y≥

    `cWLS-\-bv°p-≠v. GsXmcp `cWLS-\bpw Poh-Ø-am-Ip-∂Xv AXv

    \nc-¥-c-ambn {]h¿Ø\ \nc-X-am-Ip-tºm-gm-Wv. `mcX P\-X X-ß-fp-sS

    km-aq-lyhpw km-º-Øn-I-hpam-b e-£y-km-£m-Xv-I-c-W-Øn-\v ap-Jy-ambpw

    `cWL-S-\m X-Xz-ß-sf ap-dp -sI-∏n-Sn -®m-Wv ap-t∂m-´v t]m-Ip-∂Xv.

    `cWLS-\m aq-ey-ß-sf-°p-dn-®p-f-f ]q¿-Æam-b A-h-t_m-[-Øn-eq-sS am-{Xsa

    A-Ø-cØn-sem-cp {]-{In-b km¿-∞-amIp.

    tI-c-f tÃ-‰vvv eoK¬ k¿Δokkv AtXm-dn-‰n-bp-sSbpw B-Im-i-hm-Wn-bp-

    sSbpw kw-bp-‡m-̀ n-ap-Jy-Øn¬ B-Im-i-hm-Wn- sIm-®n \ne-bw {]-t£]Ww

    sN-bv-Xv h-cp∂ ̀ cWL-S-\ aq-ey-ß-sf°p-dn-®p-f-f “\o-Xn-]q¿-hw” ]-c-º-c e£y-

    an-Sp-∂Xpw Cu {]-{Inb-sb i-‡n-s∏-Sp-Ø-emWv.

    “\o-Xn-]q¿-hw” {]-t£]-W ]-Y-Øn-se-Øn°p-I D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Xz ]q¿-Æ-

    am-b H-cp Zu-Xy-am-bn-cp∂p. sI¬-k-bp-sS F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv sN-b¿-am\m-b

    _-lp-am-\-s∏´ ssl-t°mS-Xn P-Uv-Pn P-Ãn-kv tXm-́ -Øn¬ _n. cm-[m-Ir-jv-W-\mWv

    Cu Bi-bw ap-t∂m-´vvv h-®Xv.

    “\o-Xn-]q¿-hw” {]-t£-]-W-Øn-\v A\p-tbm-Pyam-b `m-j-bn¬ X-øm-dm-

    °n-b-Xvv {io.F-kvv. kp-̀ m-jv N-μvvv, {ioa-Xn _nμp {io-Ip-am¿, {io. tUm. {]-Zo-]v

    sI.]n, {io. P-b-Ir-jv-W≥ F-kv., {io. cm-tP-jv B¿ ]nff, {ioa-Xn ]m¿h-

    Xn k-Rv-Pbvv F-∂o A-`n-`m-j-I-cpw, G-tIm]\w \n¿-h-ln®Xv B-Im-i-hm-

    Wn- t{]m-{Kmw F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv Pn. lnc-Wp-am-Wv. \oXn-]q¿h-Øns‚ {]-t£-

    ]-Ww XpSßn {]kn-≤o-I-cWw hsc-bp-ff Imcy-ß-fn¬ sI¬k ap≥ saº¿

    sk{I-´dn {io. kn. Pb-N-{μs‚bpw, sI¬kbnsebpw, B-Im-i-hm-Wn-

    bnsebpw Ãm^wK-߃ Dƒ∏sS \nc-h[n hy‡n-I-fpsS Bflm¿∞-amb

    klm-bhpw kl-I-c-Whpw ta¬t\m-´hpw D]-tZi \n¿t±-i-ßfpw D≠m-

    bn-cp-∂p. Gh¿°pw IrX-RvPX tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m≠v “\o-Xn-]q¿-hw” cmjv{S-

    Øn-\mbn ka¿∏n-°p-∂p.

    sI. kXy≥

    saº¿ sk{I-´dn (Pn√m PUvPn)

    tI-c-f tÃ-‰vvv eoK¬ k¿Δokkv AtXm-dn-‰n-

    _me-Ir-jvW≥ sImøm¬

    t{]m{Kmw ta[mhn

    BIm-i-hm-Wn, sIm®n

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    D≈-S°w

    t]Pv

    26-˛ 11 -˛ 1949....................................................................................`c-W-L-S\ F∂ ]c-tam-∂X \nbaw...............................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS BapJw..............................................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS Dd-hnSw................................................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS ASn-ÿm\ XXz-߃............................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS khn-tijX-Iƒ...................................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS e£yw.................................................................]uc [¿Ω-߃.............................................................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS A\-iz-cX...........................................................kmtlm-Zcyw \ΩpsS IS-a-bmWv......................................................`c-W-L-S\bpsS ]c-am-[n -Imcw......................................................hy‡n-bpsS A¥ v.......................................................................sXmgn-ens‚ A¥ v , kaXzw........................................................Ah-kc kaXzw............................................................................kmaqly \oXn................................................................................`c-W-L-S\tbmSp-ff BZ-chv ]ucs‚ I¿Øhyw...........................auen -Im-h-Im-i-߃.......................................................................sXmgn -ens‚ A¥ v......................................................................h\n-X-Iƒ°p-ff kuP\y \nb-a-k-lmbw.........................................`c-W-L-S\bnse a\p-jym-h-Imi \nb-a-߃..................................auenI I¿Ø-hy -߃...................................................................`c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ASn-ÿm\ ine-Iƒ.............................................t£a-cmjv{S k¶ev]w...................................................................`c-W-L-S\bpw PohnX Z¿i-\hpw................................................... `c-W-L-S\bpsS Df-f-S°w...........................................................C¥y≥ ]ucXzw.............................................................................cmjv{Shpw P\m-[n -]-Xyhpw..............................................................Abn-tØm-®m-S-\hpw BZn-hmkn t£ahpw.....................................s]mXp-P-\m-tcmKyw.........................................................................Irjnbpw kaq-lhpw.....................................................................tZiob \nb-a-Zn\w.........................................................................\nb-a-hmgvN F∂ s\Spw-XqWv........................................................cmjv{S-\-b-Øns‚ \n¿t±-iI XXz-߃..........................................Ip´n -I-fpsS hnZym-`ymkw.................................................................

    1 3141618212224262829303133343536373940424751545661626366687174758082

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    A¥m-cmjv{S kam-[m-\hpw kpc-£bpw..........................................{Kma-]-©m-bØv.............................................................................sXmgn¬ kpc£..........................................................................._me-\oXn \nbaw...........................................................................htbm-P\ ]cn -]m-e\w....................................................................\n¿t±iI XXz-߃......................................................................{Kma-k-`-Iƒ..................................................................................]cn -ÿnXn kwc-£Ww..................................................................kuP\y \nb-a-k-lmbw..................................................................tem-Iv - A-Zm-e-Øv...........................................................................ÿncw temIv - A-Zm-eØv................................................................IpSn¬ hyh-kmbw.........................................................................\nba km£-cX............................................................................kv{Xobpw \nb-ahpw........................................................................\nba kaXzw................................................................................\nba \n¿ΩmWw...........................................................................cmjv{Sw.........................................................................................\nb-a-Øns‚ \b-ßfpw e£yhpw.................................................\nba t{kmX pw `c-W-LS-\m-]-c-amb XcwXncnhpw.......................`c-W-L-S-\m-\p-kr-X-amb \nb-a-߃................................................\nba kaXz kwc-£Ww...............................................................hnth-N-\hpw Ah-kc ka-Xzhpw....................................................Ah-kc kaXzw............................................................................ÿm\-t∏-cp-Ifpw ]pcvk-Im-c-ßfpw................................................kwkmc kzmX{¥yw........................................................................\nb-{¥-W-߃..............................................................................sXmgn¬ \nb-{¥Ww......................................................................hy‡nkzmX{¥yhpw kmaq-lnI \nb-{¥-Whpw.................................kwkmc kzmX{¥yhpw Bib {]I-S\hpw\nb-{¥n-°p∂ Imc-W-߃.............................................................]{X kzmX{¥yw..............................................................................k©mc kzmX{¥yw........................................................................sXmgn¬ kzmX{¥yw.......................................................................

    D≈-S°w

    t]Pv

    84868889919397991021051081101 1 1113117121124125126129133136139141142145146147

    149151152153

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    26-˛11-˛1949

    -̀c-W-L-S-\m- \n¿-Ωm-W-k-an-Xn- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- ]m-km-°n-b-Xv- 1949

    \-hw-_¿- am-kw- 26˛mw- Xo-b-Xn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- B- N-cn-{X-aplq¿Ø-Øn¬-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- {]-[m-\- inev]nbm-b-n-cp-∂- tUm.- Aw-t_-Zv-I¿-

    C-ß-s\- ]-d-bp-I-bp-≠m-bn.- ""C-∂-se-h-sc- C-¥y-bp-sS- Ip-‰-߃-°pw-

    Ip-d-hp-Iƒ-°pw- \-ap-°v- ]-gn- ]-d-bm≥- {_n-´o-jp-Im-cp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.-

    C-∂p-ap-X¬- A-Xn-\v- {]-k-Iv-Xn- C-√m-Xm-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- C-\n-b-tßm-́ v-

    \-Ωp-sS- Ip-‰-߃-°pw- Ipdhp-Iƒ-°pw- \mw- \-sΩ-Ø-s-∂-bm-Wv-

    ]-gn-- ]-d-tb-≠-Xv''.- C-¥y-bn-se- P-\-ß-fm-b- \-sΩ- D-t±-in-®m-bn-cp-

    ∂p- Aw-t_-Zv-I¿- C-{]-Im-cw- ]-d-™-Xv.- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- `-c-W-{I-a-

    Øn-s‚- A-Sn-Ø-d- {_n-́ -\n-se- P-\-ß-fp-sS- ]u-c-t_m-[-am-sW-∂-

    Xv- {]-kn-≤-am-Wv.- A-hn-sS- ]m¿-e-sa‚n-s\- \n-b-{¥n-°m≥- C-¥y-

    bn-se-bpw- A-ta-cn-°-bn-se-bpw- a-‰pw- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-I-fn-ep-≈-Xp -

    t]m-se- au-en-Im-h-Im-i-ß-sfm-∂pw- C-tX-h-sc- hy-h-kv-Y- sN-bv-Xn-

    ´n-√.- {_n-´-\n¬- FgpX-s∏-´- A-s√-¶n¬- en-Jn-X-am-b- H-cp- ̀ -c-W-

    L-S-\-bpw- C-√.- F-∂n´pw- {_n-́ o-jv- P-\m-[n-]-Xyw- i-Iv-X-am-bn- \n-e-

    \n¬-°p-∂-Xv- P-\-ß-fp-sS- ]u-c-t_m-[w- sIm-≠pw- P-\m-[n-]-Xy-

    kv-Ym-]-\-ß-fp-sS- Imcy-£-a-X- sIm-≠p-am-Wv.-

    \-Ωp-sS- `-c-W-L-S-\- B-cpw- \-ap-°v- Zm-\-am-bn- \¬-In-b-X-√.-

    \mw- X-s∂- kr-jv-Sn-®v- \-ap-°v- X-s∂- k-a¿-∏n-®-Xm-Wv.-

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    `c-W-L-S\ F∂ ]c-tam-∂X \nbaw

    `m-c -X-Øn-se- P-\-ß-fm-b- \mw- Cu- cm-jv -{S -sØ- H-cp -

    ]-c-am[n-Im-c- kv-Yn-Xn-k-a-Xz- a-tX-X-c- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- dn-∏-ªn-°m-bn-

    kwhn-[m-\w- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- ̀ -c-W-\n¿-h-l-W-Øn¬-°q-Sn-bpw-

    a‰pw- cm-jv -{S-Øn-se- F-√m- ]u-c-∑m¿-°pw- km-aq-ln-I-hpw-

    km-º-Øn-I-hpw- cm-jv-{So-b-hp-am-b- \o-Xn- D-d-∏v- h-cp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.-

    Nn-¥-bv-°pw- B-i-b-{]-I-S-\-Øn-\pw- hn-izm-k-Øn-\pw- a-X-

    \n-jv-T-bv-°pw- B-cm-[-\-bv-°pw- D-≈- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- hn-fw-_-cw-

    sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- k-I-e- ]u-c-∑m¿-°pw- ]-Z-hn-bn-epw- A-h-k-c-Øn-epw-

    k-a-Xzw- D-d-∏v- h-cp-Øp-∂p.- A-h¿-s°-√m-an-S-bn¬- hy-Iv-Xn-bp-sS-

    A-¥- pw- cm-jv-{S-Øn-s‚- sF-Iy-hpw- A-J-Wv-U-X-bpw- D-d-∏v-

    hcp-Øn-s°m-≠v- km-tlm-Z-cyw- ]p-e¿-Øp-hm-\pw- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-

    hn-`m-h-\w- sN-øp-∂p.- A-ß-s\- Cu- cm-jv-{S-Øn-s‚- s\-Spw-

    Xq-Wm-bn- \n¬-°p-∂- kw-hn-[m-\-am-Wv- C-¥y≥- `-c-W-L-S-\.-

    A-Xn-s\- am\n-°p-I-bpw- A-X-\p-k-cn-®v- Po-hn-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn-ep-≈-

    A-h-Im-i-ß-fpw- A-[n-Im-c-ß-fpw- hn-\n-tbm-Kn-°p-I-bpw- k¿-hm-fl-\m-

    AX-\p-k-cn-®v- cm-jv-{S-Øn-\v- th-≠n- A¿-∏-W-a-t\m-`m-h-tØm-Sp-

    Iq-Sn- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-hm≥-- Hm-tcm- ]u-c-\pw- k-∂-≤-\m-

    tI≠-Xm-Wv.-

    H-cp- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- D-∂-X-am-b- \n-b-aw- F-∂-Xv- A-Xn-s‚- ̀ cW-

    L-S-\-bm-Wv.- B- cm-Py-sØ- a-‰p-≈- \n-b-a-ß-sf-√mw- X-s∂- AXn-s‚-

    kv-Yn-co-I-c-Ww- B-bn-cn-°-Ww.- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- \n¿-Ωn-°p-I-tbm,-

    P-∑w- \¬-Ip-I-tbm- sN-øp-∂- kv-Ym-]-\-߃-°pw- \n-b-a-߃-°pw-

    ta¬- A-Xn-\v- ta¬-t°m-bv-a- D-≠m-bn-cn-°pw.- C-Xm-Wv- ̀ -cW-

    L-S-\-bp-sS- B-i-bw.- A-Xv - H-cp- km-[m-c-W- \n-b-a-a-√.-

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    hkvXp-Xm-]-c-am-bpw,- \n-iv-N-b-am-bpw- X-Øz-Øn-epw- \n-b-a-

    \n¿-Ωm-W-Øn¬- G-‰-hpw- {]-Y-a-am-bp-≈-Xv- `-c-W-L-S-\-bm-Wv.-

    AXn-\m¬- X-s∂- sX-cp-hp-I-®-h-S-°m-cp-sS- sse-k≥-kv- \n-b-{¥n-

    °p-∂- \n-b-a-sØ- hym-Jym-\n-°p-∂- Ku-c-h-Øn¬- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bpsS-

    X-Øz-ß-sf- hym-Jym-\n-°m-\m-hn-√.- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- H-cp- aq-e-\n-b-a-

    \n¿-Ωm-W-am-Wv.- A-Xv- H-cp- km-[m-c-W- \n-b-a-\n¿-Ωm-W- {]-{In-b-

    A-√.- kzm-X-{¥y-e-_v-[n-°p- ap-ºp- X-s∂,- 1946 ¬- \n-e-hn¬- h-∂-

    `-c-W-L-S-\m- \n¿-Ωm-W- k-`- G-Xm-≠v- aq-∂p- h¿-j-tØm-fw-

    \-S-Øn-b- \n-c-¥-c- ]-cn-{i-a-Øn-s‚- A-¥n-a-̂ -e-am-Wv- ̀ m-c-X-Øn-s‚-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\.- A-Xv- H-cp- cm-jv-{So-b- hn-π-h-Øn-eq-sS-b-√- t\-sc- a-dn-®v-

    Nn-¥-I-fp-sS-bpw- B-Z¿-i-ß-fp-sS-bpw- k-a-\z-b-Øn-eq-sS- D-cp-Øn-

    cn-™p-- h-∂-Xm-Wv.- A-Xn-s‚- _u-≤n-I-hpw- Zm¿-i-\n-I-hp-am-b- D-Zm-Ø-

    am-\-am-Wv- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-Jw.- `-cW-L-S-\- hm-bn-°p-∂-

    Xpw- hym-Jym-\n-°p-∂-Xpw- B-ap-J-Øn-se- aqey-ß-fp-sS- \-£-{X-

    tim-̀ -bn-em-h-Ww.- B- A-\-iz-c- aq-ey-ß-fp-sS- {]-Im-i-Øn-em-h-Ww.-

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    `c-W-L-S\bpsS BapJw

    \-Ωp-sS- \-h- ̀ m-c-XØn-s‚- B-Z¿-i-ß-fpw- A-`n-em-j-ß-fpw-

    kv-]-jv-S-am-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv- \-Ωp-sS ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-Jw.-

    kz-m-X-{¥y-e-_v-[n-bp-sS- k-a-b-Øv- H-cp- \o-≠- Im-e-b-f-hn-\p-- tijw-

    P-∑n-Ø- hy-h-kv-Y-bn¬- \n-∂pw- ]-c-tZ-in-bp-sS- B-[n]Xy-Øn¬-

    \n-∂pw- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- I-jv-S-s∏-́ v- A-¥- n-s‚-bpw- {]Xo£-bp-tS-bpw-

    H-cp- Po-hn-X-Øn-te-°v- ]p-\¿-Pv-P-\n-°m≥- P-\-߃- B-{K-ln-°p-

    ∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- hy-h-kv-Y-n-Xn-bn¬- kmap-Zm-bn-I-

    ku-lm¿-±w- an-I-®-Xm-bn-cn-°-Ww.- H-cp- a-X-hpw- hntZzjw- ]-Tn-∏n-

    °p-∂n-√.- a-X-ß-fp-sS- t]-cn¬- P-\-߃- sIm-√-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ

    \n-b-a-hm-gv-N- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂- k-aq-l-sØ- A-Xv- aq-Sn-°-f-bp-I-tbm-

    I-f-¶-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-tbm- sN-øp-∂p.- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-Øn¬ -

    a-X-\n-c-t]-£-X-sb-°p-dn-®v - ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂p.- b-Ym¿-∞-Øn¬-

    a-X-{`m-¥-¿- H-cp- a-X-Øn-epw- D-≈-h-c-√.- bm-sXmcp- Im-c-W-hpw-

    C-√m-sX- \n-c-]-cm-[n-I-sf- sIm-s∂m-Sp-°ptºmƒ- \nba-hm-gv-N-

    ]-p-e-cp-∂- H-cp- k-aq-l-Øn¬- A-h¿- Xo-{h-hm-Zn-I-sf-°mƒ- H-cn-°-epw-

    t{i-jv-T-cm-Ip∂n-√.-

    F-√m- sXm-gn-ep-I-fpw- {]m-[m-\y-ap-≈-h-bm-Wv.- sXm-gn-en¬- sshhn-≤yw-

    D-≠m-Imw.- F-√m-h¿-°pw- H-tc- sXm-gn¬- sN-øm-\m-hn-√-t√m.- i-co-c-

    Øn-se- Hm-tcm- A-h-b-h-߃-°pw- A-Xn-t‚-Xm-b- {]m-[m-\y-a-p≠v.-

    t{i-jv-T-am-b-sX-t∂m- A-[a-am-b-sX-t∂m- C√.- kz¿-Æw- F-√m-h¿-

    °pw- C-jv-S-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬- A-Xv- ̀ -£-W-ambn- I-gn-°m-\m-hn-√-t√m.-

    -̀£-W-Øn-\m-bn- I¿-j-I-s‚- B-h-iy-ap≠v.- F-©n-\o-b-sd-tbm,-

    A-̀ n-̀ m-j-I-s\-tbm- k-aq-l-Øn-\v- B-h-iy-ap-≈-Xp-t]m-se- X-s∂-

    bm-Wv- Xq-∏p-Im-c-t\-bpw,- a-en-\-h-kv-Xp-°ƒ- \o-°w- sN-øp-∂-h-tc-bpw-

  • 123412341234123417

    k-aq-l-Øn-\v- B-h-iy-ap-≈-Xv.- H-cp-]t£- Xq-∏p-Im-sc-bpw- a-en-\-h-

    kv-Xp-°ƒ- \o-°w- sN-øp-∂-h-sc-bpw- Hs°- k-aq-l-Øn-\v- a-‰m-sc-

    °m-fpw- B-h-iy-ap-≠v.- G-Xv- sXm-gn-en-\pw- A-Xn-t‚-Xm-b- A-¥- p-≠v.-

    Hu-tZym-Kn-I- kv-Y-e-ß-fn¬- h-\n-X-Iƒ- t\-cn-tS-≠n- h-cp-∂- Xn-I-®pw-

    kzm-K-Xm¿-l-a-√m-Ø- ssew-Kn-I- Np-h-bp-≈- {]-kv-Xm-h-\-Iƒ,-

    tN-jv-S-Iƒ- F∂n-h- A-h-cp-sS- A-¥- n-s\- _m-[n-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv.-

    C-Xn-\m-bn- \ap°v- H-cp- \n-b-aw- X-s∂- \n-e-hn-ep-≈-Xv- F-√m-h¿-°pw-

    A-dn-hp-≈XmWv.- h-\n-X-Iƒ-°v- am-{X-a-√- F-√m-h¿-°pw- am-\-kn-I-hpw-

    im-co-cn-I-hp-am-bn- \-s√m-cp- A-¥-co-£w- k-Pv-Po-I-cn-°m≥- sXm-gn-ep-

    S-a-bv°v- I-gn-b-Ww.- C-¥y≥- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-Øn¬- hy-Iv-Xn-

    bp-sS- A-¥- v,- ssI-tIm¿-Øv- \n-e-\n¿-Øn-s°m-≠v- cmjv{SØns‚-

    sF-Iy-hpw- A-J-Wv-U-X-bpw- D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øn- kmtlm-Zcyw- ]p-e¿-

    Øp-hm≥- B-lzm-\w- sN-øp-∂p.-

  • 123412341234123418

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS Dd-hnSw

    `m-c-X-Øn-s‚- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- D-d-hn-Sw- `m-c-X-Øn-se-

    P\ßfm-b- \-Ω-fm-Wv.- `m-c-X-Øn-\v- H-cp- `-c-W-L-S-\- cq-]o-I-cn-

    °p∂-Xn-\v- th-≠n- `-c-W-L-S-\m- \n¿-Ωm-W- k-`- B-Zy-tbm-Kw-

    tN-cp-∂-Xv- 1946 Un-kw-_¿- am-kw- 9˛mw- Xo-b-Xn- B-bn-cp-∂p.-

    Zo¿-L-am-b- N¿-®-Iƒ-°pw- B-i-b-hn-\n-a-b-Øn-\pw- ti-jw,- 1948

    P-\p-h-cn-bn¬- I-c-Sv- `-c-W-L-S-\- {]-kn-≤o-I-cn-®p.- I-c-Sv- `-c-W-

    L-S-\- N¿-®- sN-øp-∂-Xn-\n-sS-- t`-Z-K-Xn-Iƒ- \n¿-t±-in-°-s∏-Sp-I-

    bpw- {]k-Iv-X-sa-∂v- I-cp-X-s∏-́ - 2473 t -̀Z-K-Xn-Iƒ- N¿-®- sNøs∏-

    Sp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- I-c-Sv- `-c-W-L-S-\- 114 Zn-h-k-tØm-fw- N¿-®-

    sN-ø-s∏-´-Xn-\v- ti-j-am-Wv- `-c-W-L-S-\- \n¿-Ωm-W- k-`- c-≠v-

    h¿-jw- ]-Xn-s\m-∂v- am-kw- ]-Xn-s\-´v- Zn-h-kw- sIm-≠v- A¥n-a-

    am-bn- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®v- \n-b-a-am-°n- `-m-c-X-Øn-se- P-\-߃-°v-

    ka¿∏n®-Xv.-

    `m-c-X-Øn-se- ̀ -c-W-{I-aw- hn-i-Z-am-°p-∂- ]-hn-{X-tc-J-bm-Wv- ̀ -c-

    W-L-S-\.- 1950 P-\p-h-cn- 26˛mw- Xo-b-Xn- `m-c-X- `-c-W-L-S-\- \ne-

    hn¬- h-∂p.- ̀ m-c-Xo-b-cm-I-am-\w- tN¿-∂v,- X-߃-°v- th-≠n- H-cp-°n-

    b- A-Sn-kv-Ym\-{]-am-Ww.- H-cp- ]u-c-t\-bpw- cm-Py-tØ-bpw- X-Ωn¬-

    _-\v-[n-∏n-°p-∂- ]-c-a-{]-[m-\- \n-b-aw.- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- ]ca-{]-[m-\-am-

    b- \n-b-aw.- a-‰v- \n-b-a-ß-fpw- F-√m- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- kv-Ym-]-\-ß-fpw-

    C-Xn-\v- hn-t[-bw.- j-jv-Tn-]q¿-Øn- ]n-∂n-́ - s]-cp-a-bp-am-bn- ̀ -c-W-L-

    S-\- ̀ m-c-Xo-b-sc- Im-°p-∂p.- ssh-hn≤y-߃- \nd™- \m-Sn-s\- H-

    ∂n-∏n-°p-∂p.-

  • 123412341234123419

    1950 P-\p-h-cn- am-kw- 26˛mw- Xo-b-Xn- `m-c-X-Øn-s‚- cm-jv-{So-b-

    N-cn-{X-Øn-se- kp-h¿-Æ-Zn-\-am-bn-cp-∂p.- A-∂m-Wv- a-tX-X-c- ̀ mcX-

    Øn-s‚- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- \n-e-hn¬- h-∂-Xv.- ̀ m-c-X-sa-∂- ]-c-am-[n-Imc-

    tkm-jy-en-kv-‰v- a-tX-X-c- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- dn-∏-ªn-°n-s‚- P-\-\w- temI-

    k-a-£w- {]-Jym-]-\w- sN-ø-s∏-́ -Xpw- A-∂m-bn-cp-∂p.- ̀ mcXob- P\X-

    bp-sS- A-¥n-am-[n-Im-c-sØ- D-d-∏n-®p- \n¿-Øp-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w- P-\-

    t£-a-Øn-\m-bn- \n-c-¥-cw- {]-b-Xv-\n-°p-hm-\pw- t£-a- cm-jv-{S- Z¿-i\w-

    kmw-io-I-cn-°p-hm-\pw- {]XnPvRm_≤amWv- \-Ωp-sS- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\.-

    `m-c-X-Øn-se-hn-sS-bpw- hn-kv-X-cn-®p-≈- Hcp- \n-b-a- tk-h-\- ]-cn-

    ]mSn- cm-Py-Øv- B-hn-jv-I-cn-t°-≠-Xn-s‚- Bhiy-I-X- A-[n-I-cn-

    ®n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- P-kv-‰o-kv- ]nF≥- `KhXn- I-Ωn-‰n- tI-{μ-

    K-h -̈sa‚n-t\m-Spw- kw-kv-Ym-\- K-h -̈sa‚n-t\mSpw- i-Iv-X-am-bn-

    ip-]m¿-i- sN-bv-Xp.-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 14˛mw- A-\p-t—Z-Øn¬- A-\p-im-kn-®n-´p≈-

    A-N-©-e-am-b- Xp-ey-\o-Xn-bpw,- 21˛mw- A-\p-t—-Z-Øn¬- A\pim-

    kn-®n-́ p-≈- Po-hn-°m-\pw- kzm-X-{¥y-ap-≈- A-h-Im-i-hpw- am-{X-a-√,-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 39˛A A-\p-t—-Z-{]Im-c-hpw- Xp-ey-\o-Xn-bpw-

    ku-P-\y- \n-b-a-k-lm-b-hpw- \¬-Im≥- k¿-°m¿- {]-Xn-Pv-Rm-_-

    ≤-am-Wv- F-∂v- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-am-b- \n¿-t±-i-hp-ap-≠v- F∂pw--

    A-t±-lw- {]-kv-Xm-hn-®p.- km-£-c-X-bp-≈- P-\-߃-°v- t]m-epw-

    A-h-cp-sS- A-h-Im-i-ß-sf-°p-dn-®v- i-cn-bm-b- [m-c-W-bn√.- A-Xn-

    \m¬- ku-P-\y-am-bn- \n-b-a-km-£-c-X-bpw- \¬-tI-≠-Xp-≠v.- C-°m-

    cy-ß-sfm-s°- ap≥-\n¿-Øn- ]m¿-e-sa‚ v- ]m- m-°nb- \n-b-a-am-Wv- 1987

    se- \n-b-a- tk-h-\- k-an-Xn- \n-b-aw.- \m-j-W¬- eoK¬- k¿-ho-k-

    kv- A-tXm-dn-‰n- Zn-\-am-bn- B-N-cn-°p-∂p.- Ft∏m-gpw- F√m-h¿-°pw-

    \o-Xn,- kzm-X-{¥yw,- k-a-Xzw,- km-tlm-Z-cyw,- A-¥- v- F∂n-h- ̀ mcX-

    P-\-X-bv-°v- {]-Zm-\w- sN-øp-sa-∂- ZrVhpw- [o-c-hp-am-b- D-d-∏m-Wv- ̀

    c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-Jw- {]-Jym-]-\w- sNøp-∂-Xv.- ̀ m-c-X- P-\-X-

    bp-sS- a-l-Øm-b- kz-]v-\-am-W-Xv.- B- kz-]v-\-km-£m-Xv-°m-c-Øn-

    \m-bm-Wv- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\m- in¬-∏n-Iƒ- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bv-°v- cq-]w- \¬-In-

    b-Xv.-

    {]-tZm-j- (cm-{Xn)- k-a-b-sØ- hn-f-°v- N-{μ-\m-Wv.- cm-{Xn-bp-sS-

  • 123412341234123420

    A-‘-Im-c-Øn¬- N-{μ≥- \-dp-\n-em-hv- s]m-gn-°p-∂p.- {]-̀ m-X- (]I¬)-

    k-a-b-Øv- kq-cy≥- hn-f-°m-Wv.- kq-cy≥- Cu- {]-]-©sØ- {]-]-©-

    am-bn- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-∂p.- A-Xp-t]m-se- cm-Py-sØ- P\-ßsf-

    H-cp-a-tbm-sS-bpw- km-tlm-Z-cy-tØm-sS-bpw- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-∂- kqcy\m-Wv-

    \-Ωp-sS- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\.- F-√m-Øn-ep-ap-≈- \-∑-Iƒ- kzoIcn-°p-I-

    F-∂-Xm-W-v- ̀ m-c-Xo-b- ]m-c-º-cyw.- tem-I-Øn-se- ]-e- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-

    I-fn-se-bpw- \-∑-I-sf- \mw- ]-I¿-Øn-bn-́ p-≠v.- ̀ c-W-L-S-\m-in¬-∏n-

    _n.-B¿.- Aw-t_-Zv-I¿- H-cn-°¬- ]-d-™p.- ""B-Zy-am-bpw- A-h-km-\-

    am-bpw- \mw- ̀ m-c-Xo-b-cm-Wv''.-

    `-c-W-L-S-\- \n-e-hn¬- h-cp-tºmƒ- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c- P-\m-[n-]Xy-

    dn-∏-ªn-Iv- F-∂v- am-{X-ta- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-≈p.- 1976˛se- 42˛mw- ̀ cW-

    L-S-\m- t -̀Z-K-Xn- {]-Im-cw- ""tkm-jy-en-kv-‰v- a-tX-X-c''- F-∂p- IqSn

    tN¿-Øp.- kz-X-{¥-am-b- P-\-k-aq-l-Øn-\v,- cm-Py-`-c-W-Øn¬-

    ]¶mfn-Ø-ap-≈- kz-X-{¥- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- dn-∏-ªn-°m-Wv- `m-c-Xw.-

    ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- P-\-ß-fn¬- \n-£n-]v-X-am-Wv.- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- ImØp-

    kq£n-°p-∂- ]-hn-{X-hpw- A-ew-L-\o-b-hp-am-b- {]-am-W-am-Wv-

    \ΩpsS- `-c-W-L-S-\.-

    kzm-X-{¥yw,- k-a-Xzw,- km-tlm-Z-cyw,- \o-Xn- F-∂n-h-bn¬- A[n-

    jv-Tn-X-am-Wv- \-Ωp-sS- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- k-{º-Zm-bw.- A-Xn-\v- ap≥-Xq°w-

    sIm-Sp-Øp-sIm-≠m-Wv- `-c-W-L-S-\- X-øm-dm-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.-

    kmaq-ln-I- _-‘-ß-fp-sS- B-sIØ-p-I-bm-Wv- a-\p-jy¿-.- AhcpsS-

    Po-hn-Xw- C-c-ºn-a-dn-bp-∂- a-lmkm-K-c-am-Wv.- A-hn-sS-bp-≈- H-cp-

    sN-dp-Xp-cp-Øm-Wv- \m-Sn-s‚- `-c-W-L-S-\.-

  • 123412341234123421

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS ASn-ÿm\ XXz-߃

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-Iƒ-sIm-≠v- D-t±-in-°p-∂-Xv- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-b-Xpw-

    {]-k-Iv-X-hp-am-b- A-h-Im-i-ß-sf- kw-c-£n-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.-

    A-√m-sX- kn-≤m-¥-ß-sf- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-I- F-∂-X-√. \nba-

    \n¿ΩmW k`,- `cW \n¿h-lW hn`m-Kw, \oXn-\ymb

    kwhn[m\w, F-∂o- aq -∂v - a -l-Øm-b- kv -Ym -] -\-߃-

    \oXnbptSbpw- kzm-X-{¥y-Øn-t‚-bpw- Im-h-em-fp-I-fm-Wv.- A-h¿-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- a-l-Xz-sØ- {]-k-cn-∏n-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv.-

    {]m-Y-an-I- hn-Zym-̀ ym-kw- Xn-I-®pw- ku-P-\y-am-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂pw-

    Ip-d-™-]-£w- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-]-c-am-b- {]m-Y-an-I- hn-Zym-`ym-k-

    sa¶nepw- Xo¿-Øpw- ku-P-\y-am-bn-cn-°-W-sa-∂p-am-Wv- `-c-W-

    L-S-\-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- X-Xz-߃- \tΩ-m-Sv- B-lzm-\w- sN-øp-

    ∂-Xv.- am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ- Ip-´n-Iƒ-°v- A-\p-Iq-e-am-b- i-cn-bm-b-

    hn-Zym-`ym-kw- \¬-Im≥- _m-[y-kv-Y-cm-Wv.- C-¥y-bn-se- F-√m-

    ]u-c-\pw- hn-Zym-`ym-kw- t\-Sp-∂-Xn-\p-≈- A-h-Im-iw- `-c-W-

    L-S-\-bp-sS- 21˛A - A-\p-t—Z-Øn¬ - {]-Xn-]m-Zn -°p-∂p. -

    _methe°v- F-Xn-sc-bp-≈- t]m-cm-́ w- s]-̈ -Ip-́ n-I-tfm-Sp-≈- hnth-

    N-\w,- sX-cp-hp-Ip-́ n-I-fp-sS- D-∂-a-\w- F-∂n-ß-s\- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw-

    {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- tI-c-fm- kv-t‰-‰v- eoK¬- k¿-ho-k-kv- A-tXm-dn-‰n-

    kw-kv-Ym-\-Øp-S-\o-fw- \-S-Øp-∂p.- Ip´n-Iƒ-s°-Xn-sc-bp-≈-

    am\knI-hpw- im-co-cn-I-hpw- ssew-Kn-I-hp-am-b- ]o-U-\-߃-

    s°Xnsc- ap-Xn¿-∂-h¿- PmKcqI-cm-tI-≠-Xp≠v.- Ip-´n-I-fp-sS-

    kam\X-I-fn-√m-Ø- {]-iv-\-߃-°p-- ]-cn-lm-cw- Is≠-Øp-∂-Xn\pw-

    A-h¿-°v- 1987 se- eoK¬- k¿-ho-k-kv- A-tXm-dn-‰n- \n-b-aw- 12˛mw-

    h-Ip-∏p-{]-Im-cw- ku-P-\y- \n-b-a-k-lm-b-w- D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw-

    {]-Xn-Pv-Rm-_-≤-am-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123422

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS khn-tijX-Iƒ

    `m-c-X-Øn-se- P-\-ß-fp-sS- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-`n-em-j-ß-

    fp-sS-bpw- c-Xv-\-®p-cp-°-am-Wv- \-Ωp-sS- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-apJw.-

    B-i-b-ß-fp-sS- t{Im-Uo-I-c-W-Øn-eq-sS- P-\-t£-a- ̀ -c-Ww- km≤y-

    am-Ipw.- P-\-ß-fp-sS- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- k-a-Xz-hpw- km-º-Øn-I- \oXn-

    bpw- D-d-∏m-°n-s°m-≠v- -̀c-W-L-S-\m- \n-b-a-ß-sf- hym-Jym-\n-°p-I-

    F-∂-Xm-Wv- tIm-S-Xn-I-fp-sS- I-S-a.- -̀c-W-L-S-\- ]-c-tam-∂-X-am-Wv.-

    A-√m-sX- km-[m-c-W- \n-b-a-߃- A-√- {]-[m-\w- F-∂v- F-t∏m-gpw-

    kv-a-c-W-bn¬- D-≠m-h-Ww.- \-Ωp-sS- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-¥- Ø-

    ]q¿-Æ-am-bpw- A-Xn-s‚- B-ap-J-Øn¬- {]-Xn-^-en-°p-∂p.-

    k-aq-l-Øn¬,- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- A-J-fi-X-bpw- sF-Iy-hpw- \ne-

    \n¿-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw- P-\-t£-a-Øn-\v- D-X-Ip-∂- ]≤-Xn-I-fpw-

    ]cn]mSnI-fpw- B-hn-jv-I-cn-®v- A-Xp-h-gn- cm-Py-\-∑-bv-°v- th-≠n-

    P-\-ß-sf-bpw- k¿-°m-cn-s\-bpw- k-Pv-P-cm-°p-∂-Xn-\pw-- `-c-W-

    L-S-\- B-h-iy-am-Wv.- H-cp- cm-jv-{S-sØ- kw-_-\v-[n-®n-S-tØm-fw-

    \n-b-a-\n¿-Ωm-Ww-,- \-S-∏n-em-°¬,- ]-cn-]m-en-°¬- F-∂n-ß-s\-

    aq-∂v- {]-[m-\- Np-a-X-e-I-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.- Cu- hy-Xy-kv-X- Np-a-X-e-

    Iƒ- \n¿h-ln-°p-∂-Xn-\v--- th-≠n- {]-tXy-Iw- {]-tXy-Iw- hn-`m-K-

    ߃- D-≠v.- \n-b-a- \n¿-Ωm-W-k-`,- `-c-W- \n¿-hl-W- hn-`m-Kw,-

    \o-Xn-\ym-b- kwhn-[m\w F-∂o- aq-∂v- L-S-I-߃- tN-cp-∂-XmWv-

    B-[p-\n-I- cm-jv-{Sw.- A-h-bp-sS- L-S-\-bpw- A-Xn-cp-I-fpw-

    kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- \n-e-\n¬-∏n-\v- B-h-iy-am-Wv.- C-h-

    cm-Py-sØ- \n-b-a-hm-gv-N-bp-sS- ]-c-kv-]-c- ]q-c-I-ß-fm-b- aq-∂v-

    hn-`m-K-ß-sf-∂- \n-e-bv-°v- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-hm≥- `-c-W-L-S-\-

    k-lm-bn°p-∂p.-

  • 123412341234123423

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- F-∂- B-i-bw- A-Xn-s‚- XqWp-

    I-fp-sS-bn-S-bn¬- N-en-°p-∂- h-m-°v- t]m-se-bm-Wv.- A-¥na-cq-]-Øn¬-

    A-Xv- C-¥y-bn-se- P-\-ß-fn¬- \n-£n-]v-X-am-sW-¶nepw- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-

    X-e-Øn¬,- A-Xv- ]m¿-e-sa‚n-s‚-bpw,- Pp-Uo-jy-dn-bp-sS-bpw-

    F-Iv-kn-Iyq-́ o-hn-s‚-bpw- Np-‰m-sI- kz-bw- I-d-ßp-I-bmWv.- X-Xz-Øn¬-

    A-Xv- P-\-ß-fn-epw- {]m-tbm-Kn-I- X-e-Øn¬- t\-c-sØ- ]-d-™- ̀ cW-

    L-S-\-bp-sS- ]m¿-e-sa‚n-s‚-bpw,- Pp-Uo-jydn-bp-sS-bpw- F-Iv-kn-Iyq-

    ´o-hn-s‚-bpw- Xq-Wp-I-fn-epw,- A-\p-`-h-Øn¬- ̀ -c-W-\n¿-h--l-Ww-

    \-S-Øp-∂-Xv- cm-jv-{So-b-°m-cp-sS- B[n-]-Xy-Øn-epw- B-Wv.- ̀ -c-W-

    L-S-\- C-Xn-\m¬- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- D≈-XmWv.- Cu- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw-

    \n-e-\n¬-°-W-sa-¶n¬- A-Xv- ]-c-a-]hn-{X-ambn- I-cp-X-s∏-S-Ww.-

    au-en-Im-h-Im-i-ß-fpw- am¿-§-\n¿-t±-i-I -X-Xz-ß-fpw- k-a-Pv-R-

    k-am-bn- k-tΩ-fn-°p∂-p- F-∂-Xm-Wv- \-Ωp-sS- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS-

    k-hn-ti-j-X.- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- aq-∂pw- \m-epw- `m-K-߃- H-cp-

    cY-Øn-s‚- c-≠v- N-{I-߃- t]m-se-bm-Wv.- c-≠n-\pw- Xp-ey-

    {]m[m\y-am-Wv.- H-∂v- A-b-™-m¬- a-t‰-Xn-s‚- K-Xn- \-jv-S-s∏-Spw.-

    Cu- c≠v- `m-K-ß-fpw- km-aq-ly- hn-π-hw- ssI-h-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bn-

    ]-c-kv-]-c- ]q-c-I-ß-fm-bn- h¿-Øn-°p-∂-Xm-sW-∂v- \-Ωp-sS- Zo¿L-

    Z¿-in-I-fm-b- `-c-W-L-S-\m- in¬-∏n-Iƒ- D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øn-bn-cp-∂p.-

    cmPy-sØ- au-en-I-am-b- cm-jv-{So-b- C-Nv-Om-i-Iv-Xn- A-Xn-\v- \nivNb-

    Zm¿-V-yw- \¬-In.- A-Xv- km-aq-ly-\o-Xn-°v- A-Sn-Ø-d- ]m-In.- C∂se-

    I-fp-sS- a-l-Xzw- A-Xn¬- {]-Xn-̂ -en-°p-∂p.- C-∂n-s\- ASn-kvYm\-am-°-n,-

    \m-sf-sb- \n¿-h-Nn-°p-∂p.-

  • 123412341234123424

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS e£yw

    \n-b-a-hy-h-kv-Y-bp-sS- ]-hn-{X-Xsb-bpw- kw-kv-Ym-\- k¿-°mcp-

    I-fp-sS- hn-hn-[-ß-fm-b- L-S-I-ß-tf-bpw- H-cp- N-́ -°q-Sn-\p-≈n¬- \n¿-

    Øn- {]-h¿-Øn-∏n-°p-∂- ]-hn-{X-am-b- am¿-§-tc-J-bm-Wv- \-ΩpsS-

    `c-W-L-S-\.- G-sX-√mw- X-Øz-ß-fp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn-em-Wv- Ah-

    {]-h¿-Øn-t°-≠-Xv- F-∂v- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂p.- cm-Py-Øns‚-

    `-c-W-\n¿-hl-W-Øn-\p-≈- F-√m- Im-cy-ß-fpw- ̀ cW-L-S-\-bn¬-

    {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°s∏-Sp-∂p.- N-́ -ß-fp-sS- k-am-l-c-Ww- ̀ cW-kw-hn-[m-\-

    sØ- kv-Ym-]n-°p-∂-Xn-\pw- \n-b-{¥n-°p-∂-Xn-\pw- klm-b-I-am-Wv.-

    enJn-X-am-b- `-c-W-L-S-\-bm-Wv- \-ap-°p-≈-Xv.- A-Xv- \-Ωp-sS-

    cmPysØ- P-\-ß-sf- {]-Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-°p-∂p.- ̀ -cW-L-S-\- H-cp-

    ]n-c-an-Un-s‚- a-Ip-S-am-bn- hn-f-ßp-∂p.- A-Xv- t`-Z-K-Xn- sN-øm≥-

    {]-bm-k-am-Wv.- Im-c-Ww- h-f-sc- \m-f-sØ- P-\-ß-fp-sS- kz-]v-\-

    ß-fp-sS-bpw- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ]q¿-Øo-I-c-W-am-Wv.- \ΩpsS-

    `-c-W-L-S-\- P-\-ß-fp-sS- kz-]v-\-ß-fmWv- A-Xn-\v- BIrXn- \¬-

    In-b-Xv.- N-cn-{X-Øn-eq-∂n-b- A-̀ n-em-j-ß-fm-Wv- AXn\v- ]q¿-Æ-X-

    \-¬-In-b-Xv.-

    H-cp- t£-a-cm-jv-{Sw- sI-́ n-∏-Sp-°p-I-sb-∂-Xm-Wv- \-Ωp-sS- ]ca-{]-

    [m-\-am-b- e-£y-w.- B- e-£y-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂Xn\v- \-b-

    ]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ- B-h-iy-am-Wv.- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 36 apX¬- 50

    h-sc-bp-≈- A-\p-Nv-tO-Z-߃- A-Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b- A-Sn-kv-Ym\-

    \-b-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ- hn-i-Z-am-°p-∂p.- A-Xm-Wv- \-Ωp-sS- ̀ -c-W-LS\-

    bp-sS- am¿-§-\n¿-t±-i-I- X-Xz-߃.- k-a-Xz-kp-μ-c-hpw- \o-Xn-

    ]q¿-Æ-hpw- B-Z¿-i-tbm-Ky-hp-am-b- H-cp- k-aq-l-sØ- ̀ -c-W-LS\-

    hn`mh\w- sN-øp-∂p.- C-¥y≥- `-c-W-L-S-\- km-aq-ly-\o-Xn-°v-

  • 123412341234123425

    ap≥-Xq-°w- sIm-Sp-°p-∂p.- Xpey-tPm-en-°v- Xp-ey-th-X-\w,- hn-`-h-

    ß-fp-tS-bpw- [-\m-K-a- am¿-§-ß-fp-tS-bpw- \ym-b-am-b- hn-X-c-Ww,-

    Zp¿_e- hn-`m-K-ß-fp-sS- kw-c-£-Ww,- ku-P-\y- \n-b-a-k-lmbw-

    e-̀ y-am-°¬- C-sX-√mw- \-Ωp-sS- {]m-Y-an-I- Np-a-X-e-Iƒ- B-sW∂v-

    `cW-L-S-\- F-Sp-Øv- ]-d-bp-∂p.- Po-hn-X-Øn-s‚- k-a-kv-X- ta-J-e-

    I-fn-epw- km-aq-ln-I-hpw- km-º-Øn-I-hpw- cm-jv-{So-b-hp-am-b- \oXn-

    D-b¿-Øn-°m-´p-∂- H-cp- km-aq-ln-I- kw-hn-[m-\-{I-aw- D-≠m-°p-∂-

    Xn-\v- cm-jv-{Sw- _m-≤y-kv-Y-am-Wv.-

    C-¥y-bn¬- {Km-a- {]-tZ-i-Øv- Po-hn-°p-∂- G-Xm-≠v- 70 i-X-am\-

    tØm-fw- P-\-X- \n-c-£-c-cm-sW-∂v- F-√m-h¿-°pw- A-dn-bm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.-

    A-Xn-t\-°mƒ- H-cp-]-Sn- Iq-Sp-X¬- B-fp-Iƒ- \n-b-aw- X-߃-°v-

    \¬-In-bn-´p-≈- A-h-Im-i-ß-sf-°p-dn-®v- A-dn-hn-√m-Ø-h-cm-Wv.-

    km-£-c-cm-b- P-\-߃-°v- t]m-epw- F-¥m-Wv- A-h¿-°v- A-h-Im-i-

    s∏-́ -sX-t∂m- A¿-l-X-s∏-́ -sX-t∂m- A-dn-bn-√.- Cu- \nb-a-km£cX-

    bp-sS- A-̀ m-hw- sIm-≠m-Wv- h-©-\-bv-°pw,- NqjW-Øn-\pw C-c-I-fm-bn,-

    A-h-Im-i-ß-fpw- B-\p-Iq-ey-ß-fpw- C-√m-Ø-h-cm-bn- Cu- \m-́ n¬-

    ]m-h-߃- I-jv-S-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- \n-b-a- t¢-i-߃- ap≥-Iq-́ n- Im-Wp-∂-

    Xn¬- \n-∂pw-- H-cp- A-̀ n-̀ m-j-I-s‚- t-k-h-\-Øn-\m-bn- k-ao-]n-°p-∂-

    Xn-¬- \n-∂pw-- X-°- k-a-b-Øv- D]tZiw- tX-Sp-∂-Xn¬- \n-∂pw-

    A-h-c-p-sS- A-Pv-R-X- A-h-sc- X-S-bp-∂p.- A-Xn-\m¬- ]-e-t∏m-gpw-

    A-h-cp-sS- \n-b-a-]-c-am-b- B-h-iy-߃- {]-Xn-k-\v-[n-bn-em-Wv.-

    A-h-cp-sS- Zm-cn-{Zyw,- kz-bw- c-£n-°p-∂-Xn¬- \n-∂pw- kz-¥-am-bn-

    \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂-Xn¬- \n∂pw- Ah-sc- X-S-bp-∂p.- Iq-Sm-sX- A-Pv-R-X-bpw-

    \n-c-£-c-X-bpw- Ahsc- Iq-Sp-X¬- \n-b-a- ssh-j-ay-ß-fn-te-°pw-

    A-h-sc- X-≈n-hn-Sp-∂p.- Cu- tam-i-am-b- kv-Yn-Xn-bn¬- \n-∂v-- A-h-sc-

    c-£n-°m-\pw- \n-ba- tk-h-\- A-tXm-dn-‰n-bp-sS- ku-P-\y- km-£-c-Xm-

    {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃-°v- I-gn-bp-∂p.- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- am¿-§-\n¿-t±-i-

    ß-f-\p-k-cn-®v- ]m¿e-sa‚ v- \-S-∏m-°n-b- \n-b-a-tk-h-\- \n-b-a-Øn¬-

    A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂- ku-P-\y- \n-b-a- k-lm-bw- F-∂- D-]m-[n-bn-eq-sS-

    kmaqly- \o-Xn- \-Ωp-sS- cm-Py-Øv- ssI-h-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\pw-- km-[n-°p∂p.-

  • 123412341234123426

    ]uc [¿Ω-߃

    A-\p-t—-Zw- 51˛A A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂- C-¥y≥- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS-

    ]u-c-[¿-Ω-߃- C-h-sbm-s°-bm-Wv.-

    1.- -̀c-W-L-S-\-sb- A-\p-k-cn-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn-s‚- B-Z¿-i-

    ß-sf-bpw- kv-Ym-]-\-ß-sf-bpw- tZ-io-b- ]-Xm-I-sb-bpw-

    tZ-io-b- Km-\-sØ-bpw- B-Z-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I.-

    2.- kzm-X-{¥y-Øn-\v- th-≠n-bp-≈- \-Ωp-sS- tZ-io-b- k-a-c-

    Øn-\v - {]-tNm-Z\w- \¬-In-b- a-l-\o-bm-Z¿-i-ß-sf-

    ]-cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-I-bpw- ]n≥-Xp-Scp-I-bpw- sN-øp-I.-

    3.- `m-c-X-Øn-s‚- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-hpw- sF-Iy-hpw- A-J-Wv-U-X-bpw-

    \n-e-\n¿-Øp-I-bpw- kw-c-£n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I.-

    4.- cm-Py-sØ- Im-Øv- kq-£n-°p-I-bpw- tZ-io-b- tk-h-\w-

    A-\p-jv-Tn-°p-hm≥- B-h-iy-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ- A-\p-jv-T-n-°p-Ibpw-

    sN-øp-I.-

    5.- a-X-]-c-hpw- `m-jm-]-c-hpw- {]m-tZ-in-I-hpw- hn-̀ m-Ko-b-hp-am-b-

    ssh-hn≤-y-߃-°-Xo-X-am-bn- `m-c-X-Øn-se- F-√m- P\-߃-

    °p-an-S-bn¬,- ku-lm¿-±-hpw- s]m-Xp-hm-b- km-tlm-Z-cy-

    a-t\m-`m-h-hpw- ]p-e¿-Øp-I.- kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS- A-¥- n-\v-

    Ip-d-hv- h-cp-Øp-∂- B-Nm-c-߃- ]-cn-Xy-Pn-°p-I.-

    6.- \-Ωp-sS- k-Ωn-{i- kw-kv-Im-c-Øn-s‚- k-º-∂-am-b-

    ]m-cº-cy-sØ- hn-e-a-Xn-°p-I-bpw- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-I-bpw-

    sN-øpI.-

    7.- h-\-ß-fpw- X-Sm-I-ß-fpw- \-Zn-I-fpw- h-\y-Po-hn-I-fpw-

    Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂- {]-Ir-Xym- D-≈- ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn- kw-c-£n-°p-I-bpw-

    A-`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw Po-hn-I-tfm-Sv- Im-cp-Wyw-

    ImWn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I.-

  • 123412341234123427

    8.- im-kv-{Xo-b-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Spw- am-\-hn-I-X-bpw,- A-t\z-j-

    W-Øn-\pw- ]-cn-jv-I-c-W-Øn-\pw- D-≈- a-t\m-̀ m-̀ m-h-hpw-

    hn-I-kn-∏n-°p-I.-

    9.- s]m-Xp-kz-Øv- ]-cn-c-£n-°p-I-bpw- i-]-Yw- sN-bv-Xv-

    A-{I-aw- D-t]-£n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I.-

    10.- cm-jv-{Sw- b-Xv-\-Øn-s‚-bpw- e-£y-{]m-]v-Xn-bp-sS-bpw-

    D-∂-X-X-e-ß-fn-te-°v- \n-c-¥-cw- D-b-c-Ø-°-h-Æw- hy-Iv-Xn-

    ]-c-hpw- Iq-´m-b-Xp-am-b- {]-h¿-Ø-\-Øn-s‚- F-√m-

    a-Wv-U-e-ß-fn-epw- D-Xv-Ir-jv-S-X-bv-°p-th-≠n- A-≤zm-\n-°p-I.-

    11.- B-dn-\pw- ]-Xn-\m-en-\pw- C-S-bv-°v- {]m-b-ap-≈- X-s‚-

    Ip-́ n-t°m- c-£y_m-e-I-t\m,- A-X-Xp- kw-K-Xn-t]m-se,-

    am-Xm-]n-Xm-°-tfm- c-£-I¿-Øm-thm- hn-Zym-̀ ym-k-Øn-\p-≈-

    A-h-k-c-߃- G¿-s∏-Sp-Øp-I.-

  • 123412341234123428

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS A\-iz-cX

    \n-b-a- \n¿-Ωm-Ww- \n-b-a-k-̀ -bn¬- \n-£n-]v-X-am-bn-cn-t°,- \nba-

    k-̀ - X-s∂- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- kr-jv-Sn-bm-Wv.- k¿-°m-cn-s‚- LS\-

    cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\m-bn- P-\-ß-fn¬- \n-∂v- t\-cn-´v- e-`n-®- ]-c-am-

    [n-Im-c- i-Iv-Xn- \n¿-Δ-ln-°m-\p-≈- A-Xy-]q¿-Δ- \n-b-a-am-Wv- ̀ cW-

    L-S-\.- A-Xp-t]m-se-X-s∂- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bn¬,- A-[n-Im-c- hn-tI-{μo-

    I-c-W-Øn-s‚- hym-]v-Xn-bpw- A-Xn-s‚- co-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- X-Øz-ß-fp-

    sS-bpw- {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fpw,- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- hy-h-kv-Ym-]n-X- \b-ß-fpw-

    B-te-J-\w- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- h-cm-\n-cn-°p-∂- \m-fp-Iƒ-°p-th-≠n-

    Iq-Sn-bp-≈-Xm-Wv- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\.- a-\p-jy-kv-Ym-]-\-߃-°v- k-a-o-]n-

    °m≥- I-gn-bm-Ø-hn-[w- A-Xv- A-\-iz-c-am-Wv.- X-Øz-Nn-¥m-]-c-am-bpw-

    kmw-kv-Im-cn-I-am-bpw- ̀ cW-L-S-\-bv-°pw- P-∑w- \¬-In-b- P-\-X-

    ap-t∂-dp-tºmƒ,- Im-e-Øn-t‚-bpw- hy-h-kv-Y-bp-sS-bpw- B-h-iy-߃-

    °pw,- am-dn-b- km-l-Ncy-ß-ƒ-°pw- A-\p-k-cn-®v- A-Xn-s‚- B-Jym-\w-

    A-\p-cq-]-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- cmPyw- h-f-cp-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w- A-Xn-s‚-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bpw- h-f-c-Ww.

  • 123412341234123429

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-Øn¬- km-tlm-Z-cyw- ]p-e¿-Øp-hm≥-

    A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂p.- 51˛A A-\pt—-Z-{]-Im-cw- cm-jv-{S-]u-c-∑m¿-

    A-h-ew-_n-t°-≠- I-S-a-I-fn¬- H-∂m-Wv- a-X-]-c-hpw,- ̀ m-jm-]-c-hpw-

    {]m-tZ-in-I-hpw- hn-`m-Ko-b-hp-am-b- ssh-hn-≤y-߃-°-Xo-X-am-bn-

    `m-c-X-Øn-se- F-√m- P-\-߃-°p-an-S-bn¬,- ku-lm¿-±hpw-

    s]mXp-hm-b- km-tlm-Z-cy-a-t\m-`m-h-hpw- ]p-e¿-Øp-I- F-∂-Xv.-

    eoK¬- k¿-Δo-k-kv- A-tXm-dn-‰n-bp-sS- tem-Iv- A-Zm-e-Øp-I-fn-eq-sS-bpw-

    kw-kv-Ym-\-Øv- tIm-S-Xn-I-tfm-S-\p-_-\v-[n-®v- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂-

    ao-Un-tb-j-\p-I-fn-eq-sS-bpw- k-aq-l-Øn¬- km-tlm-Z-cyhpw,-

    k-am-[m-\-hpw- ssI-h-cp-∂p.- tIm-S-Xn-I-fn¬- \n-e-hn-ep-≈-Xpw,-

    tImSXn-I-fn¬- ̂ -b¬- sN-øp-∂-Xn-\p-ap-ºp-≈- {]o-̨ en-‰n-tK-j-\p-

    am-bp-ap-≈- tIm-ºu-≠-_nƒ- X¿-°-߃- eo-K¬- k¿-Δo-k-kv-

    A-tXm-dn-‰n-bp-sS- tem-Iv- A-Zm-e-Øn-eq-sS- c-ay-am-bn- Xo¿-∏m-°p-∂-Xp-

    h-gn,- k-aq-l-Øn¬- k-am-[m-\-hpw- km-tlm-Z-cy-hpw- \n-e-\n¬-°p-

    ∂-Xn-\v- k-lm-bn-°p-∂p.- tem-Iv- A-Zm-e-Øn-epw- ao-Un-tb-j-\n-epw-

    C-cp-I-£n-I-fpw- P-bn-°p-∂p.-

    kmtlm-Zcyw \ΩpsS IS-a-bmWv

  • 123412341234123430

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS ]c-am-[n-Imcw

    bq-Wn-b≥- K-h -̈sa‚ v- F-∂-Xv- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- D-≈-X-√.- Fs¥-

    ∂m¬- A-Xn-s‚- A-[n-Im-c-ß-sf-√mw- X-s∂- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬-

    \n-∂p e-`n-®-Xm-Wv.- ]m¿-e-sa‚pw- kw-kv-Ym-\- \n-b-a-k-`-I-fpw-

    ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-ap-≈-X-√.- F-s¥-∂m¬- B- \n-b-a-߃- ̀ cW-LS\m-

    hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂v- kp-{]ow-tIm-S-Xn-°v- ]-d-bm≥- I-gn-bpw.- F-∂m¬-

    kp-{]ow- tIm-S-Xn-°pw- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-an-√.- F-s¥-∂m¬- kp-{]ow-

    tIm-S-Xn-bp-sS- A-[n-Im-c-ß-fpw- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- \n-∂p- e-`n-®-

    Xm-Wv.- C-¥y≥- kw-kv-Y-m-\-߃-°v- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-an-√,- Fs¥-

    ∂m¬- tI-{μ-Øn-\m-Wv- sd-kn-Uyq-dn- A-[n-Im-c-߃.- IqSm-sX-

    A-Xn-cp-Iƒ- \n-iv-N-bn-°m-\p-≈- {]-I-S-am-b- A-[n-Im-c-hp-ap-≠v.-

    ASn-b-¥-cm-h-kv-Y-bp-sS- k-a-b-Øv- kw-kv-Ym-\- ̀ -c-W-Iq-S-sØ-bpw,-

    \n-b-a-sØ-bpw- a-dn-I-S-°m-\p-≈- A-[n-Im-cw- ]m¿-e-sa‚n-\p-ap-≠v.-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- N-´-°q-Sn-\p-≈n¬- \n-∂p-sIm-≠v- P-\-X-bv-°v-

    A-h-cp-sS- cm-jv-{So-b-hpw- km-aq-ln-I-hpw- km-º-Øn-I-hp-am-b-

    {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ- A-\p-cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øm≥- I-gn-bpw.- AXn-\m¬- `-c-W-

    L-S-\sb-- ]-c-a-]-hn-{X-am-bn- I-cp-tX-≠-Xm-Wv.- F-s¥-∂m¬- ̀ cW-

    L-S-\-bv-°v- ]-c-am-[n-Im-cw- D-≈-Xm-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123431

    hy‡n-bpsS A¥ v

    cm-Py-Øn-s‚- sF-Iy-sØ-°p-dn-®v- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-Øn-s‚-

    km-cmw-iw- ]-c-a-am-bn- Du-∂n-∏-d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se- X-s∂-bm-Wv-

    hy-Iv-Xn-bp-sS- A-¥- n-s\-°p-dn-®pw- ]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- A-¥- v-

    F-∂- hm-°n-\v- [m¿-Ωn-I-X-bp-sS-bpw- B-flo-b-X-bp-sS-bpw- A¿-∞w-

    I¬-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- ]u-c-s‚- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-sØ- _-lp-am-\n-t°-≠-

    Xpw,- Hm-tcm- ]u-c-t\-bpw- hy-Iv-Xn-bp-sS- ]q¿Æ-X- I-s≠-Øp-∂-

    Xn-\m-bn- kz-X-{¥-am-bn- hn-Sm-\p-≈- A-h-k-c-߃- kr-jv-Sn-t°-≠-

    Xpw- Dƒ-s∏-sS-bp-≈- Im-cy-߃- cm-jv-{S-Øn-s‚- ̀ m-K-Øp-\n-∂p-≈-

    Np-a-X-e-bm-sW-∂v- [z-\n-°p-∂p.- A-Xn-\m¬-hy-I-v-Xn-bp-sS- A-¥- v-

    F-∂v- tN¿-Øn-cn-°p-∂- ]-Z-Øn-eq-sS,- B-[p-\n-I- k-a-{Km-[n-]-Xy-sØ-

    A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-°n-bp-≈- sl-K-en-b≥- Xn-b-dn-sb- \n-cm-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-

    ∂-Xm-bn- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p.-

    hy-Iv-Xn-sb- kp-c-£n-X-am-°n-s°m-≠v- kz-¥w- \n-e-\n¬-∏v- H∂p-

    am-{Xw- e-£y-am-°n-bp-≈- H-cp- `u-Xn-I-am-b- A-kv-Xn-Xz-am-Wv-

    cmjv{Sw.- A-Xp-t]m-se- X-s∂- ̀ q-X-Im-e-Øv- \mw- B¿-Pv-Pn-®- ]mcº-

    cy-tam,- km-aq-ln-I-tam- B-b- P-∑n-Ø- h¿-§-hn-th-N-\-ß-sfbpw-

    `-c-W-L-S-\- \n- w-i-bw- \n-c-m-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.-

    Po-hn-X-Øn-s‚- k-a-kv-X- ta-J-e-I-tf-bpw- \n-b-{¥n-°p-∂- \nba-߃-

    ap-Kƒ-hw-i-P-cpw- {_n-´o-jp-Im-cpw- `-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºv- Xs∂-

    `m-c-X-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- F-∂m-e-Xv- t{Im-Uo-I-cn-®- \n-b-a-ß-

    fm-bn-cp-∂n-√.- a-dn-®v,- \ym-b-sØb-pw- [¿-Ω-sØb-pw- A-Sn-kv-Ym\-

    s∏-Sp-Øn-b-h-b-m-bn-cp-∂p.- ]n-∂o-Sv- kzn- v,- { -̂©v,- A-ta-cn-°≥- cmPy-

    ß-fp-sS- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-I-sf- Dƒ-sIm-≠p-sIm-≠m-Wv- P-\m-[n-]-Xy-

  • 123412341234123432

    `m-c-X-Øn-se- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv.- F-√m- ̀ mcXob-cn-epw-

    D-≈- \-Ωƒ- H-∂m-Wv- F-∂- hn-Im-c-am-Wv- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-

    Øn¬- ""`m-c-Xo-b-cm-b- \mw''- F-∂- Xp-S-°-Øn-se- h-cn-Iƒ- hn-̀ m-h-\w-

    sN-øm≥- \-Ω-sf- t{]-cn-∏n-®-Xv.- Cu- hm-Iy-߃- as‰m-cp- ̀ -c-W-LS\-

    bn-epw- Im-Wm≥- I-gn-bn-s√-¶n-epw- \-Ωp-tS-Xv- H-cp- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-

    cm-Py-am-sW-¶n¬-°q-Sn-bpw- hnhn[- h¿-§-ß-fpw- Pm-Xn-I-fpw- C-hn-sS-

    bp-≠v.- F-∂m¬- B- \m\m-Xz-Øn¬- \-Ωp-sS- G-I-Xz-hp-ap-≠v.- \-Ωƒ-

    B-Zy-am-bpw- A-h-km-\-am-bpw- ̀ m-c-Xo-b-cm-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123433

    sXmgn-ens‚ A¥ v , kaXzw

    F-{X- hy-Xym-k-ap-≈- tPm-en-bm-sW-¶n-epw- F-√m- D-]-Im-c-ap-≈-

    sXm-gn-ep-I-fpw- cm-jv-{S-Øn-\v- H-cp-t]m-se- aq-ey-ap-≈-Xm-Wv Po-hn-X-

    Øn-s‚- F-√m- co-Xn-I-fpw.- F-√m- X-c-Øn-ep-≈- sXm-gn-e-p-I-fpw-

    H-cp- t]m-se- ]-hn-{X-am-Wv- F-∂- B-i-b-am-Wv- ap-Xn¿-∂-h¿-°pw-

    Ip-´n-Iƒ-°pw- _m-[-I-am-b- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂-

    hn-Zym-`ym-k-Øn-\p-≈- A-h-Im-i-Øn-s‚- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\w.- tPm-en-

    bn-se- kv-Ym-\-°-b-‰w- F-∂m¬- tPm-en-bn-se- am-‰-am-h-W-sa-∂n-√.-

    {]-tam-j≥- F-∂m¬- sa-®-s∏-´- Np-a-X-e-bp-am-hmw.- AXv- F-√m-

    h¿-°pw- B¿-Pv-Pn-°-m-\m-hp-∂-Xp-am-Wv.- Im-cy-£-a-X-bn-√m-Ø-

    H-cp- am-t\-P-tc-°mƒ- Im-cy-{]m-]v-Xn-bp-≈- H-cp- ¢m¿-°n-\p- hfcm≥-

    I-gn-bpw.- km-º-Øn-I- t\-´-ß-sf- t]m-se- X-s∂- D-≈n-ep-≈-

    \n¿-hr-Xn-bpw- am-\-kn-I kw-Xr-]v-Xn-bpw- sXm-gn-en¬- IW-°n-

    se-Sp-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- \m-W-b-Øn-s‚- b-Ym¿-∞- aq-ey-w- A-Xv-

    \-∂m-bn- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- D-]-tbm-Kn-°m-\p-≈- \-Ωp-sS- I-gn-hm-sW-∂v-

    a-d∂p-sIm-≠v- \m-W-b-Øn-s‚- aq-ey-w- A-[n-Iw- Du-∂n- ]-d-bp-∂-

    Xm-W-t√m- \-Ωp-sS- kw-kv-I-m-c-Øn-\p-≈-Xv.- [-\n-I¿- A-\n-hm-cy-am-bn-

    A-dn-Rn-cn-t°-≠-Xv- A-h-cp-sS- [-\w- k-aq-l-Øn-s‚- D-∂-a-\-Øn-\p-

    Iq-Sn- D-]-tbm-Kn-°-W-sa-∂pw- Z-cn-{Z¿- a-\- n-em-t°-≠-Xv- F-√-m-

    sXm-gn-ep-I-fpw- _-lp-am-\n-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xpw- B-sW-∂m-Wv.- A-ß-s\-

    k-aq-l-Øn¬- F-√m-h-cpw- `-c-W-L-S-\- A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂ -

    ""F-√m- sXm-gn-en-\pw- A-¥- p-≠v-''- F-∂- B-i-bw- D-b¿-Øn-

    ∏n-Sn-t°-≠-Xp-am-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123434

    Ah-kc kaXzw

    {]-Ir-Xn-bn-te-°v- H-∂v- t\m-°n-bm¬- a-\-kn-em-hp-∂-Xv, -

    ]-e-X-c-Øn-ep-≈- Po-h-Pm-e-ß-ƒ- D-s≠-∂m-Wv.- \-£-{X-߃,-

    k-¶-ev-]n-°m-\m-hm-Ø- A-km-[m-c-W-Xz-Øn¬- \n-∂v- ho¿-∏p-ap-́ n-

    °p-∂- km-{μX-bn-te-°v- \o-ßp-∂- A-¥-co-£-]m-fn-Iƒ,- ̀ q-an-°Sn-

    bnse- h-f-sc- A-[n-Iw- [m-Xp-°ƒ,-- `q-an-°p- ap-I-fn¬- F-Æn-bm-

    sem-Sp-ßm-Ø- sN-Sn-Iƒ,- Io-S-߃-,- C-g-P-¥p-°ƒ,- ]-£n-Iƒ,-

    ar-K-߃,- a-\p-jy¿ ap-X¬- Ime-Øn-s‚- A-Xn-hn-̀ P\-ß-sf-t∏m-epw-

    sh-√p-∂- A-dn-hp-≈- E-jn-am¿-h-sc.-

    Pn-tbm-f-Pn,- t_m-́ -Wn,- kp-thm-f-Pn,- ln-kv-‰-dn,- A-{¥t∏m-f-Pn-

    F-√mw- ]-d-™p-X-cp-∂-Xv- {]m-Ir-X- tKm-{X-ß-fpw- ]-cn-jm-c-ap-≈-

    Ip-e-ß-fpw- ]-≠p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂pw,- C-\n-bpw- D-≠m-hpw-

    F-∂p-a-m-Wv.- ssh-cp-≤y-ß-sf-√mw- X-s∂- H-cp- Zn-h-k-sØ-

    cmjv{Sob- \n-b-a-\n¿-Ωm-Ww- sIm-≠v- C-√m-Xm-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√.-

    a\-»Iv-Xn-bn-epw- [¿-a-\n-jvT-bp-sS- Hm-P- n-ep-ap-≈- A-k-a-Xzw

    a-\p-jy-]-cn-Wm-a-Øn-se \n¿-_-\v-[-n-X- L-S-I-am-Wv.- Cu- a-\-»IvXn-

    bn-epw- [¿-a-\n-jv-T-bp-sS- Hm-P- n-ep-ap-≈- A-k-a-Xzw- km-º-Øn-I-hpw-

    km-aq-ly-hp-am-bp-≈ A-k-a-Xz-sØ- {]-Xn-^-en-∏n-°p∂p.-

    a-ßn-bn-cn-°p-∂ Xo-\m-f-Øn¬- \n-∂v- B-bn-cw- Pzm-e-bp-≈-

    AKv\-n-\m-f-߃- D-b-cpw- t]m-se- {]-Ir-Xn-bn¬- \m-i-an-√m-Ø- H∂n¬-

    \n-∂v- F-√mw- h-cp-∂p.- A-h-k-c-ß-fn-se- k-a-Xzw- B¿-Pn-°m≥-

    ]-Z-hn-bn¬- k-a-Xzw- \n-e-\n¬-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- ]-Z-hn-bn-se- A-k-a-Xzw-

    A-h-k-c-ß-fn-se- k-a-Xzw- B¿-Pn-°p-∂-Xn-ep-≈- Hcp- X-S-k-am-Wv.-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-J-Øn¬- ]-Z-hn-bn-epw- A-h-k-c-Øn-epw-

    k-a-Xzw- kw-{]m-]v-Xam-°p-sa-∂v A-\p-im-kn-°p∂p.-

  • 123412341234123435

    kmaqly \oXn

    \o-Xn-°v- km-aq-ly-hpw- km-º-Øn-I-hpw- cm-jv-{So-b-hp-am-b- Hcp-

    {]m-[m-\y- {I-a-ap-≠v.- km-aq-ly- \o-Xn-bn-√m-sX- P-\-߃-°v- kmº-

    Øn-I- \o-Xn- e-̀ y-am-°m≥- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-°p- I-gn-bn-√.- km-aq-ly-hpw-

    km-º-Øn-I-hp-am-b- \o-Xn- e-̀ y-am-°n-b- H-cp- ]u-cm-h-en-°v- am-{X-ta-

    A¿-l-X-s∏-´- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´- cm-jv-{So-b- \o-Xn- A-Xn-s‚- ]u-c-

    ∑m¿-°v- D-d-∏m-°m≥- I-gn-bq.-

    km-aq-ln-I-hpw- km-º-Øn-I-hp-am-b-n- I-cp-Øm¿-Pv-Pn-®- H-cp-

    thm´-¿°v- am-{X-ta- cm-jv-{So-b- \o-Xn- In-´p-sa-∂v- {]-Xo-£n-°m≥-

    I-gn-bq.- \-Ωp-sS- cm-Py-sØ- ]u-c-∑m-cp-sS- D-∂-X-am-b- \-∑-bm-Wv-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- Dƒ-s°m-≈n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- km-aq-ly-hpw- kmº-

    Øn-I-hpw- cm-jv-{So-b-hp-am-b- \o-Xn- F-∂p-≈- Im-cy-߃- e-£y-

    am-°n- A-Xn-s‚- Xm-t°m-em-b- B-ap-J-Øn¬- ]-c-am-[n-Im-c-

    P\m[n]-Xy- dn-∏-ªn-Iv- B-bn- `m-c-X-Øn-se- P-\-߃- \n¿-Ωn-®-

    Xm-Wp- `-c-W-L-S-\- F-∂v- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.-

  • 123412341234123436

    `c-W-L-S\tbmSp-ff BZ-chv ]ucs‚ I¿Øhyw

    Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 {]Imcw

    s]mXp-ÿ-e-ß-fnsem s]mXp-hmbn ImW-s∏-Sp∂ at‰-sX-

    ¶nepw, ÿe-ß-fntem, tZio-b-]-Xm-I-tbm, `c-W-L-S-\-tbm,

    AXns‚ GsX-¶nepw ̀ mKtam IØn-°p-Itbm hnI-e-am-°p-Itbm

    hnIr-X-am-°p-Itbm A]-Io¿Øn-s∏-Sp-Øp-Itbm, hncq-]-am-°p-Itbm,

    \in-∏n-°p-Itbm, \nμn-°p-Itbm, As√-¶n¬ _lp-am-\-an-√mbva

    {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-Itbm, A[n-t£-]n-°p-Itbm, Fgp-Xp-Itbm,

    ]d-bp-Itbm, sNøp∂, GsXm-cmƒ°pw aq∂p h¿j-Øn¬

    Ipd-bmØ XSthm ]ngtbm As√-¶n¬ c≠pw IqSn-bp≈

    in£tbm \¬Ip-∂-XmWv. ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 51˛A A\p-t—-ZØn¬

    ]ucs‚ auenI I¿Ø-hy-ßsf Ipdn®v ]d-bp-∂n-SØv `c-W-

    L-S-\-sbbpw AXns‚ BZ¿i-ß-sfbpw ÿm]-\-ß-sfbpw

    tZiob]Xm-I-sbbpw tZiobKm\-sØbpw A\p-k-cn-°p-Ibpw

    BZcn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-hm-≥ A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p.

  • 123412341234123437

    auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃

    \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S\bpsS aq∂mw `mK-Øn¬ auenImhIm-

    i߃ Fs¥-√m-am-sW∂v hy‡-ambn {]Jym-]n-®n-´ps≠∂v

    am{X-a√, AXv ew-Ln-°-s∏-´m¬ Fs¥√mw ]cn-lmc am¿§-

    ߃ Ds≠∂pw \n¿t±-in-°p∂p. CXv shdpw Hcp {]Jym-]\w

    am{X-a√. AXv Dd∏v hcp-Øp-∂-Xn\pw \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn\pw

    Gh¿°pw _m≤y-X-bp≠v. auen-Im-h-Im-i-ßsf l\n-°p-∂

    GXv \nb-ahpw DØ-c-hp-Ifpw Akm-[p-hmbn {]Jym-]n-°m≥

    kp{]ow tImS-Xn°pw sslt°m-S-Xn-Iƒ°pw A[n-Im-c-ap-≠v.

    ]c-º-cm-K-X-ambn cmjv{S-Ønse ]uc-\p≈ kzm`m-hn-Im-h-Im-

    i-ßfpsS ]p\¿\m-a-I-cWw BWv auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃ F∂Xv.

    kzm`m-hnI \nb-a-߃, cmPysØ a‰v \nb-a-ß-tf-°mƒ Db¿∂

    ]Zhn \¬Ip-∂p. AXp-t]mse kzm`m-hn-Im-h-Im-i-߃°v, \nbaw

    hgn e`n-°p∂ Ah-Im-i-ß-tf-°mƒ Db¿∂ ]hn-{X-Xbpw

    A¥ pw I¬∏n-®p-h-cp-∂p. kzm`m-hnI Ah-Imiw F∂Xv

    kzm`m-hnI \nb-a-ß-fn¬ \n∂v D≠m-b-Xm-sW∂mWv k¶¬∏w.

    “\Ωƒ P\n-°p-∂Xv Xs∂ \oXn°v th≠n-bm-Wv. Ah-Im-i-ßsf

    Is≠-tØ-≠-Xn√. Ah {]]-©-Øn¬ Xs∂ D≈-Xm-Wv.

    `mcX `c-W-L-S\ \ΩpsS ]c-tam-∂-X-amb \nb-a-kw-ln-X-bm-Wv.

    kp{]ow-tIm-S-Xn-bmb ]c-tam-∂-X- \oXn-]o-T-hpw, Bap-Jhpw

    `cW-L-S-\-bpsS `mK-ambn \mw ]cn-K-Wn-°p-∂p. Bap-Jhpw

    t`Z-KXn sNøp-hm≥ Ah-Im-i-ap-s≠∂v ]c-tam-∂X \oXn-]oTw

    A`n-{]m-b-s∏-́ n-́ p-≈-Xm-Wv. \ΩpsS ̀ c-W-L-S\bpsS ]c-a-{]-[m\

    `mK-amWv auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃. ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS aq∂mw ̀ mKØv

  • 123412341234123438

    auenImhIm-i-ß-sf-∏‰n {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂p. Ata-cn-°≥ ̀ c-W-

    LS\-bpsS “Ah-Im-i- kwc-£Ww” F∂ Bi-bsØ Dƒs°m-

    ≠mWv \ΩpsS ̀ c-W-L-S\m in¬∏n-Iƒ auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃

    `c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv. Ata-cn-°≥ ̀ cW-L-S-\-bnse

    Nne ]pØ≥ Bib-ßsf Ah-bpsS A¥- Ø tNm¿∂v

    t]mImsX \ΩpsS ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ̀ mK-am°ph-m≥, ̀ cW-L-S\m

    inev]n-Iƒ {ian-®n-́ p-≠v.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 22˛mw A\p-t—Zw Hcp ]pXnb auen-Im-h-Imiw

    IqSn krjvSn-®p. ]uc\v Ahs‚ auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃ \S-∏n-

    em°n In´p-hm-≥- ]c-tam-∂X \oXn-]o-TsØ kao-]n-°m-\p≈

    Ah-Imiw. auenI Ah-Im-i-߃ ]uc\v A¥ pw, hy‡n-

    Xzhpw, kzmX-{¥yhpw \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xn\v DX-Ip-∂p. Hcp t£a-

    cmjv{Sw sI´n-∏-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ XØz-߃ \ΩpsS `c-W-

    LS\bpsS Bap-J-Øn¬ {]tXyIw {]Xn-]m-Zn-®n-́ p-≠v. auenI

    Ah-Im-i-߃ F∂Xv cmjv{Sw ]uc-∑m¿°v \¬Ip∂ kΩm\-

    ambn IW-°m°mw.

  • 123412341234123439

    sXmgn-ens‚ A¥ v

    ]ucm-WnI XØzNn¥-I¿- P\-߃°n-S-bn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂

    Ak-a-Xz-ßfpw sshcp-≤y-ßfpw apgp-h-\mbpw Ah-K-Wn-®n-́ n-√m-

    bn-cp-∂p.

    AsXms° a\pjy]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-sSbpw ]q¿Æ-X-bp-sSbpw

    AhiyLS-I-ß-fmbn Ah¿ I≠p.

    F∂m¬ Ah¿ apt∂-dn-bXv F√m a\p-jy-k-tlm-Zcn

    ktlm-Z-c-∑m-scbpw krjvSn-®Xv H-tc-t]mse-bp≈ Hcp PohnX-

    Øn-\m-bn-́ mWv F∂p kqNn-∏n-°p∂ D∂X aqey-ß-fn-te-°m-bn-

    cp-∂p. Fs¥-∂m¬ Ah¿°v Hcp s]mXp-hmb Bflob Dd-hnSw

    D≠m-bn-cp-∂p.

    F∂m¬ Ch¿s°ms° Xp√y-am-\-knI Ign-hp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂t∂m

    As√-¶n¬ Xp√y-[¿Ω-ho-cy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-s∂t∂m AXn\v A¿∞-an√.

    `uXn-I-amb Ak-aXzw F∂ XØz-Øn\v tIhew {]k-‡n-bn√

    F∂mWv ChnsS {Kln-t°-≠Xv. H∂n¬ Xs∂ ]e-Xp≠v F∂

    {]am-W-amWv ChnsS a\-kn-em-t°-≠Xv.

    Pohn-X-tØm-Sp≈ _lp-am\w F∂ hkvXpX a\-kn-em°n

    thWw sXmgnens‚ A¥ v F∂ Imcyw Hmtcm ]uc\pw

    {Kln-°p-h-m≥.

    F∂m¬ am{Xta `c -W-L-S -\ -bpsS Bap -J -Øn¬

    {]Xn -]m -Z - n -®n -´p≈ A¥ v F∂ ]Z-Øns‚ A¿∞w

    ]q¿Æ-ambpw {]m_-ey-Ønemhp-I-bp-≈q..

  • 123412341234123440

    h\n-X-Iƒ°p-ff kuP\y \nb-a-k-lmbw

    Hcp h\n-X-bpsS t£aw \nc-h[n LS-I-ßsf B{i-bn-®mWv

    Ccn-°p-∂-Xv. Ah-fpsS hnZym-̀ ym-kw. kz¥-ambn hcp-am\w D≠m-°m-\p≈

    Ignhv, hoSn\p ]pdØv sXmgn¬ I≠p-]n-Sn-°pI, kzØ-h-Imiw

    F∂n-h-sbms° GXp h\n-X-bp-sSbpw t£a-Øn\v B[m-c-amWv.

    Cu LS-I-ß-fmWv hoSn-\-IØpw ]pdØpw Xocp-am-\-߃

    FSp-°p-∂-Xn¬ Ahsf ]¶m-fn-bm-°p-∂Xv. h\n-X-I-fpsS

    sXmgn¬ ho´nepw kaq-l-Ønepw D≈ Ah-cpsS kaqly \ne-

    \n¬∏ns\ Db¿Øp-∂-Xn¬ t\cn v́ klm-bn-°p-∂p. kmº-ØnI

    kzmX{¥yw D≈ h\n-X°v IpSpw-_-Ønepw kaq-l-Ønepw IqSp-

    X¬ ÿm\-ap≠v. h\n -X -bpsS hnZym -`ymkw Ahsf

    {]mXn\n[yhpw sshZ-Kv≤yhpw Adnhpw D≈-h-fm-°p-∂p. h\nX-

    I-fpsS kzØ-h-Im-ihpw IpSpw-_-]-c-amb Xocp-am-\-߃

    FSp-°p-∂-Xn¬ Ah¿°v IqSp-X¬ ÿm\w \¬Ip∂p.

    hnZym-̀ ymkw, sXmgn¬, kzØ-h-Imiw F∂nhsIm≠v kmbp[-

    cmb h\n-X-Iƒ°v i‡-amb h\nXm- hncp≤ {]h-W-X-bp≈

    C¥y≥ kaq-l-Øn¬ ̀ £-W-Øn-s‚bpw Btcm-Ky-Øn-s‚bpw

    Imcy-Øn¬ Xp√y hnX-cWw \S-Øp-∂-Xn\v {][m\ ]¶phln-

    °m-\mhpw.

    kuP\y \nb-a-k-lmb ]≤-Xn-Iƒ hgn hntam-Nn-X-cm-hp-

    ∂Xv h\n-X-Iƒ°p t\sc \S-°p∂ AXn-{I-a-߃ t\cn-Sp-∂-

    Xn\v Ah¿°v klm-b-I-am-hp-∂p. kv{Xo im‡o-I-c-W-Øn\v

    i‡-amb Hcp D]m-[n-bmWv Ah¿°v e`n-°p∂ kuP\y

    \nb-a-k-lmbw. ]ptcm-K-an®psIm≠ncn-°p∂ cmPy-amb C¥ysb

  • 123412341234123441

    t]mep≈nSØv kv{Xo im‡o-I-cWw hfsc {][m-\-am-Wv.

    eoK¬ k¿Δo-kkv AtXm-dn-‰n-bpsS kuP\y \nba klmb

    {]h¿Ø\߃ hgn `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 14˛mw A\p-t—Zw

    A\p-im-kn-°p∂ kaXzw B¿÷n-°p∂Xn\p h\n-X-Iƒ°p

    km[n-°p-∂p.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ]c-tam∂X ÿm\hpw \nb-a-\n¿ΩmW

    k`-bpsS ]c-am-[n-Im-chpw k¥p-en-X-am-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn \ΩpsS

    `c-W-L-S\m inev]n-Iƒ Db¿Øn-°m-´nb ]pXp-a-bm¿∂

    {]Jym]-\-am-bmWv auenImhImi߃ \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-

    bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈Xv. `mcX `c-W-L-S-\- Hcp \nb-tam-

    ]-I-cWambn {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p. AXns‚ \n¿_-‘nX \nba

    hkvXp-X-Iƒ ^e-{]-Z-ambn \S-∏n-em-°p-∂Xv tImS-Xn-Iƒ

    aptJ\bmWv. F∂m¬ `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS \memw `mKØv

    {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p∂ am¿§ \n¿t±-i-I-X-Xz-߃ tImS-Xn-Iƒ aptJ\

    \S-∏n-em-°p-h-m≥ km[y-a-√.

  • 123412341234123442

    `c-W-L-S\bnse a\p-jym-h-Imi \nb-a-߃

    a\p-jym-h-Im-i-ßsf°pdn-®p≈ DXvI-WvT ]pcm-X\ kwkvImc-

    ß-fpsS Imew sXms´ Bcw-̀ n-®-XmWv. _m_n-tem-Wn-b≥ \nba-

    ߃, A n-dn-b≥ \nb-a-߃ thZ-Im-e-ß-fn¬ \ne-hn-ep-≠m-bn-

    cp∂ [¿Ωw F∂ Bibw,- ssN\-bnse emHmkobp-sSbpw

    I¨^yp-jykn-s‚bpw \nb-a-kw-ln-X-Iƒ Ch-sbms° a\pjy

    kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ Ncn-{X-Øn-ep-S-\ofw a\p-jym-h-Imi-߃

    ]cn-c-£n®p h∂n-cp-∂-Xmbn ImWp-∂p.

    {]mNo\ ̀ mc-X-Ønse [¿Ω-im-kv{XØnepw A¿∞-im-kv{X-

    Ønepw cmPm-hn-s‚bpw {]P-I-fp-sSbpw [¿Ω-sa-s¥∂v A¤pX-

    I-c-ambn {]Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-°p-∂p. at‰-sXmcp {]Psbbpw- t]mse

    cmPmhv t]mepw \nb-a-Øn\p hnt[-b-\-m-bn-cp∂p. IS-a-Iƒ

    Hcn-°epw imk-\-Ifmbn-cp-∂n√, adn®v kzoIm-cy{]Z-amb,-

    kt¥m-j-Øn-\mbn \n¿Δ-ln-t°≠ A¥- mb Imcy-Øns‚

    {]Xo-I-am-bn-cp-∂p.

    F√m-h-cp-sSbpw t£aw F∂ hkp-ss[-hIpSpw-_Iw F∂

    ]pcm-X\ `mc-Xob XØzw sIm≠pXs∂ kº∂amb `mc-Xo-b-

    ss]XrIw a\p -jym -h -Im -i -߃°v ]c -a{]m[m\yw

    \¬Ip∂Xmbn ImWmw.

    _p≤s‚bpw Atim-I-s‚bpw ImeØv kaXzw, kzmX{¥yw,

    kmtlm-Zcyw F∂o Imcy-ß-fn-eqsS a\p-jym-h-Im-i-߃

    Aaqeyambn IW-°n-em-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xmbn a\- n-em-°mw.

    XS-¶-en¬ AS-bv°-s∏-́ -h-tcmSv a\p-jyXzw ImWn-°-W-sa∂pw

  • 123412341234123443

    Atim-Is‚ ImeØv \n¿I¿jn-®n-cp-∂p. ]n∂oSv ̀ c-W-L-S\ XS-

    ¶-en¬ AS-°-s∏-´-hsc ]oUn-∏n-°p-∂Xv XS-™n-cp-∂-Xmbpw

    ImWp-∂p. ̀ cWLS\ hn`m-h\w sNøp-tºmƒ 1948 Unkw-_¿

    10 \p sFIycmjv{S {]Jym-]-\-ß-fpsS P\-d¬ Akwªn hnfw-

    _cw sNøp-I-bpw kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS

    kmcmwiw `c-W-L-S\m inev]n--Iƒ \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-bnepw

    kzoI-cn-®p.

    a\p-jym-h-Im-i-]-cn-c-£sb kw_-‘n°p∂ sFIy-cmjv{S

    {]Jym-]\ßfpsS P\-d¬ Akwªn, hnfw-_cw sNøp-Ibpw

    kzoI-cn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS kmcmwiw `c-W-

    L-S\mkanXn `mcX`c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ kwtbmPn∏n®n-´p≠v

    `cW-L-S -\ -bpsS Bap -J -Øn¬ P\m -[n -]Xyw F∂

    hm°vsIm≠v k¿°m-cn\p P\-ß-fm¬ Xnc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´Xv

    aq-e-am-Wv- A[n-Imcw e`n-®n-cn-°p-∂sX∂v A¿∞-am°-p-∂p.

    a\p-jym-h-Imi ]cn-c-£sb kw_-‘n-°p∂ sFIy-cmjv{S

    {]Jym-]\ DS-º-Sn-bn¬ ̀ mc-Xhpw H∏v h®n-́ p-≈-XmWv.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS,

    A\p-t—Zw 14, \nb-a-Øn\p apºmsI kaXzw

    A\p-t—Zw 15 hnth-N-\-Øn-s\-Xn-tc-bp≈ \ntcm-[\w

    A\p-t—Zw 16 Ah-k-c-ß-fn¬ kaXzw

    A\p-t—Zw 19 kwkmc kzmX{¥yw apX-em-bh

    kw_-‘n-®n-´p≈ Nne Ah-Im-i-ß-fpsS kwc-£Ww

    A\p-t—Zw 20 Ip‰m-tcm-]n-X-cm-b-h-cpsS Ip‰-߃

    ÿm]n-°p-∂Xv kw_-‘n®- kwc-£Ww

    A\p-t—Zw 21 Poh-s‚bpw hy‡n kzmX-{¥y-Øn-s‚bpw

    kwc-£Ww

  • 123412341234123444

    F∂n-ßs\ A\-h[n \nb-a-ßsf `c-W-L-S\ kzoI-cn®

    ka-bØv ̀ m-cXw Fß-s\-bmWv Ahsb a\- n-em-°n-b-sX∂v-

    CXn¬ \n∂p- hy‡-amWv

    \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS BapJw cmjv{S-Ønse F√m

    ]uc-∑m¿°pw kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmº-Øn-Ihpw cmjv{So-b-hp-amb

    \oXnbpw,-Nn¥,- A ǹ-{]m-bw, hnizm-kw, aXw, Bcm-[\ F∂n-h-bn¬

    kzmX-{¥yhpw ]Z-hn-bnepw Ah-k-c-Ønepw ka-Xzhpw Dd∏p

    \¬Ip∂p.-hy‡n-bpsS A¥ pw cmjv{SØns‚ sFIyhpw

    AJ-fi-Xbpw Dd-∏p-h-cpØn F√m-h-cnepw kmtlm-Zcyw

    hf¿Øphm\pw `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS BapJw Blzm\w sNøp-

    ∂p. Cu Bib߃°v FXn-cm-bn-cp∂p “Abn-Øm-N-cWw”

    `c-W-L-S-bpsS 17˛mw A\p-t—Zw “Abn-Øm-N-cWw” \nb-a-

    hn-cp-≤hpw Ip‰-I-c-hp-ambn {]Jym-]n-°p-∂p. `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS

    17˛mw A\p-t—Zw Hcp kmaq-lnI hnπ-h-Øn\pw \h-bp-K-

    ∏n-d-hn°pw Bcw`w Ipdn-®p.

    C¥y-bpsS kzmX{¥y kacw hfsctbsd \o≠p-\n-∂-XmWv

    AXn-\mbn Bbn-c-°-W-°n\v Bfp-I-ƒ Ah-cpsS Poh≥

    _enb-¿∏n-°pIbpw D≠mbn. AXn-t\-°mtfsd {][m\w

    AXp-ey-amb kzmX{¥y kacw Dƒs°m-≈p-Ibpw AXns‚

    BZ¿i-ßsf ]n¥p-S -cp -Ibpw ]I¿Øp-Ibpw sNøpI

    F∂p-≈-XmWv. AXv C¥y-bpsS cmjv{Sob kzmX{¥yw am{Xw

    e£y-am-°n-bp-≈- shdp-samcp kacam-bn-cp-∂n-√-. temI-Ønse

    F√m P\-ß-fp-sSbpw kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmº-Øn-I-hp-amb

    tamN\w IqSn-bm-bn-cp∂p. \oXn-\n-jvT-amb Hcp kaq-lhpw,

    kzmX-{¥yhpw ka-Xzhpw Alnw-kbpw kmtlm-Z-cyhpw temI-

    k-am-[m-\hpw D≈ Hcp sFIy-cmjv{Shp-w ]Sp-Øp-b¿ØpI

    F∂Xv AXns‚ Bi-b-ß-fn¬ H∂m-bn-cp-∂p.

    \Ωƒ `c-Xob ]uc-∑m¿ Cu Bi-b-ß-tfmSv t_m[yap-≈-

    h-cm-hp-Ibpw A¿∏W at\m-`m-h-tØmsS {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw

    sNbvXm¬ am{Xta Ahn-sSbpw Chn-sS-bp-ambn ]e-t∏mgpw

    Xe Db¿Øp∂ hnL-S\ {]h¿Ø-\-߃°-Xo-X-ambn \ap°v

    Db-cm≥ Ign-bp-I-bp-≈q.

  • 123412341234123445

    Hmtcm ]uc\pw, kzmX-{¥y-Øn\p th≠nbp≈ \ΩpsS

    tZiob ka-c-Øn\v {]tNm-Z\w \¬Inb al\-ob BZ¿i-

    ßsf ]cn-t]m-jn-∏n-°p-Ibpw ]n¥p-S-cp-Ibpw sNø-W-sa∂p

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 51˛A A\p-t—-Z-Øn¬ A\p-im-kn-°p-∂p.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS BapJw ]ucs‚ A¥- ns\ Db¿Øn-

    °m-´pI hgn cmjv{S-Øns‚ AJ-fi-Xbpw sFIyhpw Du´n

    Dd-∏n-°p-∂p. hn`-P-\Øn\v tijw kzX{¥`mcXw A`n-ap-Jo-

    I-cn® G‰hpw ImX-emb {]iv\w cmjv{S-Øns‚ sFIyw

    ImØpkq£n-°pI F∂-Xm-bn-cp∂p. hn`n∂ aX, PmXn, h¿§,

    kwkvIm-c-ß-fn¬s∏´ P\-Xsb sFIy-tØmsS \ne-\n¿ØpI

    F∂Xv ITn\ {]b-Xv\-amWv. \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S\m inev]n-

    I-fpsS Zo¿L-Z¿i-\hpw ss[cyhpw {]I-S-am-bXv cmjv{S-Øns‚

    sFIyw ImØpkq£n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ ap≥I-cp-X-ep-I-fn-emWv.

    AXn-\mbn Ah¿ hn`m-h\w sNbvX-XmWv auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃.

    IÆp-Iƒ°v I¨t]m-f-Ifpw,- ico-c-Øn\v ssIIfpw- F∂Xp-

    t]mse {][m-\-amWv kaq-lØn\v auen-Im-h-Im-iß-fpw-.

    I¨t]m-f-Ifpw ssIIfpw IÆn-s\bpw ico-csØbpw

    c£n°pw. AXp-t]mse-bmWv ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bnse auen-Im-h-Im-

    i-ßfpw auenI I¿Ø-hy-ßfpw. ka-Xz-kp-μchpw \oXn-

    ]q¿Æhpw BZ¿itbm-Ky-hp-amb Hcp kaqlw Ch e£y-am-

    °p-∂p. AXn-eqsS kmaq-ly-\oXn Dd-∏m-°p-∂p. shbn-ep-sIm≠v

    AXy¥w £oWn®p hcp∂ Bfn\v hr£-Øns‚ XW¬ hfsc

    kpJw \¬Ip-∂p. Iqcm-Iq-cn-cp-́ n¬ IØn-®p-sh® hnf°v tim`

    ]S¿Øp∂p. AXp-t]mse cmjv{S-Ønse ]uc-∑m-cpsS

    A¥ pw bi pw `c-W-L-S\ Db¿Øn-∏n-Sn-°p-∂p.

    \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ auen-Im-i-ß-sf-∏‰n hnh-cn-°p∂

    `mKØv cmjv{S-Øns‚ sFIy-sØbpw AJ-fi-X-sbbpw Du´n-

    D-d-∏n-°p∂p F∂v am{X-a√ cmjv{S-Øns‚ sFIyw XI¿°p∂

    LS-I-ßsf C√m-Xm-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. `mc-X-Øn-\p-≈n¬

    Fhn-sSbpw k©-cn-°phm\pw Xma-kn-°p-hm\pw IpSn-tb-dn-

    ∏m¿°p-hm\pw GXp sXmgnepw kzoI-cn-°p-hm\pw hmWn-Pytam

  • 123412341234123446

    hyh-km-btam \S-Øp-hm\pw D≈ kzmX{¥yw ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS

    19(1), (d), (e), (f), (g) A\p-t—Zw Dd-∏m-°p∂p. ̀ c-W-L-S\ \∑

    \nd™ kaq-lsØ hm¿sØ-Sp-°pI am{X-a√ cmjv{S[zwkI

    i‡n-Isf C√mbva Nøp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

    auenImhIm-i-߃ ]cn-jvIrXkaq-l-Øns‚ apJ-ap-{Z-I-

    fmbn Nn{Xo-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp∂p. ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS Ccp-]Xmw A\p-

    t—Zw Ip‰m-tcm-]-W-Øn\v hnt[-b-cm-b-h¿°v \¬Ip∂ kwc-£-

    W-amWv Ip‰-IrXyw \S-°p-tºmƒ \ne-hn-ep≈ \nba hyh-ÿ-

    Iƒ°-\p-k-cn®v am{Xta Hcm-fpsS t]cn¬ Ip‰w Npa-Øm-\m-

    hq. GsX-¶nepw {]hrØn Ip‰-I-c-ambn {]Jym-]n-°p∂ \nb-a-

    Øn\v Hcn-°epw ap≥Ime {]m_eyw D≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-X√. Ip‰-

    IrXyw \S-Øp-tºmƒ \nb-am\pkrX- in£ am{Xta sImSp-

    °mhq. Htc Ip‰-Øn\v H∂n-e-[nIw {]mhiyw Hcmsf t{]mkn-

    Iyq v́ sNøp-hmt\m in£n-°p-hmt\m ]mSn-√. {]Xn-bmb Hcmsf,

    Abmƒs°-Xn-cmbn km£n-bmbn hnkvX-cn-°p-hm\pw ]mSn√.

    ]e ]e J\n-I-fn¬ \n∂v Ipgn-s®-Sp-°p∂ cXv\߃ alm-

    cm-Pm-°-∑m-cpsS Inco-S-Øn\v tim -̀tb-In-bn-cp∂p. AXp-t]mse

    ]e- ]e ̀ c-W-L-S-\-I-fn¬ \n∂v AS¿Øn-sb-SpØ cXv\-߃

    tIm¿Øn-W-°n-bmWv \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S\ AXns‚ inev]n-

    Iƒ \n¿Ωn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv. ̀ mc-X-Ønse F√m hǹ mKw P\-ß-sfbpw

    Hcp-a-bpsS Nc-Sn¬ tIm¿Øv hnP-b-Øns‚ ]Ÿm-hn-te°v

    \bn-°p-hm≥ \ΩpsS ̀ c-W-L-S-\bv°v km[n®p. kzmX-{¥ym-\-

    ¥c ̀ mcXw \nc-h[n {]iv\-߃ t\cn´p. t\cn´ F√m {]iv\-ß-

    sfbpw `mcXw Akm-[m-c-Wamw hn[w AXn-Po-hn®p. temI-

    Øns‚ apºn¬ \ΩpsS cmPyhpw ̀ c-W-L-S-\bpw Xe Db¿Øn

    \n¬°p-∂p. A{X-am{Xw alXzw Gdn-b-XmWv \ΩpsS ss]Xr-Ihpw

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpw.

  • 123412341234123447

    auenI I¿Ø-hy-߃

    C¥y Hcp P\m-[n-]Xy]c-am[nImc cmjv{S-am-Wv.

    ]uc-∑m¿s°√mw \oXn-bpw, kzmX-{¥yhpw, ka-Xzhpw,

    kmtlm-Z-cyhpw {]Zm\w sNøp-∂p. F√m ]uc-∑m¿°pw

    F∂m¬ Hmtcm ]uc\pw hnth-N-\-an-√msX F∂¿∞w.

    \oXn, kzmX-{¥yw, kaXzw, kmtlm-Zcyw F∂o {Ia-Øn-

    emWv ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ ÿm\w \¬In-bn-´p-≈Xv F∂ Imcyw

    {it≤-b-am-Wv. \oXn-bn-√msX kzmX-{¥y-Øn\v A¿∞-an√.

    AXp-t]mse Xs∂-bmWv kzmX-{¥y-an-√msX \oXn-bp-an√.

    \oXnbpw kzmX-{¥yhpw Hcp-an®v ka-Xzhpw {]Zm\w sNøp-∂p.

    AXp-t]mse Xs∂ \oXn-bp-sSbpw kzmX{¥y-Øn-s‚bpw

    ]c-kv]c {]h¿Ø\w Xs∂ kaXzw D≠v F∂v kqNn-∏n-°p-∂p.

    Ch aq∂pw C√msX kmtlm-Zcyw shdpw t]Sn kz]v\-am-bn-

    cn°pw. AXn-\m¬ ̀ c-W-L-S\ Fßs\ {]h¿Øn-°p∂p F∂-Xn\v

    DZm-l-c-a-amWv \oXn, kzmX{¥yw, kaXzw, kmtlm-Zcyw F∂o

    ]Z-ß-fpsS {Iao-I-c-W-Øn-eqsS a\- n-em-hp-∂-Xv.

    P\-ß-fpsS auenI I¿Ø-hy-߃ \S-∏n-em-°p-∂Xn\v

    Ah-cpsS Npa-X-e-Iƒ AXn-t‚-Xmb A\n-hm-cy-amb coXn-bn¬

    {]N-cn-∏n-°p∂ Imcy-Øn¬ P\-ßsf Ah-t_m-[-ap-≈-h-cm-t°-

    ≠-Xp-≠v. CXv kam-[m-\-]-chpw hym]-I-hp-ambn P\-ß-fn¬

    FØn-t°-≠-Xpap≠v. CsXms° \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn-\mbn :

    (F) CsX-°p-dn-®p≈ ip]m¿i-Ifpw kwth-Z\ t£a-]-≤-Xn-Ifpw

  • 123412341234123448

    kwL-Sn-∏n-°p-tºmƒ \Ωƒ ]s¶-Sp-°-Ww.

    (_n) k¿°m¿ {]kn-≤o-I-c-W-߃, Ub-dn-Iƒ, Ie-≠-dp-Iƒ,

    Imcym-e-b-߃, s]mXp-ÿ-e-߃ F∂n-hn-S-ßfn¬ `c-W-

    L-S-\-bpsS A\pt—Zw 51˛A {]Im-c-ap≈ “auen-I

    I¿Ø-hy-߃” {]Z¿in-∏n-®n-cn-°p∂Xv {i≤n-t°-≠-

    XmWv.

    (kn) auen-I I¿Ø-hy-ß-sf-°p-dn®p≈ kp{]-[m\

    ktμ-i-߃ tdUn-tbm-bn-eq-sSbpw, hoUntbm Zriy-߃

    hgnbpw Adn-tb-≠-Xm-Wv.

    (Un) auen-I I¿Ø-hy-߃ \S-∏n-em-°p-∂-Xn\pw Ah-bpsS

    ]p\-:]-cn-tim-[-\°pambn kzbw-̀ -cW kwL-S-\-I-sfbpw

    {Iao-I-cn-®n-́ p-≠v.

    (C) auen-I I¿Ø-hy-ßsf°p-dn-®p≈ eLp {]kn-≤o-

    I-c-W-߃ anX-amb `mj-bn¬ hnZym-̀ ymk ÿm]-\-߃,

    km£-cX ]cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ F∂n-h-bn-eqsS P\-ßsf Adn-

    bn-®p-h-cp-∂p.

    (F-^v) ]cn-ÿnXn kwc-£Ww t]mep≈ auen-I I¿Ø-hy-

    ß-sf-°p-dn-®v P\-߃ t_m[-hm-∑m-cm-tI-≠Xpw BWv.

    Ime-ß-fmbn `mc-Xob Z¿i-\-ß-fpsS at\m-`m-h-Ønepw

    ss]Xr-I-Ønepw IS-a-Iƒ°v IqSp-X¬ ap≥Xq°w \¬In-bn-´p-

    s≠-¶nepw ]uc-∑m-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃°v Ah-cpsS IS-a-

    Ifpambn A\p-]m-X-an-√mØ Hcp Du∂¬ F√m-bn-SØpw \¬Ip-

    ∂p≠v.

    Ah-Im-i-ß-fpw IS-a-Ifpw Htc \mW-b-Øns‚ c≠p

    hi-ß-fmWv.

    Hmtcm Ah-Im-i-Øn\pw XØp-√y-amb IS-a-bp≠v. IS-a-Iƒ

    \∂mbn \n¿Δ-ln-°-s∏-Sp-∂n-SØp am{Xta Ah-Im-i-߃

    HgpIn FØq.

  • 123412341234123449

    Ah-Im-i-ß-fn¬ \n∂v AS¿Øn-sb-Sp-°m-\m-hmØ Hcp ̀ mK-

    amWv IS-a-Iƒ.

    as‰mcmfpsS Ah-ImisØ _lp-am-\n-°-W-sa∂pw, a\p-

    jy-Po-hn-XsØ _lp-am-\n-°Wsa∂Xpw, as‰m-cmsf t{Zmln-°-

    cpXv F∂Xpw Hcm-fpsS IS-a-bm-Wv.

    F√m-hcpw Ah-c-h-cpsS IS-a-I-ƒ \∂mbn \n¿Δ-ln-®m¬,

    a‰p-≈-h-cpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ kzbta kwc-£n-°-s∏Spw.

    auen-Im-h-Im-i-߃ ]uc\p\¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv t]mse Xs∂

    `cW-L-S-\-bn¬ 51˛A A\p-t—-Z-Øn¬ ]d-™n-´p≈ auen-I-

    I¿Øhy-ßfpw Hmtcm ]uc\pw \n¿Δ-ln-t°-≠-Xp≠v.

    1984 se s]mXpkzØv, \mi \jvS-s∏-Sp-∂Xv XS-b¬ \nba-

    Øn¬ tI{μk¿°m-cn-s‚tbm, kwÿm\ k¿°m-cn-s‚tbm

    Ah-bpsS DS -a -ÿXbntem, \nb- {¥-W-Øntem

    {]h¿Øn°p∂ GsX-¶nepw hkvXp-hnt\m, s]mXpkzØnt\m

    t{Zmltam \jvStam hcp-Øn-bm¬ Bdp amk-Øn¬ Ipd-bm-

    ØXpw F∂m¬ A©p h¿jw hsc BIm-hp-∂-Xp-amb ITn\-

    X-Sthm ]ngtbm \¬Ip-sa∂v hyhÿ sNbvXn-cn-°p-∂p.

    IqSmsX Pew, shfn®w, sshZypXn, Du¿÷w, FÆ, Agp°p-

    Nm¬, GsX-¶nepw J\n, ^mIvS-dn, s]mXpKXm-KX D]m-[n,

    F∂n-h-bv°v \mi-\jvStam t{Zmltam hcp-Øn-bmepw Cu

    in£ In´p-∂-Xm-Wv.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS 51˛A A\p-t—-Z-Øn¬ ]ucs‚ 9˛m-asØ

    auenI I¿Øhyw A\p -im -kn -°p -∂Xv. s]mXp -kzØv

    ]cn-c-£n-°p-sa∂v i]Yw sNø-W-sa∂pw A{Iaw Dt]-£n-°-

    W-sa∂pw BWv.

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS A\p-t—Zw 51˛A bn¬ A\p-im-kn-°p∂

    auenI I¿Ø-hy-߃ Hcp ]uc\pw as‰mcp ]ucs\Xnsc

    \S-∏n-em-°m≥ Ign-bn√. P\-ß-fp-sSbpw kaq-l-Øn-s‚bpw

  • 123412341234123450

    A`n-hr-≤n-°p-th≠n Hcmƒ Xs‚ a\- n¬ kq£n-t°≠ 10

    I¬∏-\Iƒ t]mse-bm-WXv. A{]-Imcw Ah cmPy-Øn\pw

    kaq-l-Øn\pw th≠n \nd-th-‰-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v.

    tImS-Xn-hn-[n-I-fn¬ auenI I¿Ø-hy-߃ apJ-hn-ebv°v

    FSp-°m-dp≠v. auenI I¿Ø-hy-߃ ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ hyhÿ

    sNbvXn-́ p≈Xn\m¬ ̀ c-W-L-S\ hymJym-\n-°p-tºmƒ tImSXn-

    Iƒ Ah IW-°n-se-Sp-°m-dp≠v. hy‡n-]-c-amb tIkp-I-fn¬

    Hcp hy‡n°v tamN\w sImSp-°m≥, Abm-fpsS ap≥Ime

    auenI I¿Ø-hy-ß-fpsS Af-hp-tIm¬ IW-°n-se-SpØv hn[n

    {]kvXm-hn-°m-dp-≠v.

  • 123412341234123451

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ASn-ÿm\ ine-Iƒ

    `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS {][m-\-s∏´ aq∂p XqWp-I-fmWv \nb-a-

    \n¿ΩmW k`, `cW \n¿h-lW hn`mKw, \oXn-\ymb kwhn-

    [m\w F∂nh.

    `c-W-Iq-S-Øns‚ F√m ÿm]-\-ßfpw Cu hn`m-K-ß-fpsS

    \nb-{¥-W-Øn-em-Wv.

    Hmtcm ]uc-s‚bpw I¿Ø-hy-amWv Chsb _lp-am-\n-t°-

    ≠Xv.

    DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v A\oXn \S-∂p-sht∂m \S-°m≥ t]mIp-

    ∂p-sht∂m Hcp ]uct\m Hcp Iq´w P\-߃t°m A\p-`-h-

    s∏-Sp-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ `c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-amb am¿§-ß-fn-eqsS

    tImSXnsb kao-]n-®p ]cn-lmcw ImtW-≠-XmWv. `cW-

    LS\bv°v FXn-cmb am¿§-߃ Ah-ew-_n-°p-tºmƒ cmPy-

    Øns‚ kmº-Øn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb D∂Xn ]nt∂m-´m-

    Ip∂p.

    aq∂v Imcy-ß-fmWv cmjv{S-Øn-ep-≠m-th-≠Xv

    BZy-ambn DØ-a-amb BZ¿i-߃ D≠m-IWw. c≠ma-Xmbn

    Cu DØa BZ¿i-߃ B¿÷n-°p-h-m≥ {]m]vXn-bp≈ ]uc-

    ∑m¿ D≠m-hWw aq∂m-a-Xmbn DXvIr-jvT-X-°mbn ]cn-{i-an-

    °p∂ ]uc-∑mcpw thWw

  • 123412341234123452

    Fhn-sS-bmtWm \n¿ -̀b-amb a\ v inc- p-b¿Øn ]nSn-°p-∂Xv,

    kzX-{¥-amb Adn-hp-≈Xv, k¶p-NnX Npa-cp-I-fn-√mØ temI-ap-

    ≈Xv, kXy-Øns‚ AKm-[-X-bn¬ \n∂v hm°p-Iƒ D≈Xv Ahn-

    tS°v Nn¥-bp-tSbpw {]h¿Øn-bp-sSbpw G‰-hp-w A[nIw hym]-vXn-

    bn-te°v a\ v \bn-°p-∂n-S-tØ-°p-amWv \ΩpsS kz]v\-ß-fnse

    C¥y DW-tc-≠Xv.

    alm-flm-Km‘n hn`m-h\w sNbvX kzX{¥ C¥ybn¬

    Zmcn{ZyØnt\m, tcmK-߃t°m, Adn -hn -√m -bva -t°m,

    Agn-a-Xnt°m ÿm\-an√.

    Ch-sbms° B¿÷n-°m≥ `c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ hn`m-h\w

    sNøp∂ auenI Ah-Im-i-ß-tfm-sSm∏w auenI I¿Ø-hy-ßfpw

    \nd-th-‰-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-≠v.

    `c-W-L-S\ F¥v \¬In-bmepw Cs√-¶nepw cmPy-Øns‚

    t£aw `c-WsØ B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.

    `cWw, A-Xv- \S-Øp∂ Bfp-Isf B{i-bn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.

    Hcp cmPy-Øn\v AXv A¿ln-°p∂ `c-W-Iq-SsØ am{Xta

    e`n-°p-I-bp≈q F∂Xv Hcp ]g-s©m-√mWv. ̀ cWLS\ F∂Xv

    Hcp b{¥w t]mse-bmWv. AXn\p Poh≥hbv°p-∂Xv AXv

    Nen-∏n-°p-Ibpw \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂ a\p-jy-cn-eq-sS-

    bm-Wv.

    AXv \∂mbn \n¿h-ln-°p∂ Hcp Iq´w a\p-jy-sc-bmWv

    `c-W-L-S-\bv°v Bhiyw.

    tUm.-_n.-B¿. Awt_-ZvI¿ `c-W-L-S\ Akw-ªn-bn¬

    Cßs\ {]kvXm-hn-°p-I-bp-≠mbn : P\m-[n-]Xyw \ne-\n¬°-

    W-sa-¶n¬ kmaq-ly-ambpw kmº-Øn-I-hpam-bp-ap≈ e£y-߃

    t\Sm≥ \mw BZy-ambn `c-W-L-S-\bv°v A\p-kr-X-amb

    coXn-Iƒ Ah-ew-_n-°p-IbmWv th≠Xv. \n -l-I-cW

  • 123412341234123453

    {]ÿm-\-ßfpw, kXym-{K-l-ßfpw, B`y-¥c ka-c-ap-d-Ifpw

    XyPn-°Ww. kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmº-Øn-Ihambn apt∂-dm≥ ̀ cW-

    L-S-\m-]-c-amb am¿§-߃ C√m-Ø-Xn-\m-emWv \ap°v CØcw

    ka-c-ap-d-Iƒ th≠n-h-∂Xv. C∂v \ap°v `c-W-L-S-\m-]-c-amb

    am¿§-߃ ap∂n-ep≠v.

    CØcw Imcy-߃ XyPn-®n-s√-¶n¬ hfsc s]s´∂v Acm-

    P-I-Xz-Øn-te°v \mw hgpXn hotW°mw.

    cmjv{Sw bXv\-Øn-s‚bpw e£y-{]m-]vXn-bp-sSbpw D∂-X-

    Xeß-fn-te°v \nc-¥cw Db-c-Ø-°-hÆw hy‡n-]-chpw Iq´m-b-

    Xp-amb {]h¿Ø-\-Øns‚ F√m afi-e-ß-fnepw D¬-Ir-jvS-

    Xbv°v th≠n A≤zm-\n-°Ww.

  • 123412341234123454

    m̀c-X-Øns‚ ̀ cWLS\ t£a-cmjv{S k¶ev]-Øn-e-[n-jvTn-X-am-Wv.

    cmPysØ ]uc-∑msc _mlyhpw B`y-¥-c-hp-amb IS∂p-

    Ib‰-ßfn¬ \n∂v c£n®v Ah¿°v sskzcy-Po-hnXw Dd-∏m-

    °pI am{X-a√, t£a- cmjv{S k¶ev]-Øn-ep≈ `c-W-LS\-

    bpsS e£yw. Hmtcm ]uc\pw Ahs‚ hy‡nPohnX hnImk-

    Øn-eqsS kam-[m-\-]-chpw sFiz-cy-]q¿Æ-hp-amb PohnXw

    Dd-∏m-°p-∂-XmWv t£a-cmjv{S k¶ev]-w F∂-Xp-sIm≠v Dt±-

    in-°p-∂Xv. AXp-sIm≠vXs∂, ]uc-∑m-cpsS t£a-Øn\pw

    sFiz-cy -Øn\pw `mcX `c-W-L-S\ Gsd {]m[m\yw

    I¬∏n-°p-∂p.

    kwbp‡ `c-W-{I-a-Øn¬ c≠p-Xcw k¿°m-cp-Iƒ D≠m-

    bn-cn°pw. tI{μ-k¿°mcpw kwÿm\ k¿°mcpIfpw. Ch-bpsS

    {]h¿Ø-\-߃ ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn¬ hcp-∂-Xm-Wv. cmjv{S-

    Øns‚ ]c-am-[n-Imcw kwc-£n-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ hyh-ÿ-Iƒ

    `c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ Dƒs°m-≈n-®n-cn-°p-∂p. Ch Bcv, F{]-Imcw

    \S-∏n-em°-W-sa∂v `c-W-L-S-\-bn¬ {]tXyIw hyhÿ

    sNb-Xn-́ p-≠v. Pohn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw, kzmX-{¥y-Øn-\p≈

    Ah-Imiw, ka-Xz-Øn-\p≈ Ah-Imiw, A`n-am-\-Øn-\p≈

    Ah-Imiw F∂nh ASn -ÿm\ a\p-jym-h-Im-i-am -Wv.

    ASn-ÿm\ a\p-jym-h-Im-i-߃ Hcp `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS `mK-am-

    Ip-tºmƒ Ah auenI Ah-Im-i-߃ F∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.

    \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-bpsS ]oTn-Ibpw AXns‚ aq∂mw `mKhpw

    a\p-jym-h-Im-i-߃°mbn ̀ c-W-L-S\ \ne-sIm-≈p-∂p-sh∂v {]Jym-

    ]n-°p-∂p-≠v. cmPysØ Hmtcm ]uc\pw a\p-jym-h-Im-i-߃

    t£a-cmjv{S k¶ev]w

  • 123412341234123455

    Dd-∏m-°p-∂-Xn\v `c-W-L-S-\m-\p-kr-X-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p∂

    k¿°m-cn-\v _m≤y-X-bp-≠v.

    cmjv{S-Ønse ]uc-∑m¿, k¿°m-cns‚ hnhn[ ÿm]-\-

    ߃, \nb-a-\n¿ΩmW k`, `cW \n¿Δ-lW hn`mKw, \oXn-

    \ym-bkwhn-[m\w Ch-sb√mw ̀ c-W-L-S-\-bpsS hyh-ÿIƒ°v

    A\p-kr-X-am-bmWv {]h¿Øn-°p-∂Xv. \oXn-\ymb tImS-Xn-Iƒ

    `cWLS\sb hymJym-\n-°pI am{X-a√ sNøp-∂Xv ̀ c-W-LS\-

    bpsS c£n-Xmhns‚ ÿm\w IqSn-bm-Wv tImS-Xn-°p-≈-Xv.

    k¿°m-cns‚ hnhn[ hIp-∏p-Iƒ `c-W-L-S-\sb [n°-cn-°p-

    ∂n-s√∂v Dd-∏p-h-cp-Øp∂Xv \oXn\ymb tImS-Xn-I-fm-Wv.

    `c-W-L-S\ \ΩpsS cmPy-Øns‚ G‰hpw Aaq-ey-amb ss]XrI-

    kz-ØmWv. AXns‚ X\n-asb \in-∏n-°p-hm≥ km[n-°n-√.

    cmjv{S-Øns‚ ]c-am-[n-Imc {]h¿Ø-\-ßsf t\cmb Zni-bn¬

    \bn-°p-hm≥ `c-W-L-S\ klm-bn-°p-∂p. AXv \nb-a-

    km-[y-X-bp≈ ASn-ÿm\ {]am-W-am-Wv. k¿°m-cns‚ hnhn[

    {]h¿Ø-\-ß-sf \nb-{¥n-°p-Ibpw hnhn[ LS-I-ßsf

    {]h¿Øn-∏n°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xn-t\m-sSm∏w Ah Fßns\

    \S-∏m-°-W-sa∂pw `c-W-L-S\ Dds° {]Jym-]n-°p-∂p.

  • 123412341234123456

    `c-W-L-S\bpw PohnX Z¿i-\hpw

    `mc-X-Ønse P\-ß-fpsS PohnXZ¿i\w {]Xn-^-en-°p∂

    ASn-ÿm\ tcJ-bmWv `c-W-L-S-\. cmjv{SØnse apgp-h≥

    P\-Po-hn-X-Øn-s‚bpw ck-X-{¥-amWv ̀ c-W-L-S\. ̀ mc-X-sa∂

    dn∏-ªn-°ns‚ P\\w apX¬ AXv kzmwio-I-cn-°m-\p-t±-in-°p∂

    kz]v\-ß-fpsS PohnX a{¥amWv AXns‚ ]oTnI As√-¶n¬ BapJw.

    `c-W-L-S\m in¬∏n-I-fpsS {]Xo-£-Iƒ {]Xn-_nw-_n-°p∂ DØ-a-

    tc-J-bmbn AXv hnf-ßp-∂p. AXns‚ BZ¿i a[p-cn-abpw

    Zm¿i\nIam\hpw ̀ mc-Xo-b¿°v apgp-h≥ {]Xo-£-tb-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv.

    kaq-l-Øn¬ Zn\w-{]Xn A[:]Xn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ a\pjy

    kz`m-h-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ Adn-hp-Iƒ `bw Df-hm-°p-∂p. Cu

    A[:]X\w {ItaW Xo{h-am-Ip-∂p≠v. CXv AXn-thKw \n¿Ø-

    em°n Hcp ]cn-lmc am¿§w I≠p-]n-Sn®v \S-∏n-em-°n-bn-s√-

    ¶n¬ Cu ÿnXn sa®-s∏-Sp-I-bn√.

    kaqlw I¿Ωm-[n-jvTn-X-am-bm¬, C¥y-bnse Hmtcm-cp-

    Øcpw Ah-c-h-cpsS I¿Ø-hy-߃ \n¿Δ-ln-°p∂Xnte°v

    {i≤ sNep-Øn-bm¬ B \n¿Δ-l-W-Øn-eqsS Xs∂ F√m

    ]uc-∑m-cp-sSbpw auenI Ah-Im-i-߃ kwc-£n-°-s∏Spw.

    ]T-\-Øn-eq-sSbpw hnZym-`ym-k-Øn-eq-sSbpw am{Xta Hcp

    ]ucs‚ a\- nepw, PohnX {]{In-b-I-fn-epw, auenI I¿Øhy-

    ß-sf-°p-dn®v t_m[-h¬°-cWw \S-Øm≥ km[n-°p-I-bp-≈q.

    AXn-\m¬ cmjv{S \n¿Ωm-W-Øns‚ `mK-ambn `c-W-L-S-\-

    bnse auenI I¿Ø-hy-ß-sf-°p-dn-®v F√m hnZym-`ymk

  • 123412341234123457

    ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw ]Tn-∏n-t°-≠Xpw ]cn-io-en-t°-≠Xpw Bh-iy-am-Wv.

    ]u-c-∑m¿,- ̀ -c-W-{I-a-Øn¬- k-Po-h- ]-¶-fn-Ø-Øn-\v- hn-k-Ω-Xn-

    °p-I-tbm- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Øw- G-s‰-Sp-Øv au-en-I- I¿-Ø-hy-߃- \n¿-

    h-ln-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-tbm- A-Y-hm- ap-t∂m-́ p- h-∂p- cm-Py-Øn-\m-bn -

    G-‰-hpw- \-∂m-bn- {]-h¿-Øn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-tbm- sN-øp-∂n-S-Øv-

    H-cp- P-\m-[n-]-Xy- hy-h-kv-Y-bv-°pw- hn-P-bn-°m-\m-hn-√.-

    \ΩpsS `c-W-L-S-\-bnse 6˛m-asØ au-en-I- I¿-Ø-hy-w

    e£y-an-Sp-∂-Xv- \-Ωp-sS- k-Ωn-{i- kw-kv-Im-c-sØ-bpw- k-º-∂-amb-

    ]m-cºcy-sØ-bpw- hn-e-a-Xn-°p-I-bpw- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-I-

    F-∂-Xm-Wv.-

    k-Ωn-{i- kw-kv-Im-cw- D-≈- \-Ωp-sS- k-º-∂-am-b- ss]-Xr-Iw- kw-c-

    £n-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn-s\- \n-tj-[m-fl-I-hpw- A-]-Io¿-Øn-]-c-hpw-

    hn -\m-i-I-c -hp -am -b- kzm-[o -\-ß-fp -sS- B-]-Øn¬- \n -∂p

    X-S-bp-I-bpw- sN-øp-I- F-∂-Xv- au-en-I-I¿-Ø-hy-ß-fn-se- H-cp- {][m\-

    h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.- hn-hn-[-hpw- k-Ωn-{i-hp-am-b- kw-kv-Imcw- \-ap-°p-

    s≠-¶n-epw- ]m-iv-Nm-Xy- kw-kv-Im-c-sØ- h-√m-sX- A-\p-I-cn-°p-I-

    bm-Wv- \mw- ]-e-t∏m-gpw- sN-øp-∂-Xv.-

    H-cp-]-s£,- {_n-́ o-jp-Im¿- C-¥y-°m-cm-Im≥- {i-an-®n-cp-∂p-sh-

    ¶n¬- A-h¿- C-hn-sS-Ø-s∂- D-≠mIp-am-bn-cp-∂p.-

    h-f¿-∂p- h-cp-∂- bp-h- X-e-ap-d- ]m-iv-Nm-Xy-kw-kv-Im-cw-

    A-\p-I-cn-®v- a-Zy-Øn-\pw- a-b-°p-a-cp-∂n-\pw- A-Sn-a-I-fm-Im-hp-∂-

    {]-h-W-X- H-´pw- B-im-ky-a-√.-

    s]m-Xp-Po-hn-X-Øn-se- k-Xy-k-\v-[-X- C-√m-bv-a-bpw- aq-ey-

    £b-hp-am-Wv- cm-Py-Øn-s‚- ]p-tcm-K-Xn-°v- X-S-k-am-Ip-∂-X-v-

    F∂Xv s]m-Xp-sh- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®- k-Xy-a-m-Wv.-

    X-Xz-an-√m-Ø- cm-jv-{So-b-hpw- [¿-Ω-an-√m-Ø- hm-Wn-Py-hpw- A[zm\-

    an-√m-Ø- k-º-Øpw- kz-`m-h-Kp-W-an-√m-Ø- hn-Zym-`ym-k-hpw-

  • 123412341234123458

    a-\p-jy-Xz-an-√m-Ø- im-kv-{X-hpw- a-\- m-£n-bn-√m-Ø- D-√m-k-hpw-

    Xym-K-an-√m-Ø- B-cm-[-\-bpw- Xn-I-™- A-]-cm-[-am-W-v.-

    7˛m-a-sØ- au-en-I- I¿-Ø-hyw- A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂-Xv- h-\-ß-fpw-

    X-Sm-I-ß-fpw- \-Zn-I-fpw- h-\y-Po-hn-I-fpw- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂- {]-Ir-Xym-

    D-≈- ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn- kw-c-£n-°p-I-bpw- A-`n-hr-≤n-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw-

    Po-hn-I-tfm-Sv- ImcpWyw- Im-Wn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øWw- F-∂m-Wv.-

    h¿-≤n-®p-h-cp-∂- a-en-\o-I-c-W-Øn-s‚-bpw- ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn-bp-sS-

    A-[x-]-X-\-Øn-s‚-bpw- \-Sp-hn¬- Hm-tcm- ]u-c-s‚-bpw- I¿-Ø-hy-

    am-Wv- C-°m-cy-߃-.-

    D-b¿-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- hm-bp,- P-e,- i-_v-Z-a-en-\o-I-c-W-hpw-

    h≥- co-Xn-bn¬- \-S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- h-\-\-io-I-c-W-hpw- `q-an-

    bn-se- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn-\v-- henb `o-j-Wn-bm-Wv.-

    ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-sS- t]-cn¬- \-S-°p-∂- bp-Iv -Xn-lo-\-hpw-

    A-\n-b-{¥n-X-hp-am-b- h-\-\-io-I-c-W-hpw- {]-Ir-Xn-Zp-c-¥-߃-°v-

    ImcW-am-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.- h-\-ta-J-e- kw-c-£n-°p-Ibpw-

    hr£-ssØ-Iƒ- \-Sp-I-bpw- \-Zn-I-fpw- P-e-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fpw-

    ip-≤o-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- sh-dp-sX- In-S-°p-∂- `q-an-bn¬- ssX-Iƒ-

    \-Sp-Ibpw- {Kma-ß-fn-epw- \-K-c-ß-fn-epw- hy-h-km-b- {]-tZ-i-ß-

    fn-epw- D-≈- a-en\o-I-c-Ww- X-S-bp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xm¬- A-Sp-Ø-

    X-e-ap-d-sb- c-£n-°p-I-bpw- A-Xp-h-gn- ̀ q-an-sb- X-s∂- c-£n-°p-Ibpw-

    sN-øm≥- km-[n-°pw.- Iq-´m-b- ]-cn-{i-a-ß-f-pw- B-kq-{X-W-ß-fpw-

    A-h-t_m-[- skan-\m-dp-I-fpw- H-s°- C-Xn-\m-h-iy-am-Wv.- a-\p-jy-

    cp-sS-bpw- arK-ß-fp-sS-bpw- s]m-Xp-hm-b- ss]-Xr-I-am-Wv- `q-an.-

    h-\y-ar-K-ß-sf- A-h-bp-sS- {]-Ir-Xn- \¬-In-bn-́ p-≈- Xm-h-f-ß-fn¬-

    \n-∂v- am-‰m-\pw-- a-‰pw- \-ap-°v- A-[n-Im-c-an-√.- ]u-cm-Wn-I- ̀ mcXob-

    Nn-¥-I-fn-se- ""k¿-th-iw- im-¥n¿-`-h-Xp..- A-lnw-k-m- ]-c-tam-

    [¿-Ω''-- F-∂n-h-sbm-s°- C-Xn-\-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-Wv.- 1986 se-

    ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn- kw-c-£-W- \n-b-a-hpw- Cu- Nn-¥-Iƒ-°v- A-Sn-h-c-bn-Sp-∂p.-

    C-sXm-s°- Im-Wn-®p- X-cp-∂-Xv- ]-cn-k-v-Yn-Xn- kw-c-£n-°-s∏-S-Ww-

    F-∂-m-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123459

    `c-W-L-S-\-bnse 8˛m-asØ auenI I¿Øhyw A\p-im-kn-

    °p-∂Xv F-s¥-∂m¬- im-kv-{Xo-b-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Spw- am-\-hn-I-X-

    bpw- A-t\z-j-W-Øn-\pw- ]-cn-jv-I-c-W-Øn-\pw D-≈- a-t\m-̀ m-h-hpw-

    hn-I-kn-∏n-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.- X-\n-°p- Np-‰p-ap-≈- tem-I-Øn-se-

    ]p-tcm-K-Xn-I-sf-°p-dn-®v- A-t\z-j-W-Xz-c-tbm-sS- ]-Tn-°p-I-bpw-

    A-t\z-j-Wm-fl-I-am-b- a-t\m-̀ m-h-hpw- im-kv-{Xo-am-b- Kth-j-W-hpw-

    Im-gv-N-∏m-Spw- h-f¿-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-I- F-∂-Xv- Hm-tcm- ]u-c-t‚-bpw-

    au-en-I-I¿-Ø-hy-am-Wv.- H-tc-k-a-bw- hnPv-Rm-\-̨ hn-t\m-Z- hm-ZØn-

    s‚-bpw- A-\v-[-hn-izm-k-ß-fp-tS-X-pw- A-Xp-t]m-se- X-s∂- hn-π-h-m-

    fl-I-am-b- im-kv-{Xo-b- ap-t∂-‰-ß-fp-tS-Xp-am-b- Cu- \q-‰m-≠n¬-

    C-Xv- h-f-sc- A-Xym-h-iy-am-Wv.-

    hy-h-km-bn-I-am-bn- ]p-tcm-K-Xn- D-≠mIm≥- im-kv-{X-km-t¶-Xn-

    I-hn-Zy-I-fp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- L-S-I-߃- cm-Py-Øv- ]p-e-tc-≠-Xv-

    B-h-iy-am-Wv.- am-\p-jn-I- aq-ey-߃- \n-e-\n¿-Øn-s°m-≠p-≈- H-cp-

    im-kv-{X-km-t¶-Xn-I- ap-t∂-‰-am-Wv- C-hn-sS- B-h-iyw.- A-\v-[-hn-izm-

    k-Øn-\pw- A-\m-Nm-c-Øn-\pw- hn-]-co-X-am-bn- bp-Iv-Xn-bpw- hn-thI-

    hp-ap-≈- im-kv-{Xo-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sm-Wv- th-≠-Xv.-Nn-¥-bn-epw- hm-°n-

    epw- {]-hr-Øn-bn-epw- a-\p-jy-Xz-Øn-\p-th-≠n- t]m-cm-´w- \-S-Øm-

    sX- B¿-°pw- ]p-Wyw-- In-´p-sa-∂v- B-in-°m-\m-hn-√.- a-s‰m-cm-sf-

    Nn-¥-tbm- hm-t°m- {]hr-Øn-tbm- sIm-≠v- D-]-{Z-hn-°-p-∂-Xv- -{IqcX-

    bm-Wv-.- A-h-\-h-s‚- I¿-Ω-Øn-epw- Po-hn-X-Øn-epw- a-s‰m-cm-sf- D-]-{Z-

    hn-°m-sX- D-b-cm≥- {i-an-°p-∂-Xm-W-v a-\p-jy-Xzw. a-‰p-≈-h-tc-bpw-

    D-b¿-Øn-s°m-≠m-h-Ww- \mw- D-b-tc-≠-Xv.---

    A-t\z-j-W-Xz-c -bpw- am-dm-\p -≈- a-\- pw- Hm-tcm- \-√-

    {]-hr-Øn-bp-sS-bpw- ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-sS-bp-w- ap-t∂m-Sn-bm-Wv.-

    P-\-ß-fp-sS- km-º-Øn-I-h-pw- km-aq-ln-I-hp-am-b- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Ø-

    sØ-∏-‰n- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®p-sIm-≠v- Km-\v-[n-Pn- ]-d-™p-:- ""k-Xy-Øns‚-

    b-Ym¿-∞- D-d-hn-Sw- I¿-Ø-hy-am-Wv.- \mw- \-Ωp-sS- I¿-Ω-߃-

    \n¿-h-ln-®m¬- \-ap-°v- \-Ωp-sS- A-h-Im-i-߃- G-sd-t\-cw-

    tX-tS-≠n- h-cn-√.- \mw- \-Ωp-sS- I¿-Ω-߃- sN-øm-sX- A-h-Imi-

    ß-fp-sS- ]n-d-sI- Hm-Sn-bm¬- A-h- t\-Sm-\m-hm-Ø- e-£y-sØ-t∏m-se-

  • 123412341234123460

    \-Ωn¬- \n-∂p-- h-gp-Xn-t∏m-Ipw.- F-{X-tØm-fw- \mw- A-Xn-s\- ]n¥p-

    S-cp-∂p-thm- A-{X-tØm-fw- A-h- \-Ωn¬- \n-∂v- A-I-∂p-t]mIpw.

    \-∂m-bn- sN-øp-∂- I-S-a-I-fn¬- \n-∂m-Wv- A¿-l-am-b-Xpw- kwc-£n-

    °-s∏-tS-≠-Xp-am-b- F-√m- A-h-Im-i-ß-fpw- D-≠m-Ip-∂-sX-∂m-Wv-

    \n-c-£-c-sb-¶n-epw- _p-≤n-a-Xn-bm-b- F-s‚- A-Ω-bn¬- \n∂v- Rm≥-

    ]-Tn-®-Xv.- ]u-c-Xz-Øn-s‚- I-S-a-Iƒ- tem-I-tØm-Sv- \n¿-h-ln-°p-tºm-

    gm-Wv- Po-hn-°m-\p-≈- A-h-Im-iw- \-ap-°v- e-̀ n-°p-∂-Xv''.- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-]-c-

    am-b- Cu- {]-kv-Xm-h-\-bn¬- \n-∂v- H-cp- kv{Xo-bp-sS-bpw- ]p-cp-j-

    s‚-bpw- I¿-Ø-hy-߃- \n¿-h-ln-°p-I- F-∂-Xv- H-cp-]-s£,- F-fp-∏-

    am-bn-cn-°mw.- B-Zy-am-bn- sN-tø-≠-Xv- ̀ cW-L-S-\m-]-c-am-b- F-√m-

    A-h-Im-i-ß-sf-bpw- A-h-sb- tbm-Pn-∏n-°p-∂- I¿-Ø-hy-ß-sf-bpw-

    X-Ωn¬- _-\v-[n-∏n-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123461

    `c-W-L-S\bpsS Df-f-S°w

    en-Jn-X-hpw- Zo¿-L-hp-am-bn-´p-≈- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bm-Wv- C-¥y≥-`-c-W-L-S-\.- A-Xn¬- C-cp-]-Øn-c-≠p- `m-K-ß-fn-em-bn- 395

    A-\p-t—Z-ß-fpw- F-´v- ]-´n-I-I-fpw- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂p.- am-dp-∂- Im-e-

    Øn-s‚-bpw- km-aq-ln-I- km-l-N-cy-Øn-s‚-bpw- B-h-iyw- e-£y-am-°n- \n¿-Æm-b-I- t`-Z-K-Xn-Iƒ- h-cp-Øp-hm-\p-≈- kzm-X-{¥yw-A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-Wv.- C-¥y≥- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-¥- -Ø-bm-Wv-AXn-s‚- B-ap-Jw.- {Im-¥-Z¿-in-I-fm-b- `-c-W-L-S-\m-inev]n-Iƒ-""\mw''- F-∂- hm-t°m-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv- Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv.- \mw- F-∂-Xn\v-hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-am-bn- `m-c-X-Øn-se- P-\-ß-sf-bm-Wv- hn-h-£n-°p-∂-Xv.- ""`m-c-X-Øn-se- P-\-ß-fm-b- \mw''- B-Wv- Cu- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-in-e.-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- H-∂mw- ̀ m-K-Øn¬- bq-Wn-b-s‚- t]-cpw- ̀ q{]tZ-i-hpw- hy-Iv-X-amIp-∂p.- C-¥y- A-Xm-b-Xv- ̀ m-c-Xw- kw-kv-Ym-\-ß-fp-sS- H-cp- Iq-Sn-tN-N-c-em-Wv.- kw-kv-Ym-\-sØ-bpw- A-Xn-s‚- ̀ q-{]-tZ-i-ß-tf-bpw- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- H-∂mw- ]-́ n-I-bn¬- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂p.-B-I-bm¬- C-¥y-m-a-lm-cm-Py-Øn-s‚- `q-{]-tZ-iw- H-∂mw- ]-´n-I-bn¬- ]-d-™n-´p-≈- kw-kv-Ym-\- `q-{]-tZ-i-߃- tN¿-∂-p-≈-Xm-Wv.- \m-\m-Xz-Øn¬- G-I-Xzw- F-∂- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- X-Xzw- {]-I-S-am-°p-∂- H-cp- cm-Py-am-bn-´m-Wv- `-c-W-L-S-\- `m-c-X-sØ- hn`m-h-\-sN-bv-Xn-́ p-≈-Xv.- Iq-Sm-sX- B¿-Pv-Pn-°p-∂- ̀ q-hn-̀ m-K-ß-fpw- C-¥ym-a-lm-cm-Pyw- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂p.-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 258 A-\p-t—-Z-{]-Im-cw- ]u-c-Xz- hn-j-b-Øn¬-X-o-cp-am-\w- F-Sp-°p-hm≥- A-[n-Im-c-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n-√m-Ø- ]-£w-kw-kv-Ym-\- k¿-°m-cp-Iƒ-°v- ]u-c-Xz-Øn¬- Xo-cp-am-\-sa-Sp-°p-

    hm-\p-≈- A-[n-Im-cw- C-√.-

  • 123412341234123462

    `m-c-X-Øn-se- H-cp - ]u-c\m-bn-cn -°p-I-tbm- ]u-c-\m-bn-I-cp-X-s∏Sp-I-tbm- sN-øp-∂- G-sXm-cm-fpw- C-¥y≥- ]m¿-e-sa‚ v-\n¿-Ωn-°p-∂- \n-b-a-hy-h-kv-YIƒ-°v- hn-t[-b-\m-bn- ̀ m-c-X- ]u-c-\mbn-

    Xp-S-cpw- F-∂v- A-\pt—Zw- 10 ¬- {]Xn]mZn°p-∂p.- ]u-c-Xz-Øn-

    \p≈- A-h-Im-i-sØ- ]m¿-e-sa‚n-\v- \n-b-aw- h-gn- {Ia-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- c-≠mw- ̀ m-K-Øn-se- hyh-kv-Y-Iƒ-H-∂pw- X-s∂- ]u-c-Xz-Øn-s‚- B¿-Pv-P-X-,- \n-tj[w,- ]u-c-Xz-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-́ - hn-j-b-߃- C-h-bn¬- hy-h-kv-Y- D≠m-°m-\p-≈-]m¿-e-sa‚n-s‚- A-[n-Im-c-Øn-\v- bm-sXm-cp- \yq-\-X-bpw- kw-̀ -hn-

    °p-∂n-√- F-∂v- A-\p-t—-Zw- 11 ¬- hy-Iv-X-am-°p∂p.-

    C-¥y-bn-se- kv-Yn-c-hm-kw ]u-c-Xz-Øn-s‚- H-cp- am-\-Z-Wv-U-ambn--̀c-W-L-S-\- A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂p.- kw-kv-Ym-\-߃-°v- {]tXy-I-am-

    bn-́ p-≈- ]u-c-Xzw- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\- \n-tj-[n-°p-∂p.- ̀ -c-W-LS\m-- cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn-\v- ap-ºv- a-s‰m-cp- cm-Py-sØ- ]u-c-Xzw- kzo-I-cn-®- B-fn-\v-`-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-\p-tO-Zw- 5,- 6,- 8 {]-Im-cw- `m-c-X- ]u-c-Xz-Øn\v- A¿-l-X-bn-√.-

    G-sX-¶n-epw- hn-tZ-i- cm-Py-sØ- ]u-c-Xzw- kz-ta-[-bm- B¿PvPn-

    ®n-́ p-≈- H-cmƒ-°v- ̀ m-c-X- ]u-c-Xzw- ̀ -c-W- L-S-\-bp-sS- A-\p-t—-Zw-

    5 s‚- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- e-̀ y-am-hp-I-tbm- A-\p-t—Zw- 6,- 8 C-h-bp-

    sS- _-e-Øn¬- ̀ m-c-X- ]u-c-\m-bn- I-W-°-m-°-s∏-Sp-I-tbm- C√

    F-∂v- A-\pt—-Zw- 9 ¬- hy-Iv-X-am-°p-∂p.-

    C-¥y≥- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- aq-∂mw-`m-Kw- H-cp- ̀ m-c-X-]u-c-s‚-au-en-I- A-h-Im-i-ß-sf-∏-‰n- {]-Xn]m-Zn-°p-∂p.

    C¥y≥ ]ucXzw

  • 123412341234123463

    cmjv{Shpw P\m-[n-]-Xyhpw

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-\pt—-Zw- 12˛¬- cm-jv-{Sw- F-∂-Xn-s\-

    \n¿-h-Nn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.-

    cm-jv-{Sw- F-∂-Xv `m-c-X-Øn-s‚- k¿-°m-cpw,- ]m¿-e-sa‚pw-

    kw-kv-Ym-\-ß-fpw- \nb-a-\n¿-Ωm-W- a-Wv-U-e-hpw- `m-c-X-Ø-n-s‚-

    `q -{]-tZ-i-Øn-ep-≈-tXm- \n-b-{¥-W-Øn-ep-≈-tXm- B-b-

    Xt±iytam,- a-‰p- X-c-Øn-ep-≈-tXm- B-b- F-√m- A-[n-Im-c-kv-Ym-

    \-ß-fpw- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂-XmWv.-

    k¿-°m-cn-s‚- \n-b-{¥-W-Øn-ep-≈- s]m-Xp-ta-J-em- _m-¶p-

    Iƒ,- k¿-°m¿- \n-b-{¥-W-Øn-ep-≈-tXm- k¿-°m¿- [-\-k-lmbw-

    \¬-Ip-∂-tXm,- k¿-°m-cp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-́ p- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂tXm-

    Bb-- kv-Ym-]-\-߃- C-h- A-\p-t—Zw- 12 s‚- sh-fn-®-Øn¬-

    cmjv{Sw- F-∂p-≈- \n¿-h-N-\-Øn¬- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-∂p.- kz-Im-cy- kvYm-

    ]-\-߃ kz-Im-cy- kv-Iq-fp-Iƒ,- F-∂n-h- cmjv-{S-Øn-s‚- \n¿hN\-

    ]-cn-[n-bn¬- s]-Sp-∂n-√.- au-en-Im-h-Im-i-߃-°v- \yq-\-X- h-cpØp-

    ∂Xm-b \n-b-a-ß-sf-∏-‰n- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 13˛mw- A-\p-t—ZØn¬-

    {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p∂p.-

    P -\ -ßfp -sS - ap -ºn¬- {] -I -Sn -∏n -°p -∂- Im -] -Sy -ap -≈-

    P-\m-[n-]XysØ- Ip-dn-®-√- \-Ωp-sS- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- hn-h-£n-

    °p-∂-Xv.-

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- P-\m-[n-]-Xy-am-bn- ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂-Xv,- P-\-

    ß-fp-sS- A-[n-Im-cw- F-∂Xn-s\-bm-Wv.-

  • 123412341234123464

    P-\-߃-°m-bn,- b-Ym¿-∞-hpw,- Du¿-Pv-Pn-X-hpw,- ̂ -e-{]-Y-hp-am-bn-

    hn-\n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂- A-[n-Im-c-Øn-\m-bm-Wv- A-Xv- \n-ev-°p-∂-Xv.-

    k¿-°m-cn-s‚- ̀ -c-W-Øn¬- P-\-ß-fp-sS- cmjv-{So-b-]-¶m-fn-Ø-sØ-

    Ip-dn-®v- ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂p.- -̀c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn¬- Hm-tcm- ]u-c-\pw-

    Xp-ey- ]-¶m-fn-Ø-Øn-s‚- A-h-Im-iw- D-d-∏p- \¬-Ip-∂- km-lNcyw-

    F-∂- B-i-b-am-Wv- A-Xv-. P-\m-[n-]-Xy-sa-∂m¬,- D≈n¬- {]-`p-

    hm-gv-N- F-∂- bm-Ym¿-∞yw- tKm-]y-am-°n-s°m-≠-p-≈- t\¿-Ø-

    Hcp- a-d-tbm- A-[-c-tk-h-tbm- B-sW-∂p- a-\- n-em-°-W-sa-∂p-

    {]Xo-£n-°m-\m-hn-√.- C-¥y≥- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- P\m-[n-]-Xy-

    Øns‚- D-ev-Ir-jv-S-X- A-h-tem-I-\w- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- F-ßs\-

    sb-∂v- `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS-- B-ap-Jw- hn-i-Z-am-°p-∂p.-

    aq-ey-߃- k-a-Im-eo-\- tkm-jy-en-k-sØ- ]-hn-{X-am-bpw-

    efn-X-am-bpw- \n¿-Æ-bn-°p-∂p.-

    H-cp- {]-[m-\- tkm-jy-en-kv-‰v- kv-t‰-‰n-s‚- e-£yw- h-cp-am-\-

    Ønepw- ]-Z-hn-bn-epw- Po-hn-X-\n-e-hm-c-Øn-epw- D-≈- A-k-a-Xz-

    ߃- \n¿-Ωm¿-Pv-P-\w- sN-øp-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.-

    tkm-jy-en-k-Øn-s‚- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- N-´-°q-Sv- A-[zm-\n-°p-∂-

    P-\-hn-`m-K-Øn-\v- D-Nn-X-am-b- Po-hn-X- \n-e-hm-c-hpw- A-Xp-t]m-se-

    P-\-\w- ap-X¬- a-c-Ww-h-sc- kw-c-£-Whp-w- \-ev-Ip-I-- F-∂-XmWv.-

    -̀c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- B-ap-JØn¬- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂- tkm-jy-en-kw-

    Km-\v-[n-b≥- tkm-jy-en-k-Øn¬- A-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-b- am¿-Iv-kn-k-

    Øn-s‚-bpw- Km-\v-[n-k-Øn-s‚-bpw- an-{i-W-am-Wv.-

    {]-Xn-tcm-[-Øn-\p-≈- I-h-N-am-tbm- A-]-cm-[w- sN-øp-∂-Xn-\p≈-

    B-bp-[-am-tbm- `c-W-L-S-\-sb- A-`-bw- {]m-]n-°m≥- Bsc-bpw-

    A-\p-h-Zn-°n-√.- G-sX-¶n-epw- P-\-hn-`m-K-Øn-\v- B-h¿-Øn-°p-∂-

    A-\o-Xn-tbm- ]-cn-l-cn-°m-\m-hm-Ø- A-k-a-Xz-tam- {]-Zm-\w-

    sN-øp-∂- H-cp- ̀ -c-W-L-S-\m-hym-Jym-\-hpw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-\m-hn-√.-

  • 123412341234123465

    A-Xp-t]m-se-X-s∂- `-c-W-L-S-\m- B-\p-Iq-ey-߃-°p-ta¬-

    tNm-Zyw- sN-øm-\m-hm-Ø-Xpw- km-{am-Py-Xz- Ip-Ø-I-I-fp-sS- Akm-

    ∑m¿-Kn-I- A-h-Im-i-߃- kw-c-£n-°p-∂-Xp-am-b- `-c-W-L-S-\m-

    hym-Jym-\-hpw- A-\p-h-Zn-°m-\m-hn-√.-

    `cWLS\m am\-Z-fi-ß-fn-eqsS kmaqly\oXn \S-∏n-em°p-hm≥

    kaq-lsØ _m[n-°p∂ {]iv\-߃ a\- n-em-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.

  • 123412341234123466

    Abn-tØm-®m-S-\hpw BZn-hmkn t£ahpw

    `-c-W-L-S-\-bp-sS- 17˛mw- A-\p-t—Z-{]-Im-cw- sXm´p-Iq-Sm-bv-a-

    \n¿-Ø-em-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn-s‚- G-Xv- cq-]-Øn-epw- D-≈- B-N-cWw-

    D-f-hm-Ip-∂- G-sX-¶n-epw- A-h-i-X- \n¿-_-\v-[n-t®¬-∏n-°p-∂-Xv-

    in-£m--¿lamb H-cp- Ip-‰-am-Wv.-

    \q-‰m-≠p-I-fp-sS- h-\m-¥-c-ß-fn-se- Po-hn-X-hpw- s]m-Xp-Po-hnX-

    Øn¬- \n-∂p-≈- A-I¬-®-bpw- aq-ew- Po-hn-X-Øn-s‚- k-a-kv-X-

    ta-J-e-I-fn-epw- ]n≥-X-≈-s∏-´p- t]