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### Transcript of Ic Lab Manaul

MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO: 1 1.1. NON LINEAR WAVE SHAPING CLIPPER CIRCUITSAIM: To study the diode clipper circuit using ordinary and Zener Diodes. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Bread Board trainer - 1 nos 2. CRO - 1 nos 3. Function Generator. - 1 nos COMPONENTS 1. Capacitor- 0.1f -1 nos 2. IN 4007 diode-1No. -1 nos CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY: Clipping circuits are commonly realized with diodes and resistor and do not contain any energy storing components. The function performed by the clipping circuits essentially either limiting or slicing. These circuits also employ devices such as diodes, Zener diodes, and transistors along with resistors. Amplitude selectors and Amplitude limiters are the other names of the clipping circuits

B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE PROCEDURE:

IC LAB MANUAL

1. Connect the circuits as per the circuit diagram 2. Connect the CRO Ch-I to input and Ch-2II to output of the circuit. 3. Adjust the input sine wave amplitude to 5V P-P. 4. Connect the D.C.battery wherever necessary. 5. Observe the wave form in the CRO channel II and not the waveform.

EXPECTED WAVEFORM:

RESULT:Diode clipper circuit using ordinary and Zener Diode are studied and observed the waveforms.

B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

1.2. NON LINEAR WAVE SHAPING CLAMPERAIM: To study the Clamper circuits.APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Bread Board trainer - 1 nos 2. CRO - 1 nos 3. Function Generator. - 1 nos COMPONENTS 1. Resistor- 1K -1 nos 2. IN 4007 diode-1No. -1 nos 3. BZX6V2 diode - 2 nos.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

NEGATIVE CLAMPER

POSITIVE CLAMPER

BIASED NEGATIVE CLAMPER

BIASED POSITIVE CLAMPER

BIASED POSITIVE CLAMPER B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

BIASED NEGATIVE CLAMPER 3

MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

THEORY:Clamping circuits do not make any effort to change the wave shape of any signal. Their main concern is to introduce a dc shift into a waveform by altering its dc component. In RC coupling and capacitive coupling, the blocking capacitor does not allow the dc component of the applied signal to pass through it. Since all the sinusoidal components pass through the blocking capacitor, the wave shape of the signal remains the same after transmission while its dc level is brought down to zero. Clamping circuits are essentially used to restore this lost dc component.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuits as per the circuit diagram 2. Connect the CRO Ch-I to input and Ch-2II to output of the circuit. 3. Adjust the input sine wave amplitude to 5V P-P. 4. For Zener diode clipper, increase the amplitude of the input Wave form to 15V P-P 5. Observe the wave form in the CRO, with and without connecting the D.C.battery (i.e. biasing) and note the wave form from Ch-II of CRO.

EXPECTED WAVEFORM:INPUT:

B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE OUTPUT WAVEFORMS:

IC LAB MANUAL

RESULT:

B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO: 2 OP-AMP 2.1. VOLTAGE FOLLOWERAIM: 1.To study the operation of AC voltage follower (AF = 1). 2. To study the operation of DC voltage follower. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Breadboard. 2. 1MHz function generator. 3. 20MHz Oscilloscope. 4. Digital Multimeter . 5. Connecting wires & Power supply. COMPONENTS: 1. IC 741 1No. 2. 0.01f Capacitor 1 No. 3. 100k Resistors -1 No. 4. 10k Resistor - 1No. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig (1)

THEORY: The lowest gain can be obtained from a non-inverting amplifier with feedback is 1. When the non-inverting amplifier is configured for unity gain, it is called as Voltage follower because the output voltage is equal to and in phase with the input

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

voltage. The voltage follower is also called a non-inverting buffer amplifier because, when placed between two networks, it removes the loading on the first network. PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit of voltage follower as shown in fig (1) on the breadboard. 2. Switch on the power supply and apply the voltage 15V to the circuit. 3. Apply the input signal of 1 KHz through the function generator. 4. Measure the output voltage of the voltage follower by connecting the C.R.O at Output terminals. 5. Calculate the gain of the voltage follower. 6. Repeat the above steps for different input voltages. WAVEFORMS:

RESULT:

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

2.2. INVERTING AND NON- INVERTING AMPLIFIERAIM: To find the voltage gain of Inverting and Non- Inverting amplifier Using IC 741 OP-AMP. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Bread board trainer. 2. 1MHz Function generator. 3. 20MHz C R O. 4. Digital multimeter. 5. Connecting wires. Components required: 1. 741IC - 1No 2. 1K resistor -1No 3. 10K resistor - 1No 4. 100K resistor- 1No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

Fig (1)

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

IC LAB MANUAL

Fig (2) THEORY: When the input signal to an op-amp is supplied to the inverting input with noninverting input at ground, the amplifier operates in the inverting mode that is the output differs in phase by 180 degrees with respect to the input. In an inverting amplifier the gain is given by the relation A = -R1 /RF . Where RF and R1 are the feedback and input resistor respectively. When operated in the non-inverting mode, the input signal is applied to the non-inverting input with the inverting terminal grounded through a resistor. The gain in this case is given by the relation A = 1+1 R/RF PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1) 2. Switch ON the power supply and apply 15V to the circuit. 3. Apply input signal from the function generator of 1 KHz to the reference input terminals. (Apply the sine wave in mill volts. Take care not to saturate the amplifier due to excessive input voltage. It is preferred to keep the input below1 V). 4. Connect the 20MHz C.R.O at the output terminals. 5. Observe and record the output voltage waveforms. 6. Calculate the Vo of the inverting Amplifier as Vo = - R1/ RF Vin and find its gain. 7. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (2). 8. Apply an input sine wave of 1V p-p at 1 KHz from the function generator. 9. Connect the CRO at output terminals. B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE 9

MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

10. Observe and record the output voltage waveforms 11. Calculate the Vo of the Non-inverting amplifier as Vo = 1 + R1/RF Vin and find its gain 12. Verify the results with theoretical values. 13. Repeat the above steps for input voltages. WAVEFORMS: INVERTING AMPLIFIER

NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER

RESULT:

B.E 3rd I SEM, ECE

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

EXPERIMENT NO: 3 OP- AMP ARITHMETIC CIRCUITS 3.1. ADDER AND SUBTRACTORAIM: To design the adder and subtractor using IC 741 Op-amp. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Breadboard trainer. 2. 1MHz function generator. 3. 20MHz Oscilloscope. 4. Digital Multimeter . 5. Connecting wires. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: 1. IC 741 1No. 2. 100k Resistors -1 No. 3. 10k Resistor - 3No. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Adder:

Subtractor:

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the Adder circuit as shown in figure (1) and switch ON the trainer. 2. Apply the input voltages from the regulated supplies to the corresponding inputs. 3. Connect the voltmeter at the Out put terminals, and note down the values and verify with theoretical values. 4. Repeat the above steps for different input voltages. 5. Now connect the subtractor circuit as shown in figure (2). 6. Repeat steps 2&3 and record the values. 7. Repeat the above steps for different input voltages. CALCULATIONS:

RESULT: Adder and Subtractor are designed using 741 Op Amp and verified practical values with theoretical values.

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE

IC LAB MANUAL

3.2. INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATORAIM: To analyze and design the differentiator & integrator using op-amp IC 741. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Breadboard trainer. 2. 1MHz function generator. 3. 20MHz Oscilloscope. 4. Digital Multimeter . 5. Connecting wires & Power supply. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: 1. IC 741 1No. 2. 0.047f Capacitor 1 No. 3. 100K, 1.5 K , 100 , 1 No. 4. 1.5 k, Resistors -1 No. 5. 10k Resistor - 1No. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: INTEGRATOR:

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MCET, DEPT OF ECE DIFFERENTIATOR:

IC LAB MANUAL

THEORY:THE INTEGRATOR A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integration of the input is called integrator.

1. When we apply a sine wave the frequency response is as shown in Fig (1.a). The equation (1) indicates that the output voltage is directly proportional to the negative integral of the input voltage and inversely proportional to the time constant R1 CF . For Example if the input is a sine wave output will be a cosine wave or if the input is a square wave, the output will be a triangular wave. 2. When Vin = 0 the integrator works as an open loop amplifier. This is because of the capacitor CF acts as an open circuit (XCF = infinite) to the input offset voltage Vin. In other words, the input offset voltage Vin and the part of the input current charging capacitor CF produce the error voltage at the output of the integrator. To overcome this problem RF is connected across the feed back capacitor CF . Thus RF limits the lowfrequency gain and hence minimizes the variations in the output voltage. 3. Frequency response (fb) of integrator at 0 dB is given by fb =1/2R1CF . 4. Both the stability and the low frequency roll-off problems can be corrected b