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POLITEKNIK UNGKU OMAR CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT H4 : Pipe Friction OBJECTIVE : To calculate a pipe friction coefficient (λ) DAY: DATE: LAB. TIME: START: COMPLETE: SECTION: GROUP NO.: GROUP MEMBERS PRESENT: NAME REG. NO.: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 GUIDING LECTURERS: 1 Item Grade 1 / 5 2 2 / 10 3 Err:504 / 10 3 4 / 10 5 / 10 4 6 / 10 7 / 10 Laboratory Grading - Cognitive skills (CLO1) Mark Err:504 / 65 1 Collection of experimental data (C1) 5 2 Computation of collected data (C2) 10 3 Tabulation of computed data (C1) 10 4 Presentation of tabulated / computed data (C3) 10 5 Analysis of computation and data presentation (C4) 10 6 Response to questions (C4) 10 7 Conclusion and derivation from experiment (C6) 10

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### Transcript of H4 Pipe Friction Group.xlsx POLITEKNIK UNGKU OMAR

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT H4 : Pipe Friction

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a pipe friction coefficient (λ)

DAY: DATE: LAB. TIME: START:

COMPLETE:

SECTION: GROUP NO.:

GROUP MEMBERS PRESENT:

NAME REG. NO.:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

GUIDING LECTURERS:

1 / 5

2 2 / 10

3 Err:504 / 10

3 4 / 10

5 / 10

4 6 / 10

7 / 10

Laboratory Grading - Cognitive skills (CLO1) Mark Err:504 / 65

1 Collection of experimental data (C1) 5

2 Computation of collected data (C2) 10

3 Tabulation of computed data (C1) 10

4 Presentation of tabulated / computed data (C3) 10

5 Analysis of computation and data presentation (C4) 10

6 Response to questions (C4) 10

7 Conclusion and derivation from experiment (C6) 10 HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)

Computation of collected data (C2)EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING

Pre Test Piezometer Reading mm = m

mm = m

d1 = mm

d2 = mm

Dynamic Viscosity of fluid,

2. Experimental Data

Test

Run 1 Run 2

1

2

3

4

5

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

1 #DIV/0! 0

2 #DIV/0! 0

3 #DIV/0! 0

4 #DIV/0! 0

5 #DIV/0! 0

h1 =

h2 =

Ns/m2

Water Volume (liter)

(mm)

h1

h2

Volume , V(m3)

Average time, t

(s)

Flow, Q

(m3/s)

Velocity, v

(m/s)

(m) 4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION FROM PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC 32 X 1.8 PIPES)

(a) (b) (a)/(b)

MeasurementVolume measuredTime observed Q v2=Q/A2

No (liters) (s) (liters/s) (m/s) (m/s)

5. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

v1=Q/A1

(m3/s)  To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series 4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN EXPANSION FROM PVC 20 X 1.5 TO PVC 32 X 1.8 PIPES)

(e) (f) (e) - (f) equation 4

h1 - h2

(mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (m)

h1

h2 hl = (v1-v2)2/2g  HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)

Computation of collected data (C2)EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING

Pre Test Piezometer Reading 947 mm =

910 mm =

d1 = mm

d2 = mm

Dynamic Viscosity of fluid,

2. Experimental Data

Test

Run 1 Run 2

1 5 113.95 114.06 0.935 0.885

2 5 45.49 45.63 0.835 0.825

3 5 23.71 23.49 0.825 0.855

4 5 15.42 15.72 0.855 0.845

5 5 13.39 13.31 0.84 0.89

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

1 0.005 1140005 4.385946E-009 0.05

2 0.005 45056 0.000000111 0.01

3 0.005 23.6 0.0002118644 -0.03

4 0.005 15.57 0.0003211304 0.01

5 0.005 13.35 0.0003745318 -0.05

h1 =

h2 =

Ns/m2

Water Volume (liter)

(m)

h1

h2

Volume , V(m3)

Average time, t (s)

Flow, Q

(m3/s)

Velocity, v

(m/s)

(m) 4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION FROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPES)

(a) (b) (a)/(b)

Measurement Volume measured Time observed Q

No (liters) (s) (liters/s) (m/s) (m/s)

4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

v1=Q/A

1v

2=Q/A

2

(m3/s) To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

m

m 4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION FROM PVC 32 X 1.8 TO PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPES)

(e) (f) (e) - (f) equation 4

h1 - h2

(m/s) (mm) (mm) (mm) (m) (m)

v2=Q/A

2h

1h

2hl = (A

2/A

1-1)v

22/2g HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1)

Computation of collected data (C2)EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING

Pre Test Piezometer Reading 940 mm = 0.94

890 mm = 0.89

Test pipe internal diameter, d : 0.017 m Test pipe internal material :

Test pipe length, L : 0.8 m

2. Experimental Data

Test

Run 1 Run 2

1 5

2 5

3 5

4 5

5 5

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

1

2

3

4

5

4. Calculation and tabulation (LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO FRICTION IN PVC 20 X 1.5 PIPE)

Pipe length m

m

Area

(a) (b) (a)/(b) equation 5 Re Type of Flow

Measurement Volume measuredTime observed Q v

No (liters) (s) (liters/s) (m/s) (m)

h1 =

h2 =

Test pipe expected λ value :

Water Volume (liter)

(mm)h

h1

h2

Volume , V(m3)

Average time, t

(s)

Flow, Q

(m3/s)

Velocity, v

(m/s)

(m)

Pipe inside diameter

m2

Re = vD/ν h2

(m3/s) 1 5 62.47 0.08 0.00008 0.352 5295.575221 367

2 5 38.38 0.1303 0.00013 0.573 8620.353982 366

3 5 25.53 0.1958 0.0002 0.881 13253.9823 366

4 5 17.62 0.2838 0.00028 1.233 18549.55752 365

5 5 14.31 0.3494 0.00035 1.542 23198.23009 365

6 5 12.69 0.394 0.00039 1.718 25846.0177 360

7 5 10.56 0.4735 0.00047 2.07 31141.59292 360

5. Sample of calculations (wherever required) / 5

/ 10

To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

0.94 m

0.89 m

PVC

0.0933597

mm

Blasius ( c ) (d) (e) equation 1

(m) (m) (m) (mm)

λ =0.356/Re0.25 h1

h2

h1-h

2 hf =

λLv2/2gD 0.0417322416 377 367 0.01 0.012

0.0369461103 386 366 0.02 0.029

0.0331790083 406 366 0.04 0.062

0.0305046895 445 365 0.08 0.111

0.0288460456 485 365 0.12 0.165

0.0280770573 520 360 0.16 0.199

0.0267987657 590 360 0.23 0.275 HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1) / 5

Computation of collected data (C2) / 10EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING

Pre Test Piezometer Reading mm = m

mm = m

2. Experimental Data

Test

Run 1 Run 2

12345

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

12345

4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

a) S.I. Conversion

h1 =

h2 =

Water Volume (liter)

(mm)h

h1

h2

Volume , V(m3)

Average time, t

(s)

Flow, Q

(m3/s)

Velocity, v

(m/s)

(m)  To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

mm  HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Collection of experimental data (C1) / 5

Computation of collected data (C2) / 10EXPERIMENT H4 : Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVE : To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

A) EXPERIMENTAL DATA GATHERING

Pre Test Piezometer Reading 920 mm = 0.92 m

870 mm = 0.87 m

Test pipe internal diameter, d : 0.017 m Test pipe internal material : PVC

Test pipe length, L : 0.8 m 0.406638749

2. Experimental Data

Test

Run 1 Run 2

1 5 100.21 100.46 0.897 0.852 5 21.27 21.17 0.835 0.8053 5 11.2 11.08 0.92 0.8754 5 10.12 10.12 0.875 0.8985 5 9.73 9.78 1 0.908

3. Standardization of Experimental Data

Test

1 0.005 100.335 4.98E-05 2.20E-01 0.0472 0.005 21.22 2.36E-04 1.04E+00 0.033 0.005 11.14 4.49E-04 1.98E+00 0.0454 0.005 10.12 4.94E-04 2.18E+00 -0.0235 0.005 9.755 5.13E-04 2.26E+00 0.092

4. Sample of calculations (wherever required)

a) S.I. Conversion

h1 = 897mm/1000 = 0.897m

h2 = 850mm/1000= 0.85mm

h1 =

h2 =

Test pipe expected λ value :

Water Volume (liter)

(m)h

h1

h2

Volume , V(m3)

Average time, t

(s)

Flow, Q

(m3/s)

Velocity, v

(m/s)

(m) b) Volumetric computation

c) Time computation

d) Flow computation

e) Velocity Computation  To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

mm   HYDRAULIC LABORATORY Grading: Analysis of computation and data presentation (C4) / 10Response to questions (C4) / 10

EXPERIMENT Fluid Flow in Pipe System

OBJECTIVTo calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

D) DATA EVALUATION

2. Experimental Findings and Verifications of Objectives

3. Response to the Experimental Findings

4. Concluding the Experiment.

5. References.

1. 2.

3. To calculate a head loss due to sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, pipe friction, elbow and pipe in parallel or series

ii) State the limitations in use of Darcy - Weisbach equation.

ii) State the factors affecting the value of the pipe friction coefficient λ .

ii) How friction factor value, λ, varies with the different diameter of pipes?

ii) How does the flow rate in a pipe affected by the pipe friction?  DISCUSSIONThrough the experiment, the objective had been achieved and as follows:

CONCLUSIONAs a conclusion the experiment were successfully carried out, even though the data collected are varies with theoretically equation because the different are minute and can be negligible.

The different between experiment data theoretically equation are mainly due to human and servicing factors such as:

b. Bubble inside the pipe line was not properly flushed during bleeding.The are no relative motion between the fluid particles. The only stress will be normal stress which is equal to the pressure.

RECOMMENDATIONThere are a lot of possibilities for an experiment will having an error and as per discuss above. Therefore it is recommendation are as follows:

a. Change to the new equipment and apparatus.b. Built the platform when taking the parallax error.

CONCLUSION

o To determine the loss of head due to friction in incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.o To determine the friction factor of a pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.o To determine the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.o To determine the loss coefficient in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.o To determine the losses of energy (head losses) in different configuration of pipes where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.

a. Parallax error – occur during captured the value of water level, h1 and h2.

As a conclusion, the experiment that have been carried out were successful, even though the data collected are a little bit difference compared to the theoretical value. The difference between the theoretical value and the actual value may mainly due to human and servicing factors such as parallax error. This error occur during observer captured the value of the water level, and . Besides that, it also may because there is bubble inside the pipe line. This is because the bubble was not properly flushed during bleeding. There is no other relative motion between the fluid particles. There is only stress that will be a normal stress which is equal to the pressure. There are a lot of possibilities for the experiment will having an error. Therefore, the recommendation to overcome the error is ensure that the position of the observer’s eye must be 90° perpendicular to the reading. Other than that, ensure that the bubble was fully removed from the pipe line. As a conclusion the experiment were successfully carried out, even though the data collected are varies with theoretically equation because the different are minute and can be negligible.

The different between experiment data theoretically equation are mainly due to human and servicing factors such as:

The are no relative motion between the fluid particles. The only stress will be normal stress which is equal to the pressure.

There are a lot of possibilities for an experiment will having an error and as per discuss above. Therefore it is recommendation are as follows:

To determine the loss of head due to friction in incompressible flow in a horizontal pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.To determine the friction factor of a pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.To determine the loss of head in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.To determine the loss coefficient in sudden expansion and sudden contraction of pipe where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.To determine the losses of energy (head losses) in different configuration of pipes where from the experiment, the data is______ while from theoretical calculation is______.

As a conclusion, the experiment that have been carried out were successful, even though the data collected are a little bit difference compared to the theoretical value. The difference between the theoretical value and the actual value may mainly due to human and servicing factors such as parallax error. This error occur during observer captured the value of the water level, and . Besides that, it also may because there is bubble inside the pipe line. This is because the bubble was not properly flushed during bleeding. There is no other relative motion between the fluid particles. There is only stress that will be a normal stress which is equal to the pressure. There are a lot of possibilities for the experiment will having an error. Therefore, the recommendation to overcome the error is ensure that the position of the observer’s eye must be 90° perpendicular to the reading. Other than that, ensure that the bubble was fully removed