Film-Screen Radiography - DD v7. . Film-Screen Radiography - DD v9. · PDF file Film...

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Transcript of Film-Screen Radiography - DD v7. . Film-Screen Radiography - DD v9. · PDF file Film...

  • 1

    FilmFilm--Screen RadiographyScreen Radiography

    David Dubowitz MD PhDDavid Dubowitz MD PhD

    Transmission, Projection Imaging Image based on:

    •Transmission imaging (c.f. emission, reflection)

    •X-ray attenuated as it passes through patient ∝ e-μx

    •Negative image recorded on film •Optical density (darkness) ∝ log [transmission of radiation]

    •Projection of 3D anatomy onto 2D image

    •Divergent beam, so image is magnified ∝ SID/SOD

    •Irradiation ∝ 1/(distance)2

    Focal spot size Large focal spot:

    •Edges of projection indistinct

    •Exaggerated by magnification

    •Results in geometric blurring

    •Reduce geometric blurring with:

    •Reduced focal spot size


    •Reduced magnification


    X-ray Exposure ∝ 1/r2

    Mrs. Röntgen’s Hand

    X-ray + photographic film

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    Amplification with film+screen

    X-ray + photographic film + intensifying screen

    Film-screen geometry Screen thickness

    Thicker screens are more efficient….but….more blurred

    i.e. % x-ray photons absorbed by screen

    ~15% conversion efficiency

    ~5% conversion efficiency

    i.e. % x-ray photons becoming light photons

    Film/Screen Efficiency • Absorption Efficiency of the Screen

    – Quantum Detection Efficiency (QDE): Fraction of incident x-rays that interact with it

    • Intrinsic Conversion Efficiency of the Screen – Fraction of absorbed x-ray energy converted to light photons – CaWO4 = 5%, Gd2O2S:Tb = 15%

    • Total Efficiency of Film/Screen Combination – Equals Absorption Efficiency x Conversion Efficiency – Ability to convert absorbed x-ray energy into film darkening – Also called Intensification Factor – 50 times greater than film alone

    We use screens because they reduce dose even though they degrade image quality

    screen characteristics

    As detection increases...image definition decreases & v.v.

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    Film-screen combinations

    ~ 1000x more photons

    Hurter Driffield (HD) Plot (or “characteristic curve”)

    Note: log [exposure] Note: OD is a log measurement

    Log-Log plot of optical transmission vs. x-ray exposure

    “Optical Density” Measuring Optical Density

    Hurter Driffield (HD) Plot

    Contrast ∝ slope

    Exposure > or < linear region reduces contrast

    For radiographic film: Gradient ~2.5 – 3.5

    Increase in sensitivity, No change in contrast

    A more sensitive than B (“higher speed”)…. Lt shift

    Less x-rays for same OD

    Slope (contrast) unchanged

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    Increase in sensitivity, Increase in contrast

    A more sensitive than B (“higher speed”)…. Lt shift

    Slope (contrast) increased

    Film latitude reduced (i.e. reduced dynamic range of exposures)

    Photosensitivity of silver halidePhotosensitivity of silver halide

    film processing & characteristic plot

    higher concentration / higher temp / longer developer time more metallic Ag deposited darker film (increased density + more base fog)

    Affected by:

    •Concentration- •Temperature- •Time-

    of developer

    Film Sensitometer for Quality Film Sensitometer for Quality ControlControl

    •Process film strips •Check Temperature •Check Development time •Check for artifacts •Monitor results daily to detect trends

    Vital for Consistent Results

    Quality ControlQuality Control

    ~ 90 sec total time~ 90 sec total time ~ 22 sec developer time~ 22 sec developer time Need Need consistent resultsconsistent results Needs QC!Needs QC! Needs regular cleaningNeeds regular cleaning

    Automated Film ProcessorAutomated Film Processor

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    Common Processing ArtifactsCommon Processing Artifacts Noise • “Noise”: local variation in OD not due to attenuation in patient. • Random variation in # xray photons interacting with screen. • Random variation in fraction of light emitted by xray photons

    interacting with screen.

    • “faster” (more xray sensitive) screen – Each xray photon more efficient at blackening film. Fluctuations in xray photons more readily seen on film…… INCREASE IN NOISE

    • Thicker (more xray absorbent) screen – Total number of x- ray photons detected to produce a given OD is unchanged. Random fluctuations in xray photons have same effect on film…… NO CHANGE IN NOISE

    Effect of mAs on Effect of mAs on Optical DensityOptical Density









    Double mAs, Doubles Optical No change in contrast

    Effect of kVp on Effect of kVp on Optical DensityOptical Density

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    Photon Energy vs. kVp

    15% increase kVp ≈ 2x mAs 15% decrease kVp ≈ ½x mAs

    Contrast & Scatter

    Scattered photons: •Different angle •Lower energy

    Grid Introduced by Gustav Bucky 1913

    •Alternating Pb/Al layers (or carbon)

    •Fewer scattered photons reach film

    •Increases contrast

    •Increases dose (Bucky factor 3-6)

    •Height:interspace = grid ratio

    •Typically 6:1 – 12:1 (lower ratio is more forgiving!)

    •Parallel, focused, crossed

    Pelvis 10” x 12” No Grid 8:1 Grid

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    Grid Errors Air Gap Fewer scattered photons reach film

    Increases contrast


    Reduced source – object distance increases dose

    Magnifies image

    kVp vs. skin dose

    Reducing kVp increases contrast


    increases skin dose

    Tissue Contrast

    • Improved by: Lower kVp (less scatter) Smaller x-ray field (less scatter) Contrast media (high atomic number of iodine -> PE effect) Noise reduction (“contast” is actually contrast-to noise) Grid or air gap (reduce scattered photons reaching film ) Proper positioning (reduce superposition, grid artifacts)

    Film-screen combinations Choose a film-screen combination to match

    the clinical need:

    E.g. • Abdo / pelvis: Sensitive film-screen,

    reduced dose, some loss of detail. • Chest: Single phosphor / UV screens

    inproves detail • Mammo: Single phosphor / Single emulsion

    high resolution film • Dental: No screen at all

    Choosing a grid X-ray machine near patient (divergent beam) • Use focused grid X-ray machine far from patient (~Parallel beam) • Use parallel grid High kvP (= more scatter) needs higher ratio grid

    (90kVp use 12:1) • Remember: 80kvP 8:1 grid, 120kVp 12:1 grid Grid increases radiation dose (“Bucky Factor”) • Avoid grid if not really needed (e.g. pediatrics) Static grid lines can reduce detail • Blur grid lines with moving grid (Hollis Potter, 1920)

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    Sample Q’s 2002 G39:

    In an x-ray machine with a tungsten target, increasing the kVp from 100 to 150 will increase all of the following except:

    A. The total number of x-rays emitted. B. The maximum energy of the x-rays. C. The average energy of the spectrum. D. The energy of the characteristic x-rays. E. The heat units generated (for the same mAs).

    Sample Q’s 2002 G52:

    The output of a fluoroscopic unit is 10 mR/min at 50 cm. The output at 75 cm :

    A. 15.0 B. 7.5 C. 6.6 D. 5.0 E. 4.4

    Sample Q’s 2002 G57:

    At x-ray energies between 40 and 100 keV,_ absorbs more energy than _ per gram.

    A. fat, muscle B. muscle, bone C. iodine, bone D. fat, air E. air, muscle

    Sample Q’s 2002 G73:

    Which graph represents the shape of an H&D curve? .

    Sample Q’s 2002 G75:

    A grid improves the quality of a diagnostic x-ray primarily by attenuating _ .

    A. Primary photons B. Compton scattered photons C. Compton electrons D. Photoelectrons E. Coherent scattered photons

    Sample Q’s 2002 G76:

    Regarding geometric unsharpness, which of the following is false?

    It is: A. Inversely proportional to focal spot size. B. Directly proportional to object-film distance. C. Inversely proportional to focal spot-object distance. D. Characterized by penumbra width.

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    Sample Q’s 2002 G77:

    The purpose of a screen is to:

    1. Convert x-rays to light photons. 2. Reduce scatter reaching the film. 3. Reduce patient's exposure. 4. Increase radiographic resolution.

    A. 1,2,3,4 B. 2 only C. 2,4 D. 1,3 E. 4 only

    Sample Q’s 2002 G78:

    A film of optical density (OD) 0.75 is placed over another identicalfilm.The OD of the pair is_.

    A. 0.75 B. 1.0 C. 1.5 D. 1.75 E. 2.25

    Sample Q’s 2002 D1:

    For a 70 kVp x-ray beam, the mass attenuationcoefficientwhich varies the most from muscle tissue is:

    A. Air. B. Aluminum. C. Bone. D. Fat. E. Iodine.

    Sample Q’s 2002 D12:

    A newly installed bucky radiographic system produces abdominal images that are of acceptable density over the spine and progressively lighter toward both lateral edges of the film. The most likely reason for this finding is improper:

    A. Collimator tracking. B. Focal distance for grid. C. Grid ratio. D. kVp calibration of the system. E. Programming of the AEC system.

    Sample Q’s 2002 D13:

    The impression of noise in an x-