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Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Physical Chemistry Volume 2012, Article ID 598243, 4 pages doi:10.1155/2012/598243 Research Article Effect of Hetero Atom on the Hammett’s Reaction Constant (ρ) from the Physical Basis of Dissociation Equilibriums of (Dithio) Benzoic Acids and (Thio) Phenols and Its Application to Solvolysis Reactions and Some Free Radical Reactions Jagannadham Vandanapu 1 and Sanjeev Rachuru 2 1 Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India 2 Department of Chemistry, Mizan-Tepi University, Tepi Campus, Tepi, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Jagannadham Vandanapu, [email protected] Received 3 April 2012; Accepted 11 May 2012 Academic Editor: Leonardo Palmisano Copyright © 2012 J. Vandanapu and S. Rachuru. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The emergence of putative Hammett equation in mid 1930s was a boon to physical-organic chemists to elucidate the reaction mechanisms of several organic reactions. Based on the concept of this equation several hundreds of papers have emerged in chemical literature in the last century on the eect of structure, on reactivity, and very few on thermodynamic stability and kinetic reactivity of intermediates. In this article an attempt is made to explain the eect of hetero atom on Hammett’s reaction constant (ρ) taking the dissociation equilibriums of benzoic acids, dithiobenzoic acids, phenols, and thiophenols. 1. Introduction Ever since the Hammett equation was developed [1, 2], there were several hundreds of redox, condensation, dispropor- tionation, nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution, and addition reactions with meta- and para-substituted benzene derivatives in the literature, for which the Hammett reaction (ρ) constants were reported. Inclusion of those references here is beyond the scope this article as they run into several pages. However the readers can find many articles and reviews in several standard physical-organic chemistry text books. In addition to these numerous reactions, a few reactions were reported by one of the authors (V. Jaganndham) from elsewhere [3] and from our laboratory [4, 5] on the solvolysis and reactions of intermediate carbocations with nucleophilic solvent water. An eect of α-hetero atom substitution on kinetic and thermodynamic stability of intermediate carbocations were also reported from elsewhere [6, 7] and from our laboratory [8]. But in these reactions [35] no attempt is made to explain the eect of α-hetero atom on the Hammett reaction constant (ρ), which we tried to explain in the present work taking the title equilibriums as staple examples. 2. Results and Discussion The eect of substituent either in meta- or para-position in the benzene ring on the rate or equilibrium constant is given by Hammett [2] in the form of a formula: RT ln K + RT ln K = ΔF = A d 2 B 1 D + B 2 , (1) where K is the equilibrium or rate constant of the substituted reactant, K is that of unsubstituted reactant, “ΔF ” is the free energy change for equilibrium process or rate process, “d” is the distance between the substituent and the reaction center, D” is the dielectric constant of the medium, and A, B 1 , and B 2 are the constants. Here A depends on the substituent and B 1 and B 2 depend on the nature of the reaction. Later, based
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  • Hindawi Publishing CorporationAdvances in Physical ChemistryVolume 2012, Article ID 598243, 4 pagesdoi:10.1155/2012/598243

    Research Article

    Effect of Hetero Atom on the Hammett’s Reaction Constant (ρ)from the Physical Basis of Dissociation Equilibriums of (Dithio)Benzoic Acids and (Thio) Phenols and Its Application toSolvolysis Reactions and Some Free Radical Reactions

    Jagannadham Vandanapu1 and Sanjeev Rachuru2

    1 Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India2 Department of Chemistry, Mizan-Tepi University, Tepi Campus, Tepi, Ethiopia

    Correspondence should be addressed to Jagannadham Vandanapu, [email protected]

    Received 3 April 2012; Accepted 11 May 2012

    Academic Editor: Leonardo Palmisano

    Copyright © 2012 J. Vandanapu and S. Rachuru. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative CommonsAttribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work isproperly cited.

    The emergence of putative Hammett equation in mid 1930s was a boon to physical-organic chemists to elucidate the reactionmechanisms of several organic reactions. Based on the concept of this equation several hundreds of papers have emerged inchemical literature in the last century on the effect of structure, on reactivity, and very few on thermodynamic stability and kineticreactivity of intermediates. In this article an attempt is made to explain the effect of hetero atom on Hammett’s reaction constant(ρ) taking the dissociation equilibriums of benzoic acids, dithiobenzoic acids, phenols, and thiophenols.

    1. Introduction

    Ever since the Hammett equation was developed [1, 2], therewere several hundreds of redox, condensation, dispropor-tionation, nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution, andaddition reactions with meta- and para-substituted benzenederivatives in the literature, for which the Hammett reaction(ρ) constants were reported. Inclusion of those referenceshere is beyond the scope this article as they run intoseveral pages. However the readers can find many articlesand reviews in several standard physical-organic chemistrytext books. In addition to these numerous reactions, afew reactions were reported by one of the authors (V.Jaganndham) from elsewhere [3] and from our laboratory[4, 5] on the solvolysis and reactions of intermediatecarbocations with nucleophilic solvent water. An effect ofα-hetero atom substitution on kinetic and thermodynamicstability of intermediate carbocations were also reportedfrom elsewhere [6, 7] and from our laboratory [8]. But inthese reactions [3–5] no attempt is made to explain the effectof α-hetero atom on the Hammett reaction constant (ρ),

    which we tried to explain in the present work taking the titleequilibriums as staple examples.

    2. Results and Discussion

    The effect of substituent either in meta- or para-position inthe benzene ring on the rate or equilibrium constant is givenby Hammett [2] in the form of a formula:

    −RT lnK + RT lnK◦ = ΔF = Ad2

    (B1D

    + B2

    ), (1)

    where K is the equilibrium or rate constant of the substitutedreactant, K◦ is that of unsubstituted reactant, “ΔF” is the freeenergy change for equilibrium process or rate process, “d” isthe distance between the substituent and the reaction center,“D” is the dielectric constant of the medium, and A,B1, andB2 are the constants. Here A depends on the substituent andB1 and B2 depend on the nature of the reaction. Later, based

  • 2 Advances in Physical Chemistry

    C

    O OH

    X X

    C

    O

    +

    C

    O

    X

    O− O−

    H+Ka

    Hammett ρ = 1

    Scheme 1

    C

    S SH

    X X

    C

    S

    +

    C

    S

    X

    S− S−

    H+Ka

    Hammett ρ = 1.5

    Scheme 2

    on some experimental observations Hammett rearranged (1)to the form:

    logK = logK◦ + ρσ , (2)where σ = −A/2.303R and ρ = (1/d2T)(B1/D + B2), (2) isnow known as famous Hammett equation. The magnitudeof σ depends on the substituent and ρ depends on the natureof the reaction, medium, and temperature. Now the questionis the evaluation of Hammett substituent constant (σ). Forthis the values of K , K◦, and Hammett reaction constant(ρ) are needed. K and K◦ are experimentally determinablequantities. Therefore the choice of a value of unity forthe reaction constant (ρ) in the ionization equilibriums ofsubstituted benzoic acids in water solution at 25◦C wasdetermined by the large amount of accurate data availablefrom the work of Dippy and his coworkers [9–11]. Withthe core of σ values thus obtained, the Hammett reactionconstants (ρ) were obtained for several other reactions.Thus in turn using the Hammett reaction constant (ρ), theunknown or accurately not known Hammett substituentconstants (ρ) were determined for other substituents. Inconclusion it is understood from the Hammett’s work oneffect of substituents on reaction equilibriums and rates, thatthe reaction constant (ρ) is one for the dissociation of benzoicacids in aqueous solution at 25◦C (Scheme 1).

    When the hetero atom is changed from oxygen tosulfur that is for the dissociation of dithiobenzoic acidsthe Hammett reaction constant (ρ) was found to be 1.5(Scheme 2).

    A plot of pKa [12] versus Hammett substituent constant(σ) was excellently linear with a slope of 1.5 and correlationcoefficient of 0.9964 (Figure 1).

    The reasons for high Hammett reaction constant (ρ) are:The Hammett reaction constant (ρ) for dithiobenzoic

    acids dissociation equilibriums is one and half times greater

    4-CN

    3-Cl

    4-Cl4-Br

    3-MeO

    H3-Me

    4-Me

    4-MeO

    4-amino

    −0.5

    −1

    −1.5

    −2

    −2.5

    −3

    −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

    r = 0.9964

    pKa

    Slope = hammett ρ = 1.5

    Hammett σ values

    Figure 1: Plot of pKa values versus Hammett sigma values fordithiobenzoic acid dissociation equilibriums.

    XH

    Y Y

    + H+

    X−

    Ka

    X = O and SY = H and 4-NO2Hammett reaction constant = 2.5when X = Sand it is 2.1 when X = O

    Scheme 3

    X XH

    Y Y

    X H+

    Y

    C

    O H

    +

    ksolv ks

    kX [X ]−H2O, − HX

    When X = ClHammett’s ρ for solvolysis step is −2.05for water reaction it is 1.17

    When X = BrHammett’s ρ for solvolysis step is −5.49for water reaction it is 3.74

    Scheme 4

  • Advances in Physical Chemistry 3

    X

    + RCHOH

    X

    N

    O

    C

    O

    H

    H

    R

    X

    + +RCHOHeterolysisReaction

    Nitroxide radical Radical anion

    H+

    NO•−

    O•2

    kr

    NO2

    RA•−

    kS

    When X = C and R = H: kr < 107 M−1 s−1 and ks < 102 s−1When X = C and R = CH3: kr = 3.3 × 108 M−1 s−1 and ks = 1.2 × 103 s−1When X = N and R = H: kr = 1 × 108 M−1 s−1 and ks = 3.2 × 103 s−1When X = N and R = CH3: kr > 2.4 × 109 M−1 s−1 and ks = 2.6 × 105 s−1

    Scheme 5

    than that of benzoic acids dissociation equilibriums. Themagnitude of ρ depends on several factors like stability oftransition state. Since the ρ value of dithiobenzoic acid isgreater than that of benzoic acid dissociation equilibriumseries, an implicit conclusion is that the transition state isfar more stable than the transition state of benzoic acid dis-sociation equilibrium series. This is tacitly comprehensiblefrom the ease with which sulfur can involve its lone pair ofelectrons in resonance than the ease with which oxygen caninvolve its lone pair of electrons (sulfur 3s23p4 and oxygen2s22p4). Here we are referring to resonance in S=C–S− ↔ S−–C=S that is far more pronounced than O=C–O− ↔ −O–C=Obecause of the relative ease with which sulfur can donateits lone pair of electrons than oxygen. In general, sulfur isvery nucleophilic because of its large size, which makes itreadily polarizable, and its lone pairs of electrons are readilyaccessible. The same observations were made in the studyof kinetic and thermodynamic stability of α-oxygen- and α-sulfur-stabilized carbocations in solution [6, 7].

    Similarly the Hammett reaction constant (ρ) for thiophe-nol dissociation equilibriums was computed from the pKa[12] values of thiophenol and 4-nitro thiophenol dissocia-tion equilibriums and it came out to be 2.5 (Scheme 3).

    Though this value is only from two thiophenols, thetrend in the increase in Hammett reaction constant (ρ) isunmistakable. And this is about 20% higher than the Ham-mett reaction constant (ρ = 2.1) of phenol dissociationequilibriums [13]. The same reasons offered above for thedissociation equilibriums of dithiobenzoic acids also holdwell here.

    Hence it is very clear that the effect of hetero atom onthe benzoic acid/phenol dissociation equilibriums is prettypromising and in turn on Hammett’s reaction constant (ρ).

    Another notable and interesting observation of the effectof hetero atom in kinetics is in the study of solvolysisreactions ofbenzal halides [4, 5]. In these studies the authorshave found out a marked influence of effect of chlorine andbromine atoms on the formation (ksolv) of α-chloro and α-bromobenzyl carbocations from their corresponding neutral

    gem-adducts and on the reaction of the cations (ks) withnucleophilic water. The Hammett reaction constant (ρsolv)for ksolv step in the solvolysis of gem-dichlorides is −2.05[4]. The same (ρs) for addition of water to the cation is 1.17[4], while in gem-dibromide reactions ρsolv is −5.49 and ρsis 3.74 [5]. Therefore it is very clear that there was a three-time increase in Hammett’s ρ value in the formation of thecations when we move the hetero atom from chlorine tobromine and for the reaction of the cation with water theincrease is about three and half times in the Hammett ρ value(Scheme 4).

    These Hammett reaction constants depend largely on thestabilities of the intermediate α-chloro and α-bromobenzylcarbocations, that is, their formation from neutral halideion adducts and their reaction with nucleophile (water).The intrinsic barrier for capture of resonance stabilizedcarbocations by nucleophiles results largely from loss ofresonance interactions in the transition state by bondformation to the nucleophile. The lower intrinsic barrierfor formation and larger intrinsic barrier for capture ofα-bromobenzyl carbocations by solvent water (than of α-chloro stabilized benzyl carbocations) was consistent withthe fact that the α-bromo substituted benzyl carbocationswere more stable than those of their chloro analogs. Thiswas due to more polarizability and larger size of bromosubstituent, as compared to the chloro substituent. Hence,the Hammett ρ values for the both processes were higher forbromobenzyl carbocations.

    From one of the author’s work published from elsewhere[14], now it is the turn for “N” when it replaces “C” onsome free radical reactions, though it is not the effect ofhetero atom on Hammett’s ρ value but on the effect ofhetero atom on the formation reaction (kr) of nitroxideradical and its heterolysis (ks) is still quite stanch andstriking. The example of these reactions is the reactions ofnitrobenzene and 4-nitropyridine with α-hydroxy methyland α-hydroxy ethyl radicals. Due to electron-withdrawingeffect of the nitrogen in the ring, and whose electronegativity(3.0) is greater than that of carbon (2.5), 4-nitropyridine is

  • 4 Advances in Physical Chemistry

    much more electron deficient than nitrobenzene and evennitrobenzenes carrying electron-withdrawing substituentssuch as NO2. This is reflected by the one-electron reductionpotentials [15, 16] of nitro compounds. With •CH2OH, 4-nitropyridine forms an adduct (nitroxide radical) with kr =1.0 × 108 M−1 s−1 to be compared with

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