CLASSICAL GREEK FOR 9–12 YEAR OLDS · α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d •...

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Transcript of CLASSICAL GREEK FOR 9–12 YEAR OLDS · α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d •...

  • Bαsil Bαtrαkhosαnd thε Mystεry LεttεrCLASSICAL GREEK FOR 9–12 YEAR OLDS

  • Bαsil Bαtrαkhosαnd thε Mystεry Lεttεr

  • Contεnts ListChapter One 3

    Chapter Two 11

    Chapter Three 19

    Chapter Four 25

    Chapter Five 33

    Chapter Six 41

    Chapter Seven 49

    Basil’s Word Bank (Dictionary of pronunciation and meanings) 55

    Illustrations 61

    Crack the alphabet code practice page 64

    © 2019 Classics for All

    Consultant Advisor: Peter JonesEditor: Charlie Andrew (From original material by C.-M. Roxby)

    Designer and typesetter: Stephany Ungless

    Character illustrations by Graham HodgsonAdditional illustrations by Stephany UnglessPhotographs on pp. 9, 17, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 37, 42, 47 and 53 © Trustees of the British Museum

    Set using Greek Keys polytonic fonts AttikaU and KadmosU; Helvetica Neue and Baskerville.

  • Hello there!

    Allow me to introduce myself.

    I am Basil Batrakhos from Taurica.

    And I have travelled many a mile across the sea and down this river to the land of Greece, the home of my ancestors.

    My ancestors? Well, you see, you may not have noticed this, but I have a Greek surname.

    It’s Batrakhos. Rather a grand name, I think you’ll agree. I’m sure it means something very special and probably very heroic in Greek, but I’m not sure what. Sadly I don’t speak Greek.

    Chαptεr Onε

    Lεttεr Guidε

    3

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

  • Chαptεr Onε

    Lεttεr Guidε

    4

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    I am proud of my Greek ancestry, but I didn’t wonder much about how my family ended up so far away in Taurica until last week.

    I was rummaging around in my attic, when I came across an old box. Inside it was this ancient papyrus: a letter written many years ago by my very famous Greek ancestor Odysseus Batrakhos. It was he who somehow ended up in Taurica! How exciting, I thought. I can find out what happened to him. The only problem is that it was written in Greek. Look, I’ve got it here.

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    So I decided to learn Greek in order to understand the letter and solve the mystery.

    I’ve come all the way to Greece, but have had no luck so far. Maybe these locals can help me…

    [Basil spots two mice having a picnic]

    Chαptεr Onε

    5

    Μικροµυς Mikromus

    Μεγαµυς Megamus

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codεΜυ Μ µThe letter Μ (upper case) or µ (lower case) is called mu and is pronounced like our letter ‘m’.

    Upsilon Υ υΥ (upper case) or υ (lower case) is called upsilon and sounds like our letter ‘u’ in ‘put’.

    Sigma Σ ς σΣ (upper case) or ς and σ (both lower case) is called sigma and sounds like our letter ‘s’ in ‘soft’. ς looks rather similar to our ‘s’, but notice that the top curve is bigger then the lower one. It is used only at the ends of words – like µυς – while σ is used at thebeginning or in the middle of words.

    Μ µ, Υ υ and Σ ς σ

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Μ μ

    Υ υ

    Σ ς σ

    Using paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the letters.

  • Chαptεr Onε

    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    6

    Basil: Hello, there.

    I am Basil from Taurica. I want to get to Athens to learn Greek. I wonder if you can give me some assistance.

    Mikromus: Greetings stranger. I’m Mikroµυς, the mikros µυς… the small mouse.

    Megamus: And I’m Megaµυς, the megas µυς… the big mouse. Look at my huge µυς-cles.

    Mikromus: Mega-stomach µυς, more like!

    So you’re Basil Batrakhos, Basil the frog. I am a µυς…

    [He draws the letters on the ground.]

    Basil: Ah yes, I can see that looks easy enough. µ υ ς – that must mean mouse. My first Greek word is µυς.

    Mikromus: Brilliant!

    timε-trαvεl wordsPart of the fun of learning Greek is meeting some of these time-travel words that have helped to form the languages that we speak today.

    μεγας – megas μικρος – mikrosThe Greek words megas and mikros are added to the front of words to mean ‘big’ and ‘small’. Here are some examples. Do you know what they mean?

    megapixel megaphone megabyte megalithic microscope

    microphone microbiology microchip microwave

    Can you think of any more? Try inventing some.

    μυς – musYou have probably noticed that our word ‘mouse’ is very similar to the Greek word μυς. This is no coincidence. Μυς is one of many words that have travelled for thousands of years to give us words that we use in modern languages.

    Our ‘mouse’ is from the same very ancient family of words as μυς which has sounded almost the same for so long. The Latin for ‘mouse’ is also ‘mus’. Look at the word ‘muscle’. Can you see the mus in that? In Latin, the word for ‘muscle’, ‘musculus’ meant ‘little mouse’. Both Greeks and Romans must have thought that muscles looked like mice running under the skin!

  • BreathingsYou may have noticed the little mark written above the letter iota in οἰμοι. This mark is called a ‘breathing’.

    If the breathing mark is like a nine-shape, there is no extra sound, so ἰς would be pronounced ‘is’. This is called a ‘smooth’ breathing.

    The breathing like a six-shaped apostrophe add the ‘h’ sound, so ἱς would be pronounced ‘his’.This sign is called a ‘rough’ breathing.

    If a word begins with a single vowel, then that vowel must have a breathing above it. As we can see with οἰμοι, if there are two vowels at the start of a word, sometimes the breathing goes on the second. This happens when the two vowels form one sound, a dipthong (αι, αυ, ει, ευ, οι or ου).

    Chαptεr Onε

    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    7

    Mikromus: οἰµοι οἰµοι! It’s that ferocious Jason! οἰµοι!

    Megamus: Forget all this οἰμοι-ing! Let’s get out of here!

    [The mice start to run away before the dog can catch them.]

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codεOmicron O oThe letter O (upper case) or o (lower case) is called omicron and is pronounced like our letter ‘o’ in the word ‘hot’.

    O-micron means ‘o-little’ or ‘little-o’.Remember where you’ve seen‘micro’ before?

    Iota Ι ι Ι (upper case) or ι (lower case) is called iota and can be pronounced like the ‘i’ in ‘hit’. Notice that it doesn’t have a dot like our letter ‘i’.

    Omicron and Iota οιWhen you write the Greek letters ο and ι together they make the sound ‘oy’ like in the English word ‘boy’.

    Basil: Dead easy, this Greek. Though sadly my name turns out not to be very grand after all.

    Oh look, another friendly local has come to help!

    οἰμοι ‘oy-moy’ = oh no!

    What do you think οἰμοι means?Can you find the answer hidden somewhere on this page.

    οἰµοι!

    ,

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    8

    Chαptεr Onε

    [Basil picks up a stick from the ground and throws it in the river.]

    Basil: Bad Jason! Leave me and my friends alone. Go fetch!

    Basil: What a naughty doggy! Hey, μυς! Come back, you haven’t told me the way to Athens yet.

    Mikromus: He said ‘Athens’. He must want to go there. Well, maybe we can invite him to stay with us.

    Megamus: Good idea! We Athenians are famous for our kindness to strangers.

    [He turns to Basil.]

    Megamus: Do you want to come with us?

    Basil: That’s very kind of you. My luggage is there. It’s not very heavy.

    Mikromus: You want us to carry that? οἰµοι!

    Megamus: Well, he did save us from Jason.

    Mikromus: Jason! That miserable dog – a barbarian indeed! Why was he given such a heroic name? But you’re right: one good turn deserves another.

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    9

    Chαptεr Onε

    Jason and the Golden Fleece

    Jason the dog was named after the famous Greek hero, who came from a place called Iolkos (‘Yol-koss’) in Greece where his father had been king. But his uncle Pelias (‘Pea-lea-as’) had seized the throne, which Jason did not like one bit.

    Jason went to his uncle, asking for the throne to be handed back to him, as he was the rightful heir. The cunning Pelias agreed on one condition – Jason had to find and bring him the legendary Golden Fleece. Of course, Pelias expected Jason to die on this mission. The journey to Colchis (‘Kol-kiss’), where King Aietes (‘Eye-ee-teas’) kept the Golden Fleece was long and perilous and, in case any adventurers made it that far, the fleece was guarded by a fierce, hundred-eyed dragon. After all, the precious fleece had once been owned by Zeus himself.

    Yet Jason loaded his ship, the Argo, with men and set sail for Colchis. The journey, indeed, was not easy. The dangers faced by Jason and his Argonauts (‘sailors on the Argo’) included an island populated entirely by man-hating women who had all murdered their husbands; a group of half-human, half-bird killers called Harpies; and clashing rocks that smashed to pieces every single ship that tried to sail between them.

    Overcoming all of these challenges with the help of his men, the brave Jason finally arrived in Colchis. But do you think Aietes happily handed over his precious Golden Fleece? Not likely. Just like Pelias, King Aietes set Jason a series of impossible tasks designed to finish the hero off. To the amazement of all, Jason gave these tasks a go: he yoked fire-breathing bulls; he sowed dragons’ teeth; he defeated phantom warriors.

    Little did King Aietes know that the hero was being helped by his very own daughter, the sorceress Medea, who had fallen in love with brave Jason. Finally, using a potion brewed by Medea, Jason overpowered the dragon guarding the Golden Fleece, stole his prize and stealthily sailed away, with Medea, on the Argo.

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    In the picture on this pot, Medea is using her magic to help Jason.

  • Exercise 1 Practise writing the Greek letters Μ µ Υυ Σ ς σ Ο o Ι ι and the two types of breathing.

    Exercise 2Practise writing the following English words in Greek letters:him oi! is mum his hi! hum

    For extra writing practice, go to page 64.

    Μ μΥ υΣ ς σ

    Ο ο

    Ι ι

    οι

    Lεttεr Guidε

    10

    Chαptεr Onε

    Mu is pronounced like our letter ‘m’.Upsilon sounds like our letter ‘u’ in ‘put’.

    Sigma sounds like our letter ‘s’ in ‘soft’. ς is used only at the ends of words.

    Omicron is pronounced like our letter ‘o’ in the word ‘hot’.

    Iota can be pronounced as the ‘i’ in hit. It doesn’t have a dot like our letter ‘i’.

    Omicron + iotaWhen you write the Greek letters ο and ι together they make the sound ‘oy’ like in the English word ‘boy’.

    ‘rough’ breathingThis mark looks like a six-shaped apostrophe makes the ‘h’ sound.

    ‘smooth’ breathingThis mark looks like a nine-shaped apostrophe and shows that there is no ‘h’ sound at the beginning of a word that starts with a vowel.

    whαt wε lεαrnεd in chαptεr onε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    μεγας ‘meg-ass’: large

    μικρος ‘mick-ross’: small

    μυς ‘muss’: mouseοἰμοι ‘oy moy’: oh dear!

    Basil’s word bank

  • crαck thε αlphαbεt codεAlpha Α αAlpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet and it gives us the first part of that word in English.

    Kappa Κ κ Kappa is quite an easy one as it looks and sounds just like our letter ‘k’.

    Lambda Λ λ is your first strange letter. It sounds like our letter ‘l’ but doesn’t look very much like it. It might help to think of the letter as a rather lazy ‘l’ leaning back on a stick.

    Tau Τ τ is just like our letter ‘t’.Alpha + iota αιWhen you write the Greek letters α and ι together they make the sound like in the English word ‘eye’.

    Using paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the letters Α α, Κ κ, Λ λ, Τ τ and the sound αι.

    Lεttεr Guidε

    11

    Chαptεr TwoThe mice, with their new friend Basil, finally arrive back home. They’ve even been kind enough to teach him some new Greek words on the journey…

    Βasil: ἰου ἰου! This house isn’t bad, και my companions have stopped saying οἰμοι too. I think I’ll enjoy staying here μαλιστα. ἀλλα who else lives here? Perhaps I’d better ask my two new friends.

    ἰου ‘i-oo’: hooray!και ‘k-eye’: andμαλιστα ‘ma-liss-ta’: very much

    ἀλλα ‘al-la’: but

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Α α Κ κΛ λΤ ται

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    12

    Chαptεr Two

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Megamus: He may be a βαρβαρος but he’s our βαρβαρος. Don’t wake him or else he’ll ‘βαυ βαυ’ all night.

    Βasil: οἰμοι! You mean you actually live in the same οἰκος as this crazy brute?

    βαρβαρος ‘bar-ba-ross’: barbarian

    βαυ βαυ ‘bow bow’: a dog’s bark

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codεBeta Β β Beta looks very like our capital B and is pronounced in the same way. As you have probably worked out, it forms the second part of our word alphabet.

    Rho Ρ ρ is the first really tricky letter because it looks like English ‘p’. But it appears in Μικρομυς and that will help you recognise that it is ‘r’. Practise drawing rho starting at the bottom.

    Alpha + upsilon αυαu is pronounced as English ‘now’. Greek dogs go βαυ βαυ but they can also go αὐ αὐ.

    Using paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the letters Β β, Ρ ρ the sound αυ and the punctuation mark ; .

    ; You may have noticed that instead of a question mark (?), Ancient Greek uses a semi-colon (;)

    οἰκος ‘oy-koss’: home, house

    Β βΡ ραυ;

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    13

    Chαptεr Two

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    τις εἰ; ‘tiss eh?’: who are you?

    εἰμι ‘eh-mi’: I am κυριος ‘koo-ree-oss’: master

    οἰκος ‘oy-koss’: home, house

    μαμμια ‘mam-ee-a’: Mummy!

    τις εἰ;

    τις εἰ;

    τις εἰ;

    Mikromus: Let’s meet the nicer inhabitants of this fine house.They’re more friendly than Jason. All you need to do is ask each one, ‘τις εἰ;’

    Alexandros: εἰμι Alexandros. Ι’m just 8 years old and I’ll be the κυριος of this οἰκος one day.

    Sophia: Sophia εἰμι. I’m Alexandros’ sister. I love animals μαλιστα – frogs και mice in particular – και I think I am getting pretty good at spinning και weaving.

    Hektor: μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια!

    Mikromus: That’s baby Hektor. In a few years he’ll be in the men’s quarter of the house, ἀλλα for now he spends most of his time with the women. His interests? Well, he loves a good story μαλιστα!

    οἰκος This word meaning ‘house’ has given us the words ‘economics’ and ‘economy’. How? Because οι- of οἰκος in Greek became oe- (‘oeconomics’) and then e- (‘economics’) in English.

    The nom- part of ‘economics’ and ‘economy’ comes from a Greek word nom-os meaning ‘rule, law, management’. So ‘eco-nomics’ and ‘eco-nomy’ are to do with house rules or management. What do these other ‘-nomy’ words mean? astronomy gastronomy taxonomy

    timε-trαvεl words

    μαμμια Hektor’s cry is a sound that babies make all over the world, which they then use as the word for their mother, like the English mummy, French maman, Spanish mama, or Italian mamma.

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    14

    Chαptεr Two

    Mikromus: But Hektor hates going to bed. At the moment things are pretty noisy as he is refusing to go to sleep.

    Hektor: μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια!

    Sophia: Oh, μαμμια! It’s the same every night. It’s funny, when I’m μαλιστα tired, I fall asleep. Not Hektor though. ἀλλα he’ll go to sleep soon enough.

    Hektor: μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια!

    Sophia: οἰμοι! δια τι are you crying? ἀκουε Hektor, go to sleep!

    Hektor: μαμμια, μαμμια, μαμμια, ΜΑΜΜΙΑ!

    Sophia: ἀκουε, μαμμια is busy, so give me a break!

    δια τι; ‘dee-a ti’: why?

    ἀκουε ‘a-koo-ay’: listen!

    Delta Δ δ Δ δ looks and sounds like our letter ‘d’. If you have heard of river deltas and are wondering why this looks nothing like one, then that is because they are named after the capital delta Δ!Epsilon Ε ε It is not difficult to work out that this is the same as our letter ‘e’, pronounced ‘eh’ like in ‘egg’.

    Omicron + upsilon ου ου makes the sound of the English ‘do’.

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codε

    Using paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the letter Δ δ, Ε ε and the sound ου.

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Δ δΕ εου

  • The imperative Have you noticed that Sophia gives her little brother Hektor lots of commands, like

    This ‘commanding’ form of the verb is known as the imperative. You can often recognise it in Greek by the ε at the end of the verb.

    Lεttεr Guidε

    15

    Chαptεr Two

    Hektor: μαμμια! μαμμια! μαμμια! μαμμια! μαμμια!

    Sophia: ἰδου Hektor! Who’s this? A frog? και some mice?

    Hektor: ἰου ἰου! Want frog! Want frog! Want frog!

    Sophia: Here, batrakhos. Look! It’s your friend Hektor. και look, Hektor, here is μυς too.

    Basil: οἰμοι! εἰμι μαλιστα in trouble here!

    Hektor: Nice batrakhos! Nice μυς!

    Sophia: ἰου ἰου! Now you play nicely with them και go to sleep!

    ἰδου! ‘i-doo’: look!

    Give me a break!

    ἀκουε!Look!

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    grαmmαr notε

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    16

    Chαptεr Two

    The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse

    A Town Mouse was visiting his friend in the country. Although the Country Mouse was hospitable, offering his guest the best food he had, the Town Mouse soon grew weary of the simple meals and lack of comfort. ‘My dear Country Mouse!’ he exclaimed. ‘Why do you suffer here in your simple but dull life? If only you could experience city life – the excitement, the comfort, the food. Come to the city and stay with me!’

    Being a polite rodent, the Country Mouse agreed to his friend’s plan. The two set off together. After a long journey they arrived in the city and the home of the Town Mouse. The Country Mouse marvelled at the size of the mansion, the comfort of his Town friend’s hole, and the abundance of delicious morsels of food that lay around for the taking.

    After a sumptuous meal (which, the Country Mouse had to admit, was the finest he had ever eaten), the two mice lay down on a silk cushion and started to doze off. All of a sudden, into the dining room burst two enormous, terrifying, snarling dogs. They ran straight for the mice who, in turn, ran for their lives. The mice jumped out of the delicately carved windows; ran across the neatly manicured lawn; through the elegantly designed flower beds; and out underneath the magnificent and ornate iron gates.

    As they lay exhausted by the roadside, the Country Mouse exclaimed: ‘You’re right, Town Mouse. City life is definitely more exciting…but it’s not for me. I’ll not swap my simple food and peaceful life for any amount of luxury. Farewell!’ And off he scampered, back to his modest but peaceful country home.

    Maybe Hektor needs a bedtime story? Hey, Hektor. If you promise you’ll stop crying, I’ll tell you the tale of the town mouse και country mouse…

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

  • Aesop and his fables The story of the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse was originally written by Aesop, who is thought to have lived in the Mediterranean (possibly Greece or Turkey) in roughly the 6th century BCE.

    He wrote many fables, such as The Tortoise and The Hare and The Boy Who Cried Wolf. A fable is a short story that is designed to teach a moral lesson about life.

    What do you think the fable of the Town Mouse and Country Mouse is teaching us?

    Do you know any more of Aesop’s fables? Can you research some less well-known fables?

    Can you create your own fable?

    Lεttεr Guidε

    17

    Chαptεr Two

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    This mouse decorates the top of an old lamp. Do you think he is a town or country mouse?

    How the ancient Greeks say

    ‘he measures’Bull, perhaps

    a famous starry one?

    A person who imitates In Greek, this

    means life.

    A sign (try and see the ‘υ’ as a ‘y’).

    Languagε dεtεctivε

    βιος μιμος μετρει συμβολος ταυρος

    mimic

    Match the Greek words up to the right definition and then try to think of an English word that comes from it.One has been done to show you how.

    culturαl notε

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    18

    Chαptεr Two

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    whαt wε lεαrnεd in chαptεr two

    The imperative is used to give commands. You can often recognise it in Greek as a verb ending in ε.

    Alpha makes the ‘a’ sound in ‘cat’.

    Kappa looks and sounds just like our letter ‘k’.

    Lambda sounds like our letter ‘l’.

    Tau sounds like our letter ‘t’.

    Beta looks very like our capital B and is pronounced in the same way.

    Rho is the letter ‘r’.

    Delta looks and sounds like our letter ‘d’.

    Epsilon looks like our letter ‘e’ and sounds like ‘eh’.

    ai is pronounced ‘eye’.

    ou makes the sound of the English ‘do’.

    au is pronounced as English ‘now’.

    the semi-colon is used as a question mark.

    Α αΚ κΛ λΤ τΒ β

    Ρ ρΔ δΕ εαιουαυ;

    Exercise 1 τις εἰ; Can you remember the names of these characters?

    Exercise 2Practise writing the following English words in Greek letters:lab air bark ball bad drab

    you?

    Basil’s word bank

    ἀκουε: listen! ἀλλα: but βαρβαρος: barbarian

    βαυ βαυ: a dog’s bark

    δια τι;: why?εἰ: you areεἰμι: I am ἰδου: look! See! ἰου: hooray! και: and κυριος: master μαλιστα: very much, a lot

    Μικρομυς: Mikromus

    οἰκος: household τις εἰ;: who are

    For extra writing practice, go to page 64.

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    19

    Chαptεr Thrεε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    After his story, baby Hektor sleeps soundly all night – and so do Basil and his friends. The next morning, they wake up with rumbling stomachs…

    Mikromus: Wake up, Βασιλευ! ἀλλα if you want breakfast νυν you’ll have to be quick. There was quite a feast in ὁ ἀνδρων last night και my spies tell me there’s quite a bit left over. ἀλλα the maid will be clearing up soon. We’ll οὐν have to be quick! Come on!

    [τελος they enter ὁ ἀνδρων.]

    Megamus: ἰου, ἰου! ἰδου! Look at this table – all my favourite foodsincluding cheese και olives!

    Βασιλευ ‘Ba-sill-you’: Hey Basil!

    νυν ‘noon’: nowὁ ‘ho’: theἀνδρων ‘and-roan’: men’s quarters/ part of the house

    οὐν ‘oon’: therefore, so

    τελος ‘tell-oss’: finally, at last

  • 20

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Thrεε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Basil: τι ἐστι in this one?

    Mikromus: Something the μελισσα made!

    Basil: μελισσα;

    [Μικρομυς points at a bee]

    ...oh yes, I see – μελισσα is the Greek word for a honey bee. ἰου ἰου! This οὐν must be honey. A little sweet for my taste. I think οὐν I’ll stick to flies, or rather they seem to be μαλιστα sticking to me νυν! ἀποβαινε, fly! Go away flies!

    τι ἐστι; ‘tee ess-tee’: what is?

    μελισσα ‘meh-liss-a’: honey-bee

    The Ancient Greek diet shared many similarities with the food we eat today: vegetables, fruit, fish, bread and cheese were all staples.

    However, unlike their modern counterparts, Ancient Greek cooks didn’t have sugar to sweeten their dishes, but instead had to use honey.

    In fact, this recipe for honey cakes has survived through the ages – why not try making them?↩︎

    Honey and sesame cakes

    100g sesame seeds

    60g flour

    2 tbsp honey

    1 tbsp light olive oil

    3 tbsp water

    Toast the sesame seeds under the grill until golden.

    Next, mix all the ingredients together until they form a rough dough. Make the dough into a ball and chill for one hour.

    Preheat the oven to 190°C.

    Roll out the dough on a lightly-floured surface to about a 5mm thickness. Cut out discs with a round cutter and transfer to a greased and lined baking tray.

    Bake for ten minutes until golden. Cool and serve.

    ἀποβαινε ‘ap-o-bye-neh’: go away!

    culturαl notε

  • Mikromus: οἰμοι, it’s Jason. Watch out, Βασιλευ!

    Megamus: ἰδου! οἰμοι, Jason, mind that vase!

    Basil: ἰδου, the beautiful vase is broken!

    Megamus: ἀλλα don’t worry, Alexandros can fix that. We’ll take it to the workshop και it’ll be as good as new…at least, I hope it will. That vase with Πεγασος on it was very expensive…ἀλλα at least Πεγασος got to fly for real at last!

    Basil: ἀλλα τι τουτο; What are the mice laughing about νυν;

    Lεttεr Guidε

    21

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Thrεε

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codε

    Gamma Γ γHave you heard of gamma rays? Well, they are named after the letter gamma. Τhe third letter of the Greek alphabet, it pronounced like the hard ‘g’ in ‘get’ and never like the soft ‘g’ in ‘giraffe’.

    When two gammas are written together – γγ – they make the sound ‘ng’. So to make the sound ‘bang’ in Greek, you would write: βαγγ. Here’s a real Greek example: ἀγγελος, the Greek word for messenger. Which English word do we get from this?

    Write in Greek letters* the following real Greek words: gamma, gamos (Greek for ‘marriage’), megas (big), megara (rooms), aigis (goatskin).

    Nu Ν ν is a really mean one. As a capital it looks and is pronounced exactly like our capital N; but in the lower case it looks very much like our letter ‘v’! Make sure that when you write it you make it pointed at the base so you don’t confuse it with upsilon υ.

    The word for ‘now’ in Greek has both of these letters: νυν. It is pronounced with the u sound as in ‘put’.

    Pi Π π is probably the most famous of the Greek letters. You may have met it in maths where it is used in formulae to measure circles. π is pronounced like our ‘p’.

    Omega Ω ω is our last letter in this chapter. This also happens to be the last letter of the alphabet. It looks like our ‘w’, but is a vowel and is pronounced ‘oh’. O-mega means ‘ô-big’, or ‘big ô’, as we would say.

    What was the Greek for ‘little-o’? And how is little-o different from big-ô?

    *Remember the breathings!

    Πεγασος ‘Pe-ga-soss’: Pegasus

  • λογος is a word that we find forming part of many English words. It means ‘story, reason, account’, and gives us the ending ‘-logy’ as in ‘biology’, ‘geology’ and ‘meteorology’. Do you know what they mean? If not, use a dictionary to help you. Can you discover any more words ending in ‘-logy’?

    timε-trαvεl words

    22

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Thrεε

    ἀλλα ἰδου! τι τουτο; τις smashed that vase?

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Basil: That wretched Jason did it! Do you think you can fix it?

    Alexandros: I’ll give it a go. I hope I can make it look as good as new. It’s my favourite vase after all. I love that picture of Πεγασος.

    Basil: Who is Πεγασος;

    Alexandros: Ah, let me tell you ὁ λογος about Πεγασος.

    ὁ λογος ‘ho log-oss’: the story

    μελισσα is a honey bee in Greek, and the French word ‘miel’ meaning ‘honey’ comes from this, as does the girl’s name ‘Melissa’.

    We get our word ‘mildew’ from it too, but it is certainly not something sweet to spread on toast; ‘mildew’ is in fact a type of fungus!

    This bee brooch is over 3,500 years old.

    In Greek thismeans ‘dried up’,

    ‘withered’A ‘garden’ in

    Greek, or a lovely place to be.

    ‘All-imitating’, a one person show,

    with many different characters.

    Not a friend of μυς

    He can be a bit snappy.

    Languagε dεtεctivε

    παντομιμος σκελετος καττα κροκοδιλος παραδεισος

    pantomime

    Can you match the Greek words up to the right clue and think of an English word that comes from it? The first one has been done to show you how.

    τι τουτο;: what’s this?

    τι τουτο;: what’s this?

  • Pegasus and Bellerophon

    Pegasus was a beautiful white flying horse. Although he was a horse, his mother was Medusa, the Gorgon who had snakes for hair. Zeus, the king of the gods, gave Pegasus a very important job – he had to carry Zeus’ thunder and lightning all the way down from the home of the gods on Mount Olympus. But he wasn’t just a glorified work-horse. Pegasus helped a hero called Bellerophon defeat one of the most terrifying creatures of all time, the dreaded Chimera.

    The Chimera was not a beast you’d want to meet on a dark night. Its front end was a fearsome lion, then sprouting from its back was a goat’s head, and at the rear end it had a snake for a tail. And just in case that wasn’t enough to get the bravest hero running for the hills, it also breathed fire.

    Ordinarily, Pegasus would not have let anyone ride him, but Bellerophon had divine help. After all, heroes wouldn’t be heroes without the help of the gods. Some say it was the god Poseidon, while others say it was Athene who helped him.

    Either way, Bellerophon mounted Pegasus and flew off into the sky in search of the Chimera. He soon found it, but couldn’t kill it, as every time he flew near he was scorched by the fire from the monster’s throat. Eventually he had an idea. He put a block of lead on the end of his spear and shoved it down the Chimera’s throat. When the beast breathed fire onto it the lead melted and blocked its throat, and so the Chimera suffocated.

    Lεttεr Guidε

    23

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Thrεε

    The verb ‘To be’ You have already met some parts of this verb: you know how to say ‘I am’ εἰμι and ‘you are’ or ‘are you?’ εἰ/εἰ;If you are learning a modern foreign language at the moment, you may see verbs set out like this: person singular (s.) plural (pl.)

    1 I we

    2 you you

    3 he/she/it they

    Greek verbs are set out in the same way. Here is the full present tense of the verb ‘to be’: person singular (s.) plural (pl.)

    1 εἰμι ἐσμεν I am we are

    2 εἰ ἐστε you are you are

    3 ἐστι(ν) εἰσι(ν)(s)he/it is they are

    Happy eNdingsDo you see there is a letter ν in brackets at the end of ἐστι(ν) and εἰσι(ν)? If the following word begins with a vowel, you add the ν; if not, then you leave it out. For example:ἐστιν ἀνδρων ‘It’s the men’s quarters’; but ἐστι Μικρομυς = ‘It’s Mikromus’.You also add ν if ἐστι or εἰσι ends a sentence. So......Μικρομυς ἐστιν. = ‘It’s Mikromus.’

    Bellerophon riding Pegasus.

    grαmmαr notε

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    Chαptεr Thrεε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    whαt wε lεαrnεd in chαptεr thrεε

    Γ γΝ ν

    Π πΩ ω

    Greek verbs work the same way as many other foreign languages:

    Gamma makes the hard ‘g’ sound in ‘got’.

    Nu sounds just like our letter ‘n’ but watch out – in the lower case it looks very much like our letter ‘v’!

    Pi is pronounced like our ‘p’.

    Omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. It looks like our ‘w’ but is a vowel and is pronounced ‘oh’.

    person singular (s.) plural (pl.)

    1 I we

    2 you you

    3 he/she/it they

    ὁ ἀνδρων: the men’s part of the house

    ἀποβαινε: go away!

    εἰμι: I am εἰ: you (s.) areἐστι(ν): he/she/ it is

    ἐσμεν: we are ἐστε: you (pl) areεἰσι(ν): they are ὁ λογος: the storyμαλιστα: very much

    μελισσα: honey-bee

    νυν: now ὁ: theοὐν: thereforeΠεγασος: Pegasus

    τελος: finallyτι ἐστι;: what is it?

    τι τουτο;: what’s this?

    Basil’s word bank

    Exercise 1 – Translate Can you translate the following sentences? (Turn back one page for help.)

    εἰμι Μικρομυς

    εἰ Μεγαμυς

    ἐστιν Ἑκτωρ

    ἐστε Ἑκτωρ και Σοφια

    εἰσιν Ἑκτωρ και Βασιλ

    ἐσμεν Μικρομυς και Μεγαμυς

    For extra writing practice, go to page 64.

  • Chαptεr Four

    Lεttεr Guidε

    25

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Alexandros και the animals βαινουσιν εἰς το workshop, clutching the bits of broken vase…

    Basil: ἀλλα τι τουτο; Alexandros γαρ is νυν having a go at mending the broken vase.

    Mikromus [βλεπει Alexandros]: σιγα! If we’re quiet, we can watch him mending τον vase. Watch out, though, ἰδου! τις ἐστιν over there? βλεπω τον κυνα!

    [He points at Jason. ὁ κυων is by the door ἀλλ’ οὐ βαινει εἰς τo workshop.]

    Basil: How is that vase coming along, Alexandros?

    Alexandros: βραδεως. I γαρ just can’t find the piece with το πλοιον on it. οἰμοι. ἀλλα που ἐστι το πλοιον; που ἐστιν; ἰου ἰου! ἰδου, το πλοιον ἐστι right here. εὐγε!

    Basil: Hmm! It looks as if that could take quite a while. Why don’t βλεπω some of the finished pieces?

    [βλεπει the other vases in the workshop.]

    βαινουσιν ‘b-eye-noo-seen’: they go

    εἰς ‘ehss’: intoτο ‘to’: the βλεπει ‘blep-eh’: he sees, watches, looks at

    σιγα! ‘see-ga’: be quiet!

    τον ‘ton’: the βλεπω ‘blep-oh’: I see

    τον κυνα ‘coo-na’: the dog

    ὁ κυων ‘coo-oh-n’: the dog

    οὐ ‘oo’: notβαινει ‘b-eye-neh’: he goes

    βραδεως ‘brad-ee-oh-s’: slowly

    γαρ ‘gar’: for, because

    το πλοιον ‘ploy-on’: the boat

    που ‘poo’: where? εὐγε! ‘ay-oo-geh’: very good, excellent!

  • crαck thε αlphαbεt codε

    Using paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the letters Η η, Θ θ, Ζ ζ and Χ χ.

    Eta (‘air-ta’) Η η looks like a letter ‘n’ with a long tail but it is a vowel. It makes a ‘long’ e sound but more like ‘eh’ or ‘air’ than ‘ee’. η is the long version of ε epsilon which, as you know, is pronounced as in ‘egg’.

    Mikromus: What are you doing in there, Βασιλευ? ἀλλα τις ἐστιν in there with you? οἰμοι! τι τουτο; ἡ Μεδουσα γαρ ἐστιν!

    [ὁ terrified Μικρομυς falls into τον cup too.]

    οἰμοι! δεινη ἐστι Μεδουσα. ἐλθε! σωζε με! βοηθει, βοηθει!

    Βasil: Just looks like a picture to me. But a μαλιστα δεινη one, I must say – all those snakes. ἀλλα τι νυν are we going to do?

    Mikromus: Don’t worry, Μεγαμυς will save us!

    26

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    Chαptεr Four

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Basil: These vases really are something. ἰδου! There’s a δελφις on this one... ἰδου, βλεπω το πλοιον...ἰδου, ἡ θαλαττα. εὐγε!

    I think I’ll hop up here and have a look inside one of these cups. ἰδου! There’s even a picture inside one. εὐγε! Now that is μαλιστα clever.

    [He leans over και καταδυει into a cup.]

    Mikromus: ἐλθε, Μεγαμυ! Have you seen τον frog anywhere? I’ve had enough of being in here. I’m starving μαλιστα, και ἐθελω to go back. ἀλλα we can’t leave without him. ἀλλα που ἐστι νυν ὁ βατραχος?

    Mikromus και Megamus: βατραχε, που εἰ;

    Βasil: βοηθει! ἐλθε! σωζε με, σωζε με!

    [Μικρομυς και Μεγαμυς τελος find the cup.]

    Theta Θ θ looks a little bit like an Easter egg. It is pronounced like ‘th’ in ‘thirst’.

    Zeta Ζ ζ is one of the stranger looking letters. It is pronounced like the ‘sd’ in the word ‘wisdom’.

    Khi (‘k-eye’) Χ χ: hard breathy k sound like the ch in ‘chaos’.

    Η η

    Θ θ

    Ζ ζ

    Χ χ

    δελφις ‘del-fiss’: a dolphin

    ἡ θαλαττα ‘hair tha-latt-a’: the sea

    καταδυει ‘cat-a-doo-eh’: falls, sinks

    ἐλθε ‘el-theh’: come!

    Μεγαμυ: hey Megamus

    τον: the ἐθελω ‘eth-ell-oh’: I wish, want

    ὁ βατραχος ‘ho bat-ra-khos’: the frog

    βατραχε: hey frog βοηθει! ‘bo-air-theh’: help!

    σωζε με ‘sohs-deh meh’: save me!

    ἡ Μεδουσα ‘hair Meh-doo-sa’: [the] Medusa

    δεινη ‘deh-nair’: terrible, frightening

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    27

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Four

    Μεδουσα: in the Greek stories, Medusa was a frightening monster with terrifying snakes for hair. She could turn you to stone with one glance. Today the French use her name as their word for the jellyfish, ‘une meduse’. It looks a bit like Medusa, don’t you think, and it can be just as deadly. Her story is on the next page.

    δεινος: this meant ‘terrible, awesome’, and it gives us the word ‘dinosaur’. σαυρος means ‘lizard’ so a dinosaur was really just a terrible lizard – a δεινος σαυρος. in fact, many dinosaurs’ names contain Greek. Find out what these names mean. brontosaurus pterodactyl triceratops tyrannosaurus rex

    (there’s actually a bit of Latin in here, too!)

    timε-trαvεl w

    ords

    σιγα! Someone γαρ is coming... σιγα, σιγα! I think I’d better hop in with you.

    The vocative You may have noticed that when a character talks to another by name, that name sometimes changes slightly at the end. For example

    This changed noun ending is known as the vocative, and is used when addressing someone directly. The word ‘vocative’ comes from the Latin verb ‘vocare’, ‘to call’.

    Βατραχε, που εἰ;

    ἐλθε Μεγαμυ!

    Wake up, Βασιλευ!

    grαmmαr notε

    σιγα!

  • 28

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    Chαptεr Four

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Medusa and Perseus

    The story of Medusa is indeed a terrible tale. Medusa was once a beautiful mortal, but she unwisely bragged of her excellence. Now this is a very dangerous thing to do, as the gods do not like mortals getting ideas above their station. Especially annoyed by Medusa’s over-inflated opinion of herself was Athena. The powerful goddess decided to teach Medusa a lesson by turning her beautiful hair into hissing, writhing snakes. In case such a hideous appearance wasn’t enough to keep Medusa in solitude, Athena also cursed Medusa with the power to turn anyone to stone simply by looking at them. Medusa was truly now a monster.

    Obviously, the world wanted Medusa dead and gone, but that’s not so easy when your opponent can turn you to stone through the sheer power of her gaze. Knowing the difficulty of the task, the scheming King Polydectes sent the hero Perseus on a quest. ‘Fetch me the head of Medusa the Gorgon!’ he commanded, in the hope that, with the young man sent to his doom, he would finally be able to marry Perseus’ mother, Danaë.

    Now, how could Perseus slay and cut off the head of such a fearsome creature? The answer as usual came from Olympus. Athena, goddess of war and wisdom, woke Perseus one night as he slept and presented him with a shining shield. ‘Use the reflection in this shield to see your enemy,’ she counselled. ‘That way, you can defeat Medusa without gazing directly on her.’ Perseus thanked Athena. The next day, with this clever plan in his head and renewed courage in his heart, he set off to slay Medusa.

    Time passed. The evil King Polydectes, convinced that Perseus was long since petrified and out of the picture, relaxed and made plans for his upcoming marriage to the unwilling Danaë. Yet his plans never came to fruition as, on his return home, Perseus greeted Polydectes by holding up Medusa’s severed head to his gaze. With the unwanted suitor turned to stone, Perseus and his mother jubilantly escaped to safety.

    In this picture you can see Perseus fleeing with Medusa’s head in his bag.

    Megamus: While we’re stuck in here, I’ll tell you τον story of your new friend Medusa with the snakey hair-do. δεινος ἐστιν ὁ λογος!

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    29

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Four

    PotteryWe know a lot about Ancient Greek culture today from decorative pictures that survive on pottery. Pictures on pottery were diverse, from everyday scenes to representations of gods and myths. The ‘black-figure’ style (see right) was the first to emerge, and this was then replaced in time by the ‘red-figure’ style (far right). Painters could become very famous for their skill, and their pots could become very valuable items and were traded all around the Mediterranean area.

    Where a king or queen might sit A good place for

    swimming, sailing and diving.

    An animal with a horn (‘κερας’) on its

    nose (‘ῥινο-’). A creature adaptedfor survival in

    the desert.

    Big cat that lives in a group called

    a ‘pride’.

    Languagε dεtεctivεCan you match the Greek words up to the right clue and think of an Englishword that comes from it? The first one has been done to show you how.

    ῥινοκερως καμηλος θρονος λεων ὠκεανοςrhinoceros

    culturαl notε

  • Exercise 1 – Translate to English What do these verbs mean in English? The first has been done for you.1. βαινομεν We go2. ἐθελουσι3. λεγετε4. σωζει5. ἀκουετε6. βλεπομεν 7. σωζομεν8. ἀγουσι9. ἐθελω10. ἀκουεις

    Exercise 2 – Translate to GreekCan you translate the following into Greek? Remember: get the stem by knocking off the –ω, and then add the right ending. 1. They hear ἀκουσι2. We save3. They go4. He wants5. I say6. You (pl.) lead7. You (s.) wish8. She goes

    Regular verbsIn the last chapter you met the verb ‘to be’, which is an irregular verb. Now it is time to meet a regular verb. So far this chapter you have met:

    Βλεπω which means ‘I see’ Βλεπομεν which means ‘we see’ Βλεπει which means ‘he/she or it sees’Good spot, Basil. The first bit of the verb stays the same – it’s known as the ‘stem’. However, the ending changes, depending on who is doing the action of the verb. Here is βλεπω with all the endings:

    singular (s.) plural (pl.)

    1 Βλεπω Βλεπομεν I see, we see, am seeing are seeing

    2 Βλεπεις Βλεπετε you see, you see, are seeing are seeing

    3 Βλεπει Βλεπουσι(ν) he/she/it sees they see, is seeing are seeing

    There are more verbs you’ve met that work exactly like βλεπω, where the stem stays the same and the ending changes depending on who is doing the action of the verb:

    ἀκουω ‘I hear’ βαινω ‘I go’λεγω ‘I say, speak’ ἀγω ‘I lead’ἐθελω ‘I wish, want’ σωζω ‘I save’

    30

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Four

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    That’s clever – the βλεπ- part stays the same, and the ending changes

    depending on who is doing the seeing!

    grαmmαr notε

  • whαt wε lεαrnεd in chαptεr four

    Eta makes a ‘long’ e sounds like ‘eh’ or ‘air’.

    Theta, which looks a little bit like an Easter egg, is pronounced like the ‘th’ in ‘thirst’.

    Zeta is pronounced like the ‘sd’ in ‘wisdom’.

    Khi is drawn as a cross and pronounced with a hard breathy k sound like the ch in ‘chaos’. Try to make it different to kappa k.

    person singular (s.) plural (pl.)

    1 -ω I -ομεν we 2 -εις you -ετε you 3 -ει he/she/it -ουσι(ν) they

    Η ηΘ θ

    Ζ ζΧ χ

    Regular verbs The stem (first bit) of a regular verb stays the same but the ending changes depending on who is doing the action of the verb. The endings are:

    The vocative In Greek when someone is being addressed directly, the ending of their name changes. This form is called the vocative. Help Basil practise this in the exercise on the next page.

    βαινω: I goβατραχος: frogβλεπω: I see, watch, look at

    βοηθει!: help!βραδεως: slowlyγαρ: for, because (second word in Greek, first in English)

    δεινη: terrible, frightening

    ὁ δελφις, δελφιν-: dolphin

    ἐθελω: I wish, want

    εἰς: intoἐλθε!: come!εὐγε: excellent! Very good!

    ἡ or την or το or τον: the

    ἡ θαλαττα: the seaκαταδυει: he sinksὁ κυων: the dogμε: meἡ Μεδουσα: the Medusa

    Basil’s word bank

    Exercise 1 – Translate Translate these sentences into English.

    1. νυν ἀκουω

    2. βαινουσιν

    3. Βασιλ λεγει και ἀκουει

    4. τελος ὁ δελφις βαινει

    5. λεγουσιν

    6. ἐθελεις

    7. σωζετε

    8. ἀλλα τις ἀκουει;

    9. Σοφια βλεπει και ἀκουει

    10. σωζει

    Lεttεr Guidε

    31

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Four

    Μεγαμυ: Hey Megamus

    οὐ: not, noπλοιον: boatπου: where?σιγα: quietσωζε με: save me!

  • Exercise 3 – What is Basil saying to his friends?Basil is using the vocative to call out to his friends, but whom is he addressing in each picture? Join each speech bubble to the right friend.

    Can you now translate what Basil is saying to his friends?

    32

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Four

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Exercise 2 – match the animal1. πανθηρ2. τιγρις3. λεων4. καττα5. κροκοδιλος6. καμηλος7.δελφις8. ῥινοκερως

    3

    Μεγαμυ! σωζε με!

    ἰδου Ἑκτoρ!

    ἐλθε Μικρομυ!

    For extra writing practice, go to page 64.

  • 33

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Fivε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    All this excitement has been too much for Basil, Mikromus and Megamus and they have fallen fast asleep in their hiding place in the cup. But Basil ἐξαιφνης wakes up…

    Basil: ἰδου! Come and see what I can see!

    Mikromus and Megamus: τις ἡ βοη, Βασιλευ; τι ἐστιν; δια τι καλεις;

    Basil: καλω διοτι βλεπω something exciting – ἡ γραφη of us ἐν the γυναικων!

    Mikromus: τι λεγεις, Βασιλευ;

    Basil: λεγω ὁτι βλεπω something – ἡ γραφη of us! ἐλθε, ταχυ!

    Mikromus: ἀλλα ἐσμεν male, Βασιλευ! Males οὐ βαινουσιν into the

    ἐξαιφνης ‘ex-eye-f-nay-ss: suddenly

    τις ἡ βοη ‘tiss hair bo-air’: what [is] the shout(ing)

    καλεις ‘cal-ehs’: You call out

    καλω ‘cal-oh’: I call out

    διοτι ‘dee-o-ti’: because

    ἡ γραφη ‘hair graf-air’: the picture, drawing

    ἐν: inγυναικων ‘guh-n-eye-cone’: women’s quarters

    τι λεγεις ‘ti leg-ehs’: what are you saying?

    ταχυ ‘tack-hu’: quickly

    λεγω ὁτι ‘leg-oh hot-tee’: I say that

    σωος ‘soh-oss’: safeψυχη ‘p-soo-k-air’: life, soul, mind

    γυναικων. I wouldn’t feel at all σωος doing that.

    Megamus: ἀλλα δια τι don’t we dress up as women and go into the γυναικων;

    Basil: Dress up as a woman? Upon my ψυχη! How undignified. We frogs are far too sophisticated for that sort of nonsense.

    Mikromus: σιγα, Βασιλευ! Just hurry up and put your dress on. Look! We have a nice long, frog-coloured women’s robe for you.

  • μητηρ ‘mair-teh-r’: mother

    πλεω ‘pleh-oh’: I sail

    φιλοι ‘fill-oy’: friends

    μενει ‘men-eh’: he waits, stays

    καλος ‘cal-oss’: lovely, fine

    οὐκ ‘ook’: notμωρος ‘moh-ross’: stupid

    φιλει ‘fill-eh’: he loves

    τον μυν: the mouse

    πατηρ ‘pat-air’: father

    ἱππος ‘hip-oss’: horse

    Sophia: My μητηρ needs to see this. Μαμμια! ἐλθε! ἰδου! γραφη γαρ ἐστι - βατραχος και μυς και πλοιον! ἰδου!και λογος ἐστιν!

    Basil: τις ὁ λογος;

    Sophia: ἰδου! ὁ βατραχος πλει across the θαλαττα και ἐξαιφνης meets a μυς, και νυν εἰσι φιλοι, και ὁ βατραχος μενει ἐν the οἰκος of the μυς…

    Mother: ἐστι καλος ὁ λογος, Σοφια, καὶ καλη ἡ γραφη, ἀλλα you know that would never happen. ὁ γαρ βατραχος και ὁ μυς οὐκ εἰσι φιλοι.

    Basil: τι λεγει ἡ μητηρ; φιλοι γαρ ἐσμεν! μωρα ἐστιν!

    Sophia: ἀλλα δια τι φιλοι οὐκ εἰσιν, Μαμμια; δια τι ὁ βατραχος οὐ φιλει τον μυν;

    Mother: ὁ βατραχος οὐ φιλει τον μυν διοτι they live in different sorts of places. Now look at ὁ λογος on my picture! It is about ὁ κυων who ἐστι so selfish that, just διοτι he has nothing to eat, he decides that no one else is going to eat either. ἰδου! He just sits in the horse’s hay και spoils it. I thought your πατηρ would like it as there is a ἱππος and a κυων in the picture. ἀλλα ὁ κυων ἐστι μαλιστα unpleasant...

    34

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Fivε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

  • The definite articleThe ‘definite article’ is a grand name for a small word, the determiner. In English is it ‘the’. Greek has a definite article, too. In fact, it has several. Take a look at the following sentences:

    Greek also often uses the definite article in front of names (proper nouns):

    What do you notice about the words for ‘the’, Basil?

    Spot on! But why does Ancient Greek need so many? First of all, think of English. Why do we need the words ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’?

    Well done again! The word we use to distinguish males, females and things is ‘gender’. Greek, like English, has three genders. ὁ is used with things that are masculine; ἡ with things that are feminine; and το with things that are neuter, that is, neither masculine nor feminine.

    Every single noun in Greek has a gender, and these genders can seem strange to English-speaking ears, like γραφη (feminine) and λογος (masculine).

    masculine m. feminine f. neuter n.

    ὁ ἡ το

    ὁ βατραχος ἐστι καλος ‘the frog is lovely’ ἡ γραφη ἐστι καλη ‘the picture is lovely’ το πλοιον ἐστι καλον ‘the ship is lovely’

    ὁ Ἀλεξανδρος ἐστι καλος ‘(the) Alexander is lovely’

    ἡ Σοφια ἐστι καλη ‘(the) Sophia is lovely’

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    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Fivε

    There are three different onesὁ, ἡ and το.

    Well, ‘hes’ are boys, ‘shes’ are girls and ‘its’ are things.

    Exercise 1 – Translate to English Add the right form of ‘the’ to the following common nouns and proper nouns (names) and things. Remember to get the correct gender.

    Can you spot any English words we get from these?

    ἱππος(m. ‘horse’)

    μηλον(n. ‘apple’)

    δελφις(m. ‘dolphin’)

    θεος(m. ‘god’)

    γη(f. ‘land’)

    ποταμος(m. ‘river’)

    θεα(f ‘goddess’)

    ποιημα(n. ‘poem’)

    Βατραχος(m. ‘frog’)

    φιλος(m. ‘friend’)

    θαλαττα(f. ‘sea’)

    καρδια(f. ‘heart’)

    Μεδουσα(f. ‘Medusa’)

    ἐργον(n. ‘work’)

    δουλος(m. ‘slave’)

    grαmmαr notε

  • 36

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Fivε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    crαck thε αlphαbεt codεUsing paper and pencil or a whiteboard and marker, practise writing the lettersΦ φ, Ψ ψ and Ξ ξ.

    In this chapter we have met the final three letters of the Greek Alphabet.

    Phi Φ φ looks like a circle with a vertical line down the middle. It is pronounced like our ‘f’.

    Psi Ψ ψ ‘ps-eye’ looks just like a trident that Ποσειδον might be holding. It is pronounced ‘ps’ as in ‘tips’.

    Xi Ξ ξ is pronounced like our ‘x’. It does take some practice to get those curves drawn right: try writing a backwards ‘3’ and add a quiff at the top and a tail at the bottom.

    ὁ ποταμος ‘ho pot-am-oss’: river

    γη ‘gair’: landμελας ‘mell-as’: dark, black

    οὐρανος ‘oo-ran-oss’: sky

    χειμων ‘kh-eh-moan’: storm

    καλλιστη ‘cal-iss-tair’: the best, most beautiful, (from καλος)

    φοβερα ‘fob-eh-ra’ : fearful, afraid

    ἐγω ‘egg-oh’: Iἐμος ‘em-oss’: myἈραχνη ‘A-rack-neh’: Arachne

    μωρα ‘moh-ra’: silly, stupid, foolish

    Sophia’s μητηρ goes out of the γυναικων. Catching sight of her animal friends, Sophia is keen to show off her work…

    Sophia: ἰδου! I have made a picture on my loom. I’ve made ὁ ποταμος flowing through a γη, and look, above it I’ve woven a μελας οὐρανος – it looks like a χειμων is about tobreak. εἰμι such a great weaver!καλλιστη ἐστιν ἡ γραφη!

    Mikromus: καλλιστη ἐστι, Σοφια, ἀλλα [he looks around] you must be very careful and you mustn’t show off. Ιt is dangerous....

    [ἡ Σοφια looks worried.]

    Sophia: φοβερα εἰμι ἐγω. Why must I not show off?

    Mikromus: Listen to λογος ἐμος about a girl called Ἀραχνη, who was very clever ἀλλα μαλιστα μωρα. δεινος ὁ ἐμος λογος ἐστιν…

    Φ φ

    Ψ ψ

    Ξ ξ

  • Arachne

    There was once a very beautiful and talented girl called Arachne, who was amazingly skilled at weaving – perhaps the greatest weaver who had ever lived. Unfortunately, Arachne knew she was good, and she wasn’t afraid to let people know it. She even foolishly bragged that she was a better weaver than Athena, the goddess of technology. Athena heard the girl’s boast, grew very angry and decided that the girl must be punished.

    Athena challenged Arachne to a weaving contest, and Arachne accepted the challenge. Both stood by their looms and, at a given signal, both began to weave. Arachne unwisely chose to weave a picture of the bad behaviour of the gods, Athena’s family – hardly tactful!

    The goddess worked with supernatural speed and grace and created a cloth fine enough even for Aphrodite, goddess of beauty, to wear. Not to be outdone, Arachne used all her skill and produced a cloth like none other seen before in the mortal world.

    Realising that Arachne’s skill rivalled her own, Athena grew terribly, terribly angry. Picking up her spear, she struck Arachne on the forehead, and in an instant the girl was dead. She then suspended her by a thread from her loom so that others would know not to dare offend a goddess. But just as she was about to leave, Athene began to feel pity in her heart. As the goddess in charge of technology, perhaps she ought to have been proud of Arachne. Smiling sadly at the foolish girl, she brought her back to life as a spider, forever weaving her silky web.

    37

    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Fivε

    timε-trαvεl words

    ψυχη is the Greek for ‘life’. It also meant ‘soul’ or ‘mind’ and this is how we still use it today in our words ‘psychology’ (ψυχη + λογος, ‘an account of the mind’) and ‘psychiatry’ (ψυχη + ἰατρος: ἰατρος meant ‘doctor’, so it means ‘curing the mind’, which is what a ‘psychiatrist’ hopes to do).

    ἐγω This word meaning ‘I’ has given us a word to mean your opinion of yourself. It has also given us the word ‘egotist’ which is someone who has a very high opinion of themselves.

    μητηρ, πατηρ: two more words that have sounded almost the same across many languages for thousands of years. In Latin these words were‘mater’,‘pater’, and have given us ‘maternal’ and ‘paternity’; in German ‘Mutter’ and ‘Vater’; French ‘mère’ and ‘père’; and English ‘mother’ and ‘father’.

    This pot, from around 430 BCE, shows a detailed picture of a loom.

  • 38

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Fivε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    μωρος: foolishκαλος: lovely, beautiful, handsome, fine

    φοβερος: fearful, terrifying

    δεινος: terrible, amazing

    You probably know that an adjective is a ‘describing word’, like καλος, ‘lovely’ or φοβερος ‘fearful, terrifying’.

    Just like the definite article (ὁ ἡ το) matches (or ‘agrees’) with the gender, you may be unsurprised to discover that Greek adjectives do just the same. Have a look at these sentences:

    The adjective changes to agree in gender with the thing it describes whether masculine, feminine or neuter. So:ὁ (masculine) goes with καλος and φοβερος

    ἡ (feminine) goes with καλη and φοβερα

    το (neuter) goes with καλον and φοβερον

    So we can now update our chart and add adjectives to the definite article, as follows:masculine m. feminine f. neuter n.

    ὁ ἡ το καλος καλη καλον φοβερος φοβερα φοβερονNote the feminine forms: most adjectives go like καλος, turning to καλη in the feminine. But adjectives ending in ‘-ρος’ like φοβερος turn into φοβερα in the feminine.

    ὁ βατραχος ἐστι καλος, ἀλλα φοβερος ‘The frog is lovely but terrifying.’ἡ Σοφια ἐστι καλη, ἀλλα φοβερα ‘Sophia is lovely but terrifying.’το πλοιον ἐστι καλον, ἀλλα φοβερον ‘The ship is lovely but terrifying.’

    μωρος οὐκ εἰμι!

    Exercise 1 – Pick the correct form After reading the grammar note, try and pick the correct gender form of the adjective to describe these nouns, then translate. The first one has been done to show you how.

    1. ὁ βατραχος ἐστι (μωρος / μωρα / μωρον). The frog is foolish

    2. ἡ γραφη ἐστι (καλος / καλη / καλον).

    3. το πλοιον ἐστι (καλος / καλη / καλον).

    4. ἡ Μεδουσα ἐστι (φοβερος / φοβερα / φοβερον).

    5. ὁ ἱππος ἐστι (μωρος / μωρα / μωρον).

    6. ὁ λογος ἐστι (δεινος / δεινη / δεινον).

    grαmmαr notε

  • Phi is pronounced like our ‘f’.Psi is pronounced ‘ps’ as in ‘tips’.

    Xi sounds like our English ‘x’.

    The definite article (‘the’)Greek often uses the definite article in front of common nouns and proper nouns, and has three different gender versions which must agree with the gender of the noun each is attached to:

    AdjectivesThe adjective changes to agree in gender with the thing it describes whether masuline, feminine or neuter, with the endings as follows:

    There are a lot of new words in Basil’s word bank for this chapter.

    Take a few minutes to go through them before you move on. They will all help Basil to understand his ancestor’s letter.

    If you ever forget a word, turn to Basil’s Word Bank on pages 55 to 62.

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    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Chαptεr Fivε

    whαt wε lεαrnεd in chαptεr fivε

    Φ φΨ ψΞ ξ

    masculine m. feminine f. neuter n.

    ὁ ἡ το

    Ἀραχνη: Arachne ἡ βοη: a shout ἡ γη: landἡ γραφη: the picture, drawing

    γυναικων: women’s quarters

    διοτι: becauseἐγω: Iἐμος: myἐν: in ἐξαιφνης: suddenly

    ὁ ἱππος: horseκαλλιστη: the best, most beautiful, (from καλος)

    καλος: lovely, beautiful, handsome, fine

    καλω: I call outλεγω: I speak, sayμελας: dark, black

    μενω: I wait, stayἡ μητηρ: motherμωρος, μωρα: foolish

    m. f. n.

    καλος καλη καλον φοβερος φοβερα φοβερον

    Basil’s word bank

    ὁτι: thatοὐκ: not ὁ οὐρανος: skyὁ πατηρ: fatherπλεω: I sailὁ ποταμος: riverσωος: safe ταχυ: quicklyφιλοι: friendsφιλω: I love, likeφοβερος α ον: fearful; terrifying

    ὁ χειμων: stormἡ ψυχη:life, soul, mind

    For extra writing practice, go to page 64.

  • 40

    Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Fivε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Translates as ‘leisure’ but you might not agree.

    You may have one in your bathroom.

    The Greek word for ‘king’ that

    gives us the name of the herb.

    A famous sports brand that means ‘victory’ in

    Greek.

    Means ‘voice’, gives its name to a useful modern

    invention.

    Languagε dεtεctivεCan you match the Greek wordsup to the right clue and think of an English word that comes from it? The first one has been done to show you how.

    βασιλευς νικη σχολη σπογγος φωνηBasil

    Βασιλευς ‘ba-sill-eh-us’: king

    So our intrepid frog’s first name means ‘king’.

    Bow down before King Basil!

    Speedy pop quiz!Can you remember what these words mean?

    φοβερος

    ἡ μητηρ

    ἐξαιφνης

    πλεω

    ἐγω

  • βλεπω τον Παρθενωνα, temple of the goddess Ἀθηνη!

    Basil: τι τουτο; [he points to a temple.]

    Mikromus: That’s ὁ ναος of the god Ἡφαιστος, και ἐκει ἐστιν ὁ altar of Ζευς, και ἐκει βλεπεις τον ναον of Ἀρης, και ἐκει βλεπεις τον ναον of Ἀπολλων, και ἐκει βλεπεις all the shops και market stalls και το ἐμποριον, where the traders borrow money. It’s very busy here. Let’s try not to get trodden on!

    41

    Chαptεr Six

    Lεttεr Guidε

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Basil, Megamus and Mikromus have decided to go exploring, and have hitched a lift on a cart going to town…

    Basil: που ἐσμεν, Μεγαμυ;

    Megamus: Don’t ask me, Βασιλευ. I’m just a country mouse. Ask clever-clogs here.

    Basil: που ἐσμεν, Μικρομυ; τι βλεπω;

    Mikromus: βλεπεις την ἀγοραν. ἐκει γαρ ἐσμεν, Βασιλευ. [ἐξαιφνης] ἰδου!

    την ἀγοραν ‘tairn agg-or-an’: the agora, market-place

    ἐκει ‘eck-eh’: there

    τον Παρθενωνα ‘tonn Par-then-oh-na’: the Parthenon

    Ἀθηνη ‘Ath-air-nair’: Athene

    ὁ ναος ‘ho na-oss’: the temple

    Ἡφαιστος ‘Hair-fy-stoss’: Hephaestus

    Ζευς ‘Ze-yoos’: Zeus

    τον ναον ‘ton na-on’: the temple

    Ἀρης ‘A-rairs’: Ares

    Ἀπολλων ‘App-oll-oh-n’: Apollo

    ἐμποριον ‘em-po-ree-on’: money-lender’s stall

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Six

    42

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    The Ancient Greeks worshipped twelve main gods, called the Olympians after their home on Mount Olympus. They each had special powers and symbols.

    goddessἩραHera (queen)

    ἈθηνηAthena

    ἈρτεμιςArtemis

    ἈφροδιτηAphrodite

    ΔημητηρDemeter

    power/in charge ofwomen, marriage

    wisdom, battle strategy, handicraft

    hunting

    love, beauty

    crops

    symbolpeacock

    olive tree, owl

    bow and arrow, moon

    swan, dove

    wheat ears,

    torch

    godΖευςZeus

    ἈρηςAres

    ἈπολλωνApollo

    ἙρμηςHermes

    ἉιδηςHades

    ΠοσειδωνPoseidon

    ἩφαιστοςHephaistos

    power/in charge ofsky, weather, la

    war, violence

    music, medicine prophecy

    messengers, thieves

    the dead, the underworld

    seas, earthquakes, horses

    fire, craftsmen

    symbolthunderbolt, eagle

    shield, spear

    laurel wreath, lyre, sun

    winged sandals, staff

    three-headed dog, staff

    trident

    hammer, tongs, anvil

    This pot is painted with scenes from Mount Olympus. See if you can find out which god is which. The most important god is sitting down in the image above. The three images below show you round the rest of the pot.

    culturαl notε

  • Chαptεr Six

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Lεttεr Guidε

    43

    Well, I am doing the action, so the Parthenon must be receiving the action…so it’s the object!

    Nominative and accusative articles

    We saw in the last chapter that there are three different words for ‘the’ in Greek: ὁ (masculine), ἡ (feminine) and το (neuter). But did you notice that some more versions of ‘the’ have now crept into our story?

    Calm down Basil! It is for a very logical reason. Let’s take a look at one of those sentences again.

    Answer me this question, Basil. Is the Parthenon the subject of the sentence, doing the action? Or is it the object, receiving the action?

    Spot on! So in Greek, we change the definite article not just depending on the gender of the noun following, but depending on whether the noun is the subject or the object of the sentence. And if you want to be really fancy, we can call the subject the nominative case and the object the accusative case.

    m. f. n.

    nominative(subject) ὁ ἡ το

    accusative(object) τον την το

    Βλεπω τον Παρθενωνα ‘I see the Parthenon’Βλεπεις την ἀγοραν‘You see the marketplace.’

    Βλεπω τον Παρθενωνα ‘I see the Parthenon’

    οἰμοι! Nooooo! Why!!!!

    Exercise – Nominitive or Accusative Tick the boxes to show whether the article underlined is in the nominative (subject) or accusative (object) case. The first one has been done to show you how.

    nominative accusative1. Basil can see την ἀγοραν.2. ἡ ἀγορα is very busy.3. ὁ βατραχος likes honey.4. Megamus helps τον βατραχον.5. Sophia saw το ἐμποριον.*6. το ἐμποριον contains gold.**The last two are tricky – the neuter article is the same in both nominativeand accusative cases. Check the meaning and context to find the answer.

    grαmmαr notε

  • Lεttεr Guidε

    Chαptεr Six

    44

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Ἐξαιφνης, the animals in ἡ ἀγορα see Σοφια rushing toward them carrying a crying Ἑκτωρ.

    Sophia: Shhh, Ἑκτωρ. Let’s just get across την ἀγοραν. ἰδου, Ἑκτωρ – ἐστι βατραχος! Βλεπεις τον βατραχον;

    Hector: ἰδου! βλεπω τον βατραχον! βατραχε, ἐλθε! τον βατραχον φιλω!

    [το παιδιον stops crying, hugs τον βατραχον, and falls asleep.]

    Basil: What are you doing here in town, Sophia?

    Sophia: I’ve come to look for my brother. I’m in trouble if οὐχ εὑρισκω το δωρον for our πατηρ. It’s his birthday tomorrow και οὐκ ἐχομεν τον δωρον.

    Basil: But how are we going to find τον Ἀλεξανδρον. ἡ ἀγορα is very busy. It’ll take ages to search την ἀγοραν for him.

    Megamus: He’ll be with his teacher. Ηe’ll οὐ be sad for us to rescue him from his lessons!

    Sophia: Good idea, Μεγαμυς. But it is οὐκ a good idea for me to move and wake το παιδιον up. You’re γαρ μικρος and can easily slip through the crowds and cross την ἀγοραν, so how about you go and fetch τον Ἀλεχανδρον and bring him here.

    Megamus: Well, we’ve οὐ got anything better to do. Come on Μικρομυ, come on Βασιλευ!

    [Τhe friends set off…]

    timε-trαvεl words

    κυων: You have met the Greek for ‘dog’ – κυων - and the Greek for ‘dog-like’ is κυνικος. That word gives us the English ‘cynic’, or ‘cynical’. This means someone who sneers or mocks at anyone who tries to do good. Is that a fair thing to say about dogs?

    ἀγορα: agora in Greek meant ‘market place’. In English we have the word ‘agoraphobia’ which means fear of crowded places. φοβος in Greek meant ‘fear’. Do you know what fears these following ‘-phobia’ (‘fear’) words refer to? The answers are on p. 48.claustrophobia arachnophobia hydrophobia xenophobia

    οὐχ εὑρισκω ‘ookh he-you-risk-oh’: I do not find

    δωρον ‘doh-ron’: present, gift

    οὐκ ἐχομεν ‘ook ekh-oh-men’: we do not have

    το παιδιον ‘to pie-dee-on’: the small child

    Negatives

    In Greek we can make a phrase or sentence negative, just like in English:οὐ βλεπει – you don’t seeοὐκ ἐχομεν – we do not haveοὐχ εὑρισκω – I don’t findThree different ways of writing the Greek word for ‘not’ are necessary: οὐ is used if the next word starts with a consonant; οὐκ if the next word starts with a vowel and smooth breathing (’) and οὐχ if the next word starts with a vowel and a rough breathing (‘).

    grαmmαr notε

  • Chαptεr Six

    α alpha a • β beta b • γ gamma g • δ delta d • ε epsilon e • ζ zeta sd(z) • η ēta ē • θ theta th • ι iota i • κ kappa k • λ lambda l • µ mu m • ν nu n • ξ xi x • ο omicron o • π pi p • ρ rho r • σ/ς sigma s • τ tau t • υ upsilon u • φ phi ph • χ khi ch/kh • ψ psi ps • ω omega ō

    Lεttεr Guidε

    45

    Yes! The endings of the nouns change when they’re the object of the sentence – ἀγορα to ἀγοραν and βατραχος to βατραχον…

    Nominative and accusative nouns.

    The keen-eyed among you may have spotted that something other than the article changes when it becomes the object of the sentence:

    Can you see what is going on here, Basil?

    Here is how it works:

    Looking at the endings of nouns is a particularly important rule in Greek. Take the following sentence:

    Batrakhos sees Sophia.

    In English, we know Batrakhos is the subject, Sophia the object because of the word order. In English, the subject comes before the verb and the