Chapter1pps what is psychology , perspectives

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  • 1.The Science ofPsychologyChapter 1

2. Historical Overview The word "psychology" is the combination oftwo terms - study (ology) and soul (psyche), ormind The word psychology literally means, "the studyof the soul" (, psukh, meaning "breath","spirit", or "soul"; and - -logos, translatedas "study of" or "research") The study of psychology in a philosophicalcontext dates back to the ancient civilizations ofEgypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. 3. Historical Overview Historians point to the writings of ancient Greekphilosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle(especially in his De Anima treatise), as the firstsignificant body of work in the West to be rich inpsychological thought. As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physicianHippocrates theorized that mental disorderswere of a physical, rather than divine,nature.1879 was the year The First PsychologyLaboratory opened by Wilhelm Wundt at theUniversity of Leipzig, Germany. 4. What is Psychology? Psychology - scientific study ofbehavior and mental processes. Behavior - outward or overt actions and reactions. Mental processes - internal, covert activity of our minds. Psychology is a science Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations Precise and careful measurement Menu 5. Psychologys Four Goals1.Description What is happening?1. Explanation Why is it happening? Theory - general explanation of a set ofobservations or facts1. Prediction Will it happen again?1. Control How can it be changed? Menu 6. Is Psychology a Science ? The adoption of scientific method hasmade psychology as a science Scientific method is an approachwhich involves the use of several keyvalues and standards in acquiringknowledge 7. Values and standards of the scientificmethod Accuracy: A commitment to gathering andevaluation information about the world in ascareful, precise and error free manner as possible Objectivity : A commitment to obtaining andevaluation information in a manner free frombias Skepticism : Accepting findings as accurate onlyafter it being verified over and over by manyscientists Open Mindedness :In the face of evidence acommitment to changing ones views even viewsthat are strongly held 8. Early battles over whatpsychology should study Structuralism Functionalism Gestalt Psychology Psychoanalysis Behaviorism 9. Structuralism Structuralism - focused on structure or basic elements of the mind. Wilhelm Wundts psychology laboratory Germany in 1879 Developed the technique of objective introspection process of objectively examining and measuring ones thoughts and mental activities. Edward Titchener Wundts student; brought structuralism to America Margaret Washburn Titcheners student; first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. Structuralism died out in early 1900s. Menu 10. Functionalism Functionalism - how the mindallows people to adapt, live, work,and play. Proposed by William James. Influenced the modern fields of: Educational psychology Evolutionary psychology Industrial/organizationalMenupsychology 11. Gestalt Psychology Gestalt psychology is a school of thoughtthat looks at the human mind and behavioras a whole. Originating in the work of MaxWertheimer, Gestalt psychology formedpartially as a response to the structuralismof Wilhelm Wundt. Gestalt ideas are now part of the study ofcognitive psychology, a field focusing notonly on perception but also on learning,memory, thought processes, and problemsolving. Menu 12. Gestalt Psychology E.g. Have you ever noticed how a series offlashing lights often appears to bemoving, such as neon signs or strands ofChristmas lights? According to Gestaltpsychology, this apparent movementhappens because our minds fill in missinginformation. Belief that the whole isgreater than the sum of the individualparts 13. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis - the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud. Freuds patients suffered from nervous disorders with no found physical cause. Freud proposed that there is an unconscious(unaware) mind into which we push, or repress, allof our threatening urges and desires. He believed that these repressed urges, in trying tosurface, created nervous disorders. Freud stressed the importance of early childhoodexperiences.Menu 14. Psychoanalysis Freud suggest that some of these desiresor thoughts can become conscious throughtherapeutic techniques such as freeassociation, dream interpretation andtransference. 15. Structure of the mind Freud developed a structure of the mind, whichincludes three components:1. Id2. Ego3. Superego Id : This is the part of personality or mind that aperson is born with. It is the largest part of theunconscious structure of the mind. The id holds thesexual and aggressive instincts of the person anddemands instant gratification. It is sometimesreferred to as the psychic energy. 16. Structure of the mind cont Ego : This part of the personality or mind is thelargest part of the conscious mind but at least half ofit is preconscious. The ego develops in childhoodand fulfils a function of balancing the desires of theid with the social constraints of the world which areinternalised by the superego. Superego : The superego is often referred to as theconscience of the person, which is developed atabout the age of five. The superego uses guilt andpride to facilitate compliance with social norms. Thesuperego is partly conscious but also exists in thepreconscious and unconscious 17. Behaviorism Behaviorism - the science of behavior thatfocuses on observable behavior only. Must be directly seen and measured. Proposed by John B. Watson. Based much from work of Ivan Pavlov whodemonstrated that behavior is conditioned(learned). Watson argued that psychology should focus not on consciousness or experience but only on observable behavior Menu 18. BehaviorismThe behaviorists are concerned withlearning. They propose that all of apersons behaviour, including theirpersonality, is learnt.There are a number of processes bywhich this happens and they havebecome the building blocks of learningfrom the foundational level ofhabituation to the more complexlearning of social learning theory(e.g.Classical conditioning, operantconditioning , social learning ). 19. Challenges to Behaviorism and emergenceof Modern Psychology Behaviorism dominated psychology for manydecades . When the behaviorists were calling fora focus on Overt behaviors , Psychologists werelistening with growing interest to the theories ofSigmand Freud . Freud argued strongly for the role ofunconscious and other internal processes inhuman behavior and mental disorders Another challenge to behaviorism occurred in1950s, with Humanistic Psychology 20. Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychologists argued that contraryto what behaviorists proposed, people haveFree Will They do not simply repeat behaviors thatproduce positive outcomes and while avoidingbehaviors that produce negative ones. People are strongly motivated by future plansand goals, and by the desire for personal growth Humanists also rejected Freuds view that muchof our behaviors stem from innate aggressiveand sexual urges. 21. Humanistic Psychology Within the context of the three differentapproaches to psychology: behaviorism,psychoanalysis, and humanism it issometimes referred to as "the thirdforce". It adopts a holistic approach to humanexistence through investigations ofcreativity, free will, and human potential.Its ideas were picked up by spirituality. Itbelieves that people are inherently good. 22. Challenges to Behaviorism andemergence of Modern Psychology The ultimate challenge to Behaviorism and thenarrow definition to psychology it proposed ,were influenced by the Cognitive Revolution A renewal of interest in all aspects of cognition and divert towards studying aspects such asmemory, reasoning, problem solving Development of computers provided importantnew tools for psychologists/ researchers to studyinternal mental processes ( e.g. : measure speedof reaction time of different persons in greatprecision) 23. Processes that early behaviorists oncethought to be unobservable becameobservable, and the behavioristsobjection to studying them faded away The study of cognitive processes are oneof the most vigorous areas in psychology 24. Major Modern Perspectives (mentalview /outlook) of Modern Psychology 1. Psychodynamic perspective Modern version of psychoanalysis. Argued strongly for the role ofunconscious and other internal processesin human behavior and mental processes. More focused on the development of asense of self and the discovery of othermotivations behind a persons behaviorthan sexual motivations. E.G: Behavior is explained in terms of past experiences and motivationalforces. Actions are viewed as stemming from inherited instincts, Menubiological drives, and attempts to resolve conflicts between personalneeds and social requirements 25. Major Perspectives2. Behavioral perspective Focuses on overt behavior They propose that all of apersons behavior, including theirpersonality, is learnt. 26. Major Perspectives3.Humanistic perspective Owes far more to the early roots of psychology in the field of philosophy. Humanists held the view that people have free will, the freedom to choose their own destiny.Menu 27. Major Perspectives4.Bio psychologicalperspectiveAttributes human and animalbehavior to biological eventsoccurring in the body, such asgenetic influences, hormones,and the activity of the nervoussystem.Menu 28. Major Perspectives5. Cognitive perspectiveFocuses on memory,intelligence, perception,problem solving, andlearning. 29. Major Perspectives6.Sociocultural perspectiveFocuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture. Social and cultural factors that can influence behaviorMenu 30. Major Perspectives6.Evolutionary perspective (relatively a new field & still a bit controversial)Focuses on the possible role ofevolved psychological mechanisms(inherited tendencies shaped byevolution) in human beh