Biosynthesis of the Nutritionally Nonessential Amino Acids.

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Biosynthesis of the Nutritionally Nonessential Amino Acids
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Transcript of Biosynthesis of the Nutritionally Nonessential Amino Acids.

  • Biosynthesis of the NutritionallyNonessential Amino Acids

  • BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCEAmino acids present in proteinsAmino acid deficiencyKwashiorkor MarasmusCaloric intake & specific amino acids are deficientHumans can synthesize 12 of the 20 common amino acids from the amphibolic intermediates

  • Amino acid requirements of humans

  • amino acids from Amphibolic intermediates-ketoglutarateOxaloacetate 3-phosphoglycerate Dietary amino acids

  • The glutamate dehydrogenasereaction

  • Formation of alanine by transaminationof pyruvate

  • The asparagine synthetase reaction

  • The glutamine synthetase reaction

  • Serine biosynthesis

  • Formation of glycine from choline

  • The serine hydroxymethyltransferasereaction

  • Biosynthesis of proline from glutamate

  • Conversion of homocysteine and serine to homoserine and cysteine

  • The phenylalanine hydroxylase reaction

  • The prolyl hydroxylase reaction

  • Selenocysteine (top) and the reactioncatalyzed by selenophosphate synthetase (bottom)

  • Selenocysteine-specific UGA codonSelenocysteine insertion element

  • Catabolism of proteins

    Urea synthesis

  • Partial reactions in the attachment of ubiquitin (UB) to proteins.

  • Overall flow of nitrogen in amino acidcatabolism

  • Transamination

  • Alanine aminotransferase (top) andglutamate aminotransferase (bottom).

  • The L-glutamate dehydrogenase reaction

  • Oxidative deamination catalyzed byL-amino acid oxidase

  • The glutamine synthase reaction

  • The glutaminase reaction

  • Reactions and intermediates of urea biosynthesis

  • METABOLIC DISORDERS Hyperammonemia Type 1.Hyperammonemia Type 2Citrullinemiaargininosuccinate synthaseArgininosuccinicaciduriaArgininosuccinaseHyperargininemia