Amino Acids Metab

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Menjelaskan metabolisme asam amino

Transcript of Amino Acids Metab

  • AMINO ACIDS METABOLISM

  • Digestion and Absorption of Proteins

  • PROTEIN TURNOVER OCCURSIN ALL FORMS OF LIFEEach day humans turn over 12% of their total body protein, principally muscle proteinOf the liberated amino acids, approximately 75% are reutilizedExcess amino acids are rapidly degraded

  • Ubiquitin Tags Proteins for Destruction

  • ANIMALS CONVERT -AMINO NITROGEN TO VARIED END PRODUCTSAmmonotelic : excrete ammonia (teleostean fish)Uricotelic : excrete uric acid (birds)Ureotelic : excrete urea (land animals including human)

  • BIOSYNTHESIS OF UREA1243AMMONIA TRANSPORT

  • TRASAMINATIONexcept lysine, threonine, proline, and hydroxyproline

  • Alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase (alanine aminotransferase)glutamate--ketoglutarate aminotransferase (glutamate aminotransferase)TRANSAMINASI

  • OXIDATIVE DEAMINATION

  • L-glutamate dehydrogenaseOXIDATIVE DEAMINATION

  • Glutamine Synthase Fixes Ammoniaas Glutamine

  • NH3 metabolism in the liver

  • UREA CYCLE

  • Metabolic Integration of Nitrogen Metabolism

  • UREA CYCLE(LIVER)MITOCHONDRIACYTOSOL

  • Ammonia Intoxication Is Life-ThreateningSymptoms of ammonia intoxicationinclude tremor, slurred speech, blurred vision, coma, and ultimately death.

  • METABOLIC DISORDERS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EACH REACTION OF THE UREA CYCLEAll defects in urea synthesis result in ammonia intoxicationClinical symptoms of urea cycle disorders : include vomiting, intermittent ataxia, irritability, lethargy, and mental retardationHyperammonemia Type 1. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I deficiencyHyperammonemia Type 2. A deficiency of ornithine transcarbamoylaseCitrullinemia. In this rare disorder, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid citrulline levels are elevated and 12 g of citrulline are excreted daily.Argininosuccinicaciduria. Absence of argininosuccinaseHyperargininemia. Low erythrocyte levels of arginase

  • Catabolism of the Carbon Skeletons of Amino Acids

  • Fates of the Carbon Skeletons of Amino Acids

  • Amino acid biosynthesis: overview

  • NUTRITIONALLY NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS HAVE SHORT BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS

  • Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism

  • DNA Replication

  • TRANSCRIPT

  • Structure of Eukaryotic Ribosomes

  • General Structure of tRNA Molecules

  • The genetic code (codon assignments in mammalian messenger RNA)

  • Features of the genetic code

  • Formation of aminoacyl-tRNA.

  • Recognition of the codon by the anticodon

  • ATPATP + Pi

  • BINDING OFAMINOACYL-TRNATO THE A SITEPEPTIDE BONDFORMATION(peptidyltransferase)TRANSLOCATION

  • Mechanism of Protein Synthesis

  • Termination Process of Protein Synthesis

  • regulation on gene expression.

  • The mechanism of repression and derepression of the lac operon

  • Antibiotic inhibitors of protein synthesis

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