Απο τη γη στο διάστημα

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Σχολικό έτος:2015-2016 Από τις ρουκέτες στους πυραύλους | Ερευνητική εργασία Β’ Λυκείου ΕΛΛΗΝΟΓΑΛΙΚΗ ΣΧΟΛΗ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΑ «Ο ΑΓΙΟΣ ΠΑΥΛΟΣ» ΑΠΟ ΤΗ ΓΗ ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΣΤΗΜΑ

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Από τις ρουκέτες στους πυραύλους. Εργασία μαθητών Β Λυκείου. Σχολικό έτος: 2015-2016

Transcript of Απο τη γη στο διάστημα

  • :2015-2016

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  • . 2

  • . 3

    Contents ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

    ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

    ............................................................................................................................ 6

    ................................................................................................... 7

    Bacon ....................................................................................................................... 8

    ............................................................................................................... 11

    ............................................................................................................. 12

    .................................................................................................................. 14

    ................................................................................................................ 15

    .............................................................................................................................. 17

    ................................................................................................................. 20

    . ................................................................................................. 21

    Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky ........................................................................................................ 23

    Robert Esnault-Pelterie ........................................................................................................................... 26

    Herman Oberth ........................................................................................................................................ 28

    Robert Goddard ........................................................................................................................................ 32

    Goddard................................................................................................................... 39

    Dr. Wernher von Braun ............................................................................................................................ 40

    Sergei Korolev .......................................................................................................................................... 43

    Valentin Petrovich Glushko ...................................................................................................................... 47

    ................................................................................................................................. 48

    Challenger ...................................................................................................................... 48

    Columbia ................................................................................................................... 49

    Soyuz 1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

    Salyut 1-Soyuz11 ...................................................................................................................................... 50

    Apollo 1 .................................................................................................................................................... 51

    ................................................................................................ 52

    ........................................................................................................................................ 53

    ........................................................................................ 53

    ............................................................................................... 54

    ................................................................................................................................... 57

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    ..................................................................................................................................... 58

    .......................................................................................................................... 62

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    ..................................................................................................................................... 63

    . ................................................................................................................................. 63

    . ............................................................................................................................. 64

    ...................................................................................................................................................... 65

    NASA ...................................................................................................... 65

    ............................................................................................................................ 65

    Commercial resupply services (CRS) ......................................................................................................... 66

    Commercial Crew Program (CCDev) ......................................................................................................... 68

    Beyond Low Earth Orbit program (BLEO) ................................................................................................. 69

    .................................................................................................................................................... 69

    ............................................................................................................. 70

    ............................................................................................................................................ 71

    ...................................................................................................................... 72

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    ...................................................................................................................... 75

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    ................................................................................................. 81

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    . .......................................................................................................................... 87

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    .................................................................................................................................................. 90

  • . 5

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  • . 22

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    , , . Apollo 11

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    Goddard, Wehner von Braun Serge Korolev,

    .

  • . 23

    Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky

    :

    Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, Robert Esnault-Pelterie Herman Oberth.

    , , .

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  • . 24

    , ,

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    " Tsiolkovsky .

    .

    1926 ,

    , 1929

    Saturn V,

    . , 1935, Tsiolkovsky

    400 , ,

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    ,

    .

    , Sergei Korolev,

    Sputnik.

    Korolev:

    " Tsiolkovsky

    . . . . "

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    . :

    , ".

  • . 25

  • . 26

    Robert Esnault-Pelterie

    , Robert Esnault-Pelterie. Esnault-Pelterie, REP, 8 1881. , , .

    REP . . , , Wright. , . 1907, , REP 1.

    , . 1908, . REP, . , REP 12 1912. : . , o REP , , . REP , , , . 1930, L' Astronautique, .

  • . 27

    1934, . 2 , REP , , . , . , . : . 1 2, . 1930 REP . , 1931, , . 660 . (660 =300 ). 1939. REP, Chiolkovsky, . . REP , - . . REP 1957 .

  • . 28

    Herman Oberth

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  • . 29

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  • . 31

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    Vorpommern .

    1936-

    1945.

    ,

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    .

    .

    (http://www.peenemuende.de/en/)

  • . 32

    Robert Goddard

    5 1882 .

    ,

    . H.G. Wells

    , (War of the

    Worlds.)

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    . . , 1898. . , . , , . , , , , , . : https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/___

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    . , : 1102653 1103503

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  • . 33

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  • . 34

    Goddard , . , 1916,

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    Smithsonian (Smithsonians Miscellaneous Collection),

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    :

    . (New York Times)

    . (San Francisco Examiner)

    . (Chicago Tribune)

    . (Boston American)

  • . 35

    Goddard, , , ,

    . 13 1920,

    New York Times ,

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  • . 36

    Goddard .

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    . 17 1929,

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    Roswell .

  • . 37

    Goddard .

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    1930

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    .

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  • . 38

    Goddard. ... JATO

    (Jet Assisted Take-Off).

    1946, .

  • . 39

    Goddard.

    Goddard:

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    .

    . (16 1926 Auburn

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    . (1933 New Mexico).

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    , . (1935)

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    17 1969, Apollo 11 , New York Times,

    Goddard, 23 , 1920,

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  • . 40

    Dr. Wernher von Braun

    Wirsitz 23 1912.

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  • . 41

    1932, ,

    Von Braun. Walter Dornberger Karl Heinrich Emil

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    . . .

    Von Braun . ,

    .

    . 1933, Von Braun

    , . (Ph.D.) 27

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    Jupiter. To 1960, o Von Braun Nasa

    Saturn.

    . Marshall Space Flight Center.

  • . 42

    1970, Nasa Washington, D.C.

    2 Nasa. ,

    Fairchild Industries Germantown Maryland. 1977 Alexandria

    Virginia.

    140 ( ) Fort Bliss Texas. : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Paperclip

    Saturn V Apollo 17. 17 1972

    Jupiter

  • . 43

    Sergei Korolev

    Sergei Korolev . Sputnik, Soyuz, Vostok- , , . , .

    O Korolev Kapustin Yar 1953

    Sergei Pavlovich Korolev . 12 1907 Zhytomyr . , 17 . (Kiev Polytechnic Institute) . , . 1931 (Group for Investigation of Reactive Motion - GIRD). , GIRD 9 10. 1933 RNII. . Korolev Valentin Glushko . RP-318, .

    RP-318 SK-9 Korolev. Glushko.

  • . 44

    , . 21 1938 Glushko. Korolev, 7 . , Korolev , Kolyma. , , , . sharashkas, . Andrei Tupolev, . Korolev Kolyma, . 1944 Korolev . , V2. , , V2. To 1945 , Von Braun, paperclip. paperclip, , 1946 NII-88. , Korolev V2. R1, , , , Scud. H NII-88 , 1953, Korolev, 7.000 Km. R7, , . 21 1957, R7, Semyorka : Baikonur . Semyorka . , , Korolev, , , . Sputnik 1, , 4 1957, .

    Sputnik 1 , 40 , , 3 1957, Sputnik 2. : Laika. Korolev : , .

    H Laika Sputnik2

  • . 45

    Korolev, . , . . , , Vostok. R7 12 1961, , : Yuri Gagarin.

    15 , , , 60. Korolev , : 100 N-1, , : Soyuz. Korolev . . Korolev . O R7 , , . -1 . Glushko, , . O Korolev . , Korolev : Nikolai Kuznetsov. Kuznetsov . 42 -1. -1, , 1964.

  • . 46

    . Korolev . 1965 . 14 1966 . Luna 9, . .

    Luna 9 , . -1 , , Apollo, . . o 1974, Glushko, Korolev. Soyuz R7, Soyuz, , 40 . 1700 , Soyuz, . : Baikonur , Plesetsk 2011 , (ESA).

  • . 47

    Valentin Petrovich Glushko

    10 1989, 81 , Valentin Petrovich Glushko, . Glushko 2 1908 .

    , . . . 1924 1925 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky . ( ), . , 1929 1930 Gas Dynamics Laboratory (GDL) . 1931 GIRD (Group for the Study of Reactive Motion)

    . 23 1938, , NKVD Butyrka. 15 1939 . , Glushko . 1941 . 1944 . 1944 Sergei Korolev RD-1 KhZ. ' , Glushko . 1946 , OKB 456 ( NPO Energomash) 1974. . Glushko , , , Apollo . , ' , Mir. Glushko Korolev , . , .

  • . 48

    Challenger

    28 1986,

    73 ,

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    . ,

    15 ,

    (O-ring)

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    NASA ,

    . NASA

    .

  • . 49

    Columbia

    1

    2003,

    , STS-

    107.

    STS-107, 28

    ,

    .

    ,

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    NASA ,

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    ,

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    29

    STS-114 41

    STS-121.

    ,

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    . (STS-125)

    ,

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  • . 50

    Soyuz 1

    1967,

    1 , 24

    , Vladimir Komarov. Komarov

    ,

    .

    .

    Salyut 1-Soyuz11

    ( , )

    1970 1980.

    , ,

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    , ,

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    ,

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    O Georgi Dobrovolski, Viktor Patsayev Vladislav Volkov

    Salyut 1, 23 .

    Soyuz 11, ,

    . 11 1971. ,

  • . 51

    ,

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    ,

    . .

    .

    , 168

    .

    .

    Soyuz 11

    Apollo 1

    Gus Grissom, Edward White II Roger Chaffee Apollo 1

    27

    1967,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • . 52

    . 4 1996: Ariane-5, , 40 .

    20 1996: Soyuz-5, , . 20 1997: Zenit -2, , 48 .

    25 1997: , , . , .

    12 1998: Titan , Titan 4 , .

    27 1998: Delta 3, , , .

    10 1998: , 12 , .

    5 1999: Proton-K, , . , 200 kg, .

    23 1999: Mars Climate Orbiter, , , .

    28 1999: Proton, , .

    3 1999: NASA Mars Polar Lander, 165 . , . .

    15 2002: NASA Contour, , 3 . . 11 2002: Ariane-5 , , .

    1 2003: , , , , 16 .

  • . 53

    . , ' . , , ( ) . , . , - . , , . . (combustion chamber) (nozzle) . ,

    . , ' (thrust). (MB) , (propellants), . ,

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  • . 54

    q , Pa , Pe , Ae Ve . , (Pe=Pa). (specific impulse) , :

    F , , g0 (9.80665 m/s2). ( s). ' , . , , . ( , , ), .

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  • . 55

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  • . 56

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  • . 57

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  • . 58

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  • . 59

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  • . 60

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  • . 61

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  • . 62

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  • . 63

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  • . 64

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  • . 65

    .

    NASA

    NASA,

    . 12

  • . 66

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  • . 75

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    http://bigstory.ap.org/article/0997567bb1a64f31943c0fa84c48702f/reusable-rocket-first-booster-returns-

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    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/vonBraun/vonbraun_4.php

  • . 89

    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Goddard/goddard_2.php

    http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/korolev.html

    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/korolev.html

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    http://gr.euronews.com/2016/04/14/is-there-anyone-out-there-tiny-nanocraft-could-explore-space/

  • . 90

    :

    2015-2016.

    : .