Κεφάλαιο Ι: Μετασχηματιστές (Μ/Σ)

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Κεφάλαιο Ι: Μετασχηματιστές (Μ/Σ)

Transcript of Κεφάλαιο Ι: Μετασχηματιστές (Μ/Σ)

  • 1. 1 (/) () (-) (-). , , - .() (). 1.1: , - (), - (mm) ().

2. 1.1. (/) , :1. 22 /.2. - /.3. /.4. , - /.1.1.1. / 1882, - , 220/110V, . . , - , . , , , . , (..) -, , . . . .. , . 1890 - (..), , , , - . , ( /). / .. . , / 99%, . 1% . 3. 1. (/) / .. , . , , / . /, . . (..) . .. .., .+ , , / .., .1.1.2. / / , - -. . (.. / ), (.. / , ..), (.. / ), (.. / .), (.. / . , ..), (.. / ). / , / ..., (.1.1) - .23 () / : ( ) ... /.1.1. 4. / , ( ..). / . , / ( ). / , / , . / ( -), / .+ , /, .. :- / 1:1,- / ,- - / .1.1.3. 1) (/) :- , - , (..) (..). / . . () . , .. / , .. ..2) 1.2 (1~) /, 1.2 1~ /, . /, , (.. ..) ()* . / (. 1.2) U-V (..), - , .. R Mp, (U1) * , .24 5. 1. (/) u-v (..), (), .25()().1.2.. 1.2: 1~ / - . U1 - (.. 0). I0 (..) - () . - () ., (...) , - U, I0 . , ... - . , - ... (2), . 6. 1. (...), , , . . .2. ... 2, . U2, / :- (4,44),- (f),- (W2) - () /. / .1.2, 1.2. 1~ / (. 1.6), - .. .. , . (3~) /, , 1~ / ( 1.8 1.9). , /, 1~ /, 1~ / 3~ /. / :- ( ), - ... , . U2=E2 - ( ), U2 2 /.3) / - / ( ) , . , .. /, 1.2. , . :26W12U12W=U(1.1) () - (W1/W2) /. :W1K= (1.2)2W 7. 1. (/) (1.1) , , . , . - .27 1~ / W1=5.000 W2=500 . U1=200V, ( ); /;20W=U1.000=500W1 1 2 =: U VWU222505.000200=WU=U112200=200U=U1 =20K=U VUU22105.000/500=UK212 / / , . .. ..4) / - / (. 1.3) . , /, - , - ( 0 1).. 1.3: / . 8. (. 1.3), - :28W12I21W=II = K I21(1.3), , . W12U12W=U U2=U1/K (1.4) 1.3 1.4, , :W12 = 2=11U12WIIU2U12I=IU(1.5) (1.5) :. / , . .. - , .. . 1~ / 2 U1=220V. , U2=44V; :12 10A=52=220442=UUI=I1221U12I=IU, / =U1/U2=5, ., 5 , U1, 5 , (2=1=52=10).1.1.4. / , , , - , /. (U U1) /(. 1.4) - /, . :100U1 KNu %= (1.6)1KU 9. 1. (/)K2 (1.6)29.1.4: /. uK%, /, , :100IN2%u=IK / 6.000/400V, 12/180, 240V.. /;. , ;: U1N=6.000V, U1K=240V I2N=180A:.4=24.000=100K ( u=4%)6.000240 = 6.000100U=%u1KU1N.2K =4.500AI18.000=4100180=4100I2N%u=IK2K / ( ), -, / ( ) . / ( ), . / , . . 10. 1.1.5. 1. (/) ;2. /;3. /;4. ( ) / . ;5. /;6. /; ;7. (1~) /;8. / ;9. , / ;10. / ;11. ;12. , /;13. / - ;14. / 220/9.900V , 2,25/50mA - 11V. . / 30. ; (. =1/45, uK=5%)15. / 300 1.500 -. 12V 2, ;(. U2=60V, I2=0,4A) ; 16. , :. (..).. (..).. -.. (/) . 11. 1. (/)3117. / :. .. .. . .. , .18. / 300 60 , 220V, :. 44V.. 22V.. 20.. 4.19. / , .. 22kV 220kV, ( ) :. 2 .. 5 .. 10 .. 20 .20. () / :. .. .. .. U I. 12. 1.2. , / 32 , :1. / .2. / .3. - /.4. / ...5. /.6. / 1:1.1.2.1. /1) /, - , - 0,3 0,5mm, , . , .. , , , .. (. 1.5), , , - / (. 1.5). .. 1.5: /. () () 13. 1. (/) , , , () . .. , .. , -. , , (.. , ..) . , , / , :- , 0,23mm, ,- ..,- , .., :. ,. . , .2) (1~) / 1~ /, - , :/ / . / , , (. 1.6 1.6).33. 1.6: 1~/ .()() () 14. .. , , .., ( ), . .. .. , .. .. (.1.6). (. 1.6). - , - - - , . / , . , , . , . ,. .34() (). 1.7: 1~ / . 1~ / , ,. , 1.7.3) (3~) / 3~ / / , 1~ /, . 3~ / , 1~ /, , , (. 1.8). , - . , .. .. 3~ /, / 1.8. 15. 1. (/)35.... () () (). 1.8: 3~/. 1.8 , , . ,3~ / .4) / / , ( 100120C), - . .. .. .. ... 1.9: / . 16. , , - /. /, .. , , / .., ( /) - , , .. (. 1.9).36 / (/) - - . / (/) . , - , :- - - - - - - - .. / 10kV, 60 75C . / -, , - /, - . - / 2/3 - / . / - . - / - . -.. 1.10: (/X). 17. 1. (/)+ , / , :- ( .. ..),- ,- ( ) - (, , ..)., / (. 1.9), .( . 1.11 1.1).10) 11) 12) Buchholz13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 371) 2) 3) ..4) ..5) 6) 7) 8) 9) . 1.11: / 2501600kVA, 15-22/0,4kV. 18. () () ()38 1.1. (mm) kVA kgr250 1500 920 1300 520 1200315 1680 1010 1400 1350400 1740 1000 1500 1600500 1800 1050 1500 670 1650630 1860 1000 1650 2200800 2000 1250 1650 24001000 1960 1300 1650 28001250 2150 1500 1700 820 32501600 2230 1450 1850 3900: / DIN 42520 .1.2.2. , / ... - / - . /, (/ / ) . -. / , , /. . 1~ / .. U-V - 1-2, .. u-v -b x1-x2. , .. .. / 1.12 1.12, - n np x0.. 1.12: 1~ /. 19. 1. (/) 1~ / 1.12. 3~ /, () .. .., (. 1.13), , .*, 3~ , () / (. 1.13) :U, V, W A, B, C 1, 2, 3, .. u, v, w a, b, c x1, x2, x3, .. , p 0, .. n mp x0 x4, ..39(i) (ii)()(i) (ii)() (). 1.13: 3~ /. 3~ / 1.13(i), () .. , () .. , . / - ( ).* () (), 3~ , . 20. , / 1.13(ii) -. 1.13, 3~ /, . 3~ /, . D -, . .. / ( , D ) y d (..). - 3 .. .., , /.40 / , / , . , .. / (..) 220V 6, 12, 24 40V, / (..) 15, 20 25kV 380/220V. (IEC):1) .. ... 230V, 207V 244V 400V, 360V 424V.2) R, S, T Mp, , - L1, L2, L3 N . .. ..., . 1.14 / ... . 21. 1. (/)41()1~/()3~/. 1.14: / ... 22. 1.2.3. / / , - U2, 2 2, :- 1~ /: P2=U2I22 (1.7)- 3~ /: P2=1,73U2I22 (1.8), / , :- 1~ /: P1=U1I11 (1.9)- 3~ /: P1=1,73U1I11 (1.10)( U1I1 1, ). /, 1.2.42 1.2. 1~ 3~ /. 1~ / 3~ / 1~ 3~ / (VA) PS=UI PS=1,73UI (W) P=UI P=1,73UI2P+P=PP2SSPS =P-P=PP=PS (VAr) Pb=UI Pb= 1,73UIPb=PS2b2b22SbP-P=P 23. 1. (/)1.2.4. (/) 1:1 / 1:1, . , ( ) , ( ) . / - . / 1:1 , - () - , .. . / 1:1 .1.2.5. / , / 431) (..), , - .. , , .. , .. ( ) . (..), , , (..). . .. /, .. .. . .., .. . - .., , 1~ /, /.2) / / . , . . . , , . : -, , . - , . .. (15-22kV) () .. 600V. 24. - (), - ( ). ... (/), / . , (600V ..) . / . / (15-22kV/600V), -- (-) (. 1.15), -, .. ( 600V) .. 600V.44(1)() ()3~ / . ()/ . . . 1.15: / . . 25. 1. (/) . - (), - . / . ...., / - / 22kV/600V, -, 2000kVA, - . . (1) / (2) (3) (. 1.15). , , / (.1.15)., , .., 12 24V, , / . - () .+ 45( ). 26. 46()1.2.6. ()() .(20.000-30.000Volts), .. 1.16: () (). 27. 1. (/) - - (. 1.16). 1~ /, :- ( ) - ( ). (..) , (..) (15.000-30.000) -. , , . , , (. 1.16). /, , .., (..). .., , - , .47 :- - .l 1 1,4 [. 1.16(1)], 4000 6000 [. 1.16(2)].l . - [. 1.16(3)] .(1) (2) (3). 1.16: . , . 28. 1.2.7. 1. /;2. /; ;3. .. ..;4. 1~ / ;5. 1~ / ;6. 3~ / ;7. 1~ /;8. 1~ /, ... (220V); ...(.. 40V / )...9. (3 ) .. .., 3~ /;10. ( ) 3~ /, ;11. 3~ / Dy 15kV/380-220V. ;12. /;13. . . /;14. . . /;15. / 1:1 ;16. / . ; / ;17. / . ;18. ; /; ( ;)48 19. / :. /. . .. . . . 29. 1. (/)4920. / :. (..). . .. (..). . .21. (.. ..) :. . . .. . . .22. .. / .. :. .. .. .. .23. 1~ / :. n. . x0.. np. . .24. (.. ..) 3~ / :. /. . /.. /. . .25. 3~ / , 3 .. .. , :. Yd. . Yz.. Dy. . Dz.26. :. / . . .. . . .27. (1~) /:. . . .. . . .28. / :. . . .. . . . 30. 1.3., / 50 , :1. / - .2. / - .3. .4. .5. / .6. / .1.3.1. (/)/ / , .. , . /, / , / / . / u v .. - (U) , 1.17. / - - /, . .. 1.17: 1~ / . 31. 1. (/) /, , - / / - . - / /, . , -, :511221WU1122U12W12IKIKIIWKU= KU=W == == : U1, I1 W1 / U2, I2 W2 . () , 1 2, . :I=I1-I2 (1.11) 1~ /, U1=120V, W1=100, W2=200 . - / R=20, :- / (1) - ().. 1.17: 1~ / . / (. 1.17) .., . / - . :240V1202= = =12UKU1=2100=2001W1W2K= U2=240V RK=20, :12A=240V=202K2UR=I:24A=12=K12I=I21 : =1-2=24-12=12 32. / . - . /, /, -, , , . ( 100%). / ( ), /, . :- / :W2W= Ps2Ps 252Ps2W1 Ps2=W(1.12)- / :W2 (1.13)= Ps2Ps 2W Ps2 / - (W1 W2) W ., .. / 1.17 :200= Ps2 (200-100)200100= Ps2= 2 Ps2. 2 / . / .. .. / - (.. 1/2). 1.18 ( - ) 1~/ .() (). 1.18: 1~ / () (). 33. 1. (/) / - (.. 0 250V), / /. (. 1.19). - .53() (). 1.19: () () /. , U2 . , U2 . , / / , , / . 1.20 /, . / .. (. 1.20), .., .. 3~ .() AM/ 10.000kV, 15/20kV () 3~ /. 1.20: (3~) / () 3~ / (). 34. 1.3.2. / 1) / ( / ) / , .. - (..) (..), . - (. 1.21) , , . , / (.1.21) :- / - / .54() ()/ / . 1.21: / . .., / =W1/W2=100 - (U2) 300V, (U1) 30.000V (U1=KU2=100300=30.000V). / =50 (2) 10 (1) 500. / / ,. ( -). , , - ( VA), , , . / :- ,- .. - . 35. 1. (/)2) / .. , .. (. 1.22). / ( ), , , - . . ..() ()55() (). 1.22: () / (). , / , :- .., ,- .., - . :U1=KU2 (1.14) .. 1~ / 3~ (. 1.23), V 1~ / (. 1.23).. 1.23: / 3~ . 36. 3) / / 1.24. , , , , .561234567() (). 1.24: () / (). / :=KW1W=I2I21, ( ) /, . 1/, :1 = I(1.15)KI IKI=2121 / 05, - (1). / , , . , .. / - , , , (. 1.25). / , , , , - (. 1.25). 37. 1. (/)57() (). 1.25: / . / / . (. 1.26), (. 1.26).() (). 1.26: () (). ( ) (), (2) (1). (3), (2) (1), . /, - . 38. ! / , , , . , / . (, / , , ).+ , / , - , , .. (. 1.27). .., / (. 1.27).58. 1.27 .. .. /.. 1.27 / ... ... 39. 1. (/)591.3.3. 1. /; ( 1~ / ).2. / /;3. /;4. / ;5. /;6. , / / / ;7. / ;8. / / ;9. / . ;10. / ;11. / ; ;12. / -;13. 1.24, 4,2. / =1/50, ,. /; (. 1=20)14. 1.22 / =96 69V. R-T; (. U1=6624V) 15. 3~ / / :. .. .. .. .16. / :. .. ... ... . 40. 17. / () :. .. .. .. .+ 1.24 / :.... ) /...... ) ...... ) ..... ) ...... ) .... ) ...... ) .60 41. 1. (/) 1.4. /,, /61 , :1. / .2. /.3. /.4. / .1.4.1. /1) /, - , - (. 1.28), :- ,- ,- , - ,- ,- ( ),- , - .. . 1~ /, 3~ /, .. 1.28: /. 42. 2) () / . - /, , 1.29.62() (). 1.29: / .. / (.. 220V) (), (V1) (V2). () . / ( ), (V1) (V2) . /(=U1/U2) . (V1) (V2) 220V 44V ., / :5=K200V 44V=UUK=12 / (. 1.29), - / , , . ().3) () / 1.30 / . (1) (2) () 1 2 ( ). (V1) U1K /. 43. 1. (/)+ , .. U1K=11V, U1=220V. :Z= (1.16)Z = (1.17)635=10011220=100U1KU=%u1NK . 1.30: /. (V1) , (W) / ().4) / 1.31, - / .. 1.31: / . ( ), (1) (V1) , . U1 I1, (2) (V2) , . U2 2. U1 I1 ( Ohm ..) ( ) (1), U2 I2 / (2). / :U11 I12U22 I , , : 1=22 (1.18) 44. , / , :2U Z =2 Z=KZ1UKK=I22UK=IKI22111 / 1.31, , (1), (2) (V2), . - (U1), (2) - (U2). , U1=220V, I2=2A U2=22V. - / , ; / , . :64U11 I1Z =, , - 1.17 1.18.:UU=Z = 22V = = = =10K220V22V112A12222UKI: 1=22=10211=1.100.+ , 1.31, , ( ), - / (1 2 ). /, :21 = 2=2 22 + +=+ (1.19)1.4.2. - , /1) / . / - . /. .. , -. /, , , , 45. 1. (/) /. / , (..), - , .652) (. 1.32) . (4) (2 -2 ) , , (..) .. .. . ( ) 900C, , , (2 ). ( ) 105C, , (- ) .. ( ..). .., () ( - 0,5 24V).. 1.32: . 46. 66 (. 1.32) , , / . 1.32, - , . / ( ) ., .. . , . , - .. 1.32: . 47. 1. (/)3) , . , - , , , .., , - . , :67 : .1.. ( ).1.. .1.. .1.. .1.. [ - , Silica Gel ( ) ]. -, , /. : .2.. /. , ( , ). -, . . , , . , .2.. / .+ / , 1.9 1.11, - 1.2.1. 48. 4) / , , /, , - 1.3.68 1.3./ ()1. / ) ) .) ) .) ) . ) ) . .2. ) ) . .. ) ) . . .) . ) . , , ( ), / ( ). /, 1.33 - . / (.. : ) , . 49. 1. (/)69 / (. 1.33).................................................................................( ).................................................................................: ........ / ........ ................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ................................................. / :1 : ................................... : .....................................2 3 4 5 DIN DIN DIN .....................................42511 42500 ( )6 ()7 .......................................... 8 .. ...............................9 .........................................................................10 50Hz............................... 11 .................................. %12 ................. W ..................13 .................... W14 .................... V 15 ............... V 16 , 17 (..-..) 18 19 65k .......................... 60k ..........................20 40C ..........................21 RAL 7033 .........................................................22 *23 Buchholz * .( / .) kVA 50. 70. 1.34: / . 51. 1. (/)711.4.3. 1. - / ; ;2. (u%) /;3. / ;4. , /;5. - - /;6. / -;7. /;8. /;9. / ;10. / 1.29 500 44V, ; (. W2=100 )11. / 1.31, : U2=22V I2=4A. - / ; (. 1=0,4)12. 1~ / W1=200 W2=5.000 . 8,8V 2=10k, - /; (A. 2=22mA, I1=0,55A)13. 1~ / 9kV, 100V. 98V. ; (A. U1=8820V)14. 1~ / U1=2.800V U2=230V . W2=52 , ; (. W1=633 ) 52. 72 15. / , , :. .. .. .. /.16. , /, :. .. ().. .. .17. / :. .. .. .. .18. / :. .. .. .. .19. 3~ / =5 1=500, , :. 2=5.. 2=10.. 2=15.. 2=20. 53. 1. (/)731.5. F (/) .. ( - ). / - , -, .F / (1~ 3~) - , . () (), .F /, , , .F /, , ( ) . 1~ / : - .. .. . .. , .F 3~ / .. .., - . 1~ /.F /, .. :- / 1:1 / ( . )- / ( . , ..)- (/)( ) - / ( ).F .., .. . - .., , 1~ /. 54. F / -, - ( , - ..).F / -, . ( ) - .74 & .. .. / / / . 1.35: / .