X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and...

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X-Rays Jan Kybic 2005–2014

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Page 1: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-Rays

Jan Kybic

2005–2014

Page 2: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Overview

I Fundamentals of X-rays

I Generation of X-rays

I Detection of X-rays

I Imaging and diagnostic methods

Page 3: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Invention

1895, W. Rontgen B. Rontgen hand modern hand

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Electromagnetic spectrum

Page 5: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Particles and waves

I reflection, scattering, refraction, diffraction

I photons with energy E = hf ,λ = 1 nm ≈ 1.2 · 103 eV = 1.2 keV

I ionizing radiation (above 1 eV)

Page 6: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Chest X-rays radiography machine

Page 7: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Chest X-ray

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X-ray scanner

Page 9: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray source

I 15 ∼ 150 kV, rectified ACI 50 ∼ 400 mA anode currentI tungsten wire (200µm) cathode, heated to ∼ 2200◦CI anode rotates at 3000 rpmI molybdenum or thungsten-rhenium anodeI thermoionic emission

Page 10: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Beam focusing

I Focal spot size 0.3 mm ∼ 1.2 mm

Page 11: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Penumbra

I geometric unsharpness

I small focal spot

I large distance

Page 12: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray tube

Page 13: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray parameters

Intensity: [W /m2]: ∝ U2ISpectrum: (150 kV)

I Bremsstrahlung

I Characteristic radiation

I Filter low-energy rays that would not penetrate the patient —Al sheets. (skin dose reduced 80×)

Page 14: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Interaction between X-rays and matter

I Coherent scattering

I Photoelectric effect

I Compton scattering

I (Pair production)

I (Photodisintegration)

Page 15: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Coherent (Rayleigh) scattering

I Photon −→ photon

I Low-energy radiation

I Probability ∝ Z8/3eff /E 2.

I Zeff - effective atomic numberI muscle Zeff ≈ 7.4, bone Zeff ≈ 20

I About 5 ∼ 10 % of tissue interactions

Page 16: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Photoelectric effect

I High-energy radiationI Photon −→ characteristic radiation, photo-electron / Auger

electron, positive ionI −→ ionizationI Desirable, X-ray photon completely absorbed

Page 17: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Photoelectric interaction wrt E

I K -edgeI Probability ∝ Z 3

eff/E3 (above K -edge)

I Excellent contrast bone/tissue at low E

Page 18: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Compton scattering

Escatt =Einc

1 + Eincmec2

(1− cos θ

)I photon −→ photon + electron, ionization

I most frequent in X-ray imaging, especially for high Einc

I independent to atomic number −→ small contrast

I background noise, health hazard

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Effects of Compton scattering

Page 20: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Attenuation

dI = −nσIdxIx = I0e

−µx

µ — linear attenuation coefficientHalf-value layer ≈ 0.693/µ

Mass attenuation coefficient µ/ρ

Page 21: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Attenuation factors wrt E

µ = µphotoel + µCompton + µcoherent

Page 22: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Attenuation wrt E (2)

Page 23: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Beam restrictor / Collimator

Page 24: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Beam restrictor / Collimator (2)

Page 25: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Antiscatter grid

Bucky factor = efficiency

Page 26: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Intensifier screen

I 50× sensitivity increase

I thickness; trade-off resolution/sensitivity

I Gd — green, La – blue

I efficiency 20 %

Page 27: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

FilmI monochromatic (sensitive to blue), ortochromatic (sens. to

green)I double emulsion (10µm), silver bromide in gelatinI blackening, optical density (OD) log10(Ii/It)I contrast γ = OD2−OD1

log10 E2−log10 E1, slope of the linear region

I latitude (dynamic range), range of useful exposure valuesI grain size sensitivity/resolution trade-offI mixed-particle size −→ high contrastI automatic exposure control, ionization chamber

Page 28: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Digital Sensors

I Computed radiography (CR)I Phosphor-based storage plateI chemical storage (oxidation of Eu)I laser scanning, light erasure

I Digital radiography (DR)I flat-panel detectors (FPD)I thin-film transistor (TFT) arrayI CsI scintillator −→ photo-diode/transistorI 41× 41 cm, 2048× 2048 pixelsI better dynamic range, quantum efficiency, and latitude wrt film

I Charge coupled device (CCD)I Phosphor screen, fiber-optic cables, CCD sensorI good sensitivity, low noise

Page 29: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Digital Sensors

I Computed radiography (CR)I Phosphor-based storage plateI chemical storage (oxidation of Eu)I laser scanning, light erasure

I Digital radiography (DR)I flat-panel detectors (FPD)I thin-film transistor (TFT) arrayI CsI scintillator −→ photo-diode/transistorI 41× 41 cm, 2048× 2048 pixelsI better dynamic range, quantum efficiency, and latitude wrt film

I Charge coupled device (CCD)I Phosphor screen, fiber-optic cables, CCD sensorI good sensitivity, low noise

Page 30: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Digital Sensors

I Computed radiography (CR)I Phosphor-based storage plateI chemical storage (oxidation of Eu)I laser scanning, light erasure

I Digital radiography (DR)I flat-panel detectors (FPD)I thin-film transistor (TFT) arrayI CsI scintillator −→ photo-diode/transistorI 41× 41 cm, 2048× 2048 pixelsI better dynamic range, quantum efficiency, and latitude wrt film

I Charge coupled device (CCD)I Phosphor screen, fiber-optic cables, CCD sensorI good sensitivity, low noise

Page 31: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray image characteristics

I Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)I Quantum mottle, source variation, Poisson distribution,I SNR ∝

√N, N — intensity / photons per area

I exposure time and current, SNR ∝√TI

I higher U −→ more high-energy rays −→ moreincident photons −→ better SNR

I X-ray filtering −→ smaller SNRI patient size, antiscatter grid, intensifying screen, film

I Spatial resolution

I Contrast-to-noise ratio

Page 32: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray image characteristics

I Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)I Spatial resolution

I point spread function (PSF), line spread function (LSF), edgespread function (ESF), modulation transfer function (MTF)

I thickness of the intensifier screenI speed of the X-ray filmI geometric unsharpnessI magnification factor (patient −→ film). Place patient as

close as possible.

I Contrast-to-noise ratio

Page 33: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray image characteristics

I Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

I Spatial resolutionI Contrast-to-noise ratio

I CNR = |SA−SB |σN

= |SNRA − SNRB |

Page 34: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray contrast agentsI barium sulfate, gastrointestinal tract

Page 35: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray angiography

I Stenosis, clotting of arteriesI Iodine-based contrast agentI Time series

I Excellent resolution (100µm)I Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)I Registration needed

Page 36: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray angiography

I Stenosis, clotting of arteries

I Iodine-based contrast agent

I Time series

I Excellent resolution (100µm)

I Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

I Registration needed

Page 37: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

DSA example

Page 38: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Fluoroscopy / Intra-operative imaging

I Now a FPD/CCD instead of the fluorescent screen.

Page 39: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Fluoroscopy example

Page 40: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Dual-Energy Imaging

I Two exposures

I Two detectors

I Beam hardening

Page 41: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Dual-energy example

Page 42: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

Mamography

I low U (25 ∼ 30 kV), filter high-energy rays

I digital mamography, CCD sensor (1024× 1024 pixels)

Page 43: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

X-ray Advantages / disadvantages

I AdvantagesI Widely used and availableI Experts availableI High-spatial resolutionI Excelent imaging of hard tissues (bones)

I DisadvantagesI Radiation exposureI Difficulty in imaging soft-tissuesI 2D projection, hidden parts

Page 44: X-Rays · I Fundamentals of X-rays I Generation of X-rays I Detection of X-rays I Imaging and diagnostic methods. Invention ... X-ray source I 15 ˘150kV, recti ed AC I 50 ˘400mA

New trends

I FPD/CCD sensors replace film

I higher sensitivity, faster exposure, lower dose

I dynamic imaging

I CT