UNIT 8 THE AMINO ACIDS. LEARNING OBJECTIVES State the composition and describe the structure of...

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UNIT 8 THE AMINO ACIDS
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Transcript of UNIT 8 THE AMINO ACIDS. LEARNING OBJECTIVES State the composition and describe the structure of...

  • UNIT 8THE AMINO ACIDS

    Prepared by: Mr. Norman

  • LEARNING OBJECTIVESState the composition and describe the structure of amino acids.Classify amino acids.List essential, semi-essential and non-essential amino acids.

    *

  • AMINO ACIDPrincipal source: hydrolysis of proteinProteins: high molecular weight substances (found in all living tissues)attached to the same -carbon*

  • AMINO ACID STRUCTURER

  • BUILDING AN R GROUPCH3HOHGlycineAlaninePhenylalanineTyrosineWith an H, glycine is the simplest amino acidAlanine with a methyl group is the next simplest.Phenylalanine arises when a phenyl group replaces an H on alanines methyl groupTyrosine evolves by adding an OH group to the para position on the phenyl ring of phenylalanine

  • Substances (found in all living tissues)Upon Acid, base or enzymes catalyzed hydrolysis: Broken into thousands of amino acids moleculesMost proteins produce approximately 20 different -amino acidsAmino Acids - have both an amino & a carboxylic acid group attached to the same -carbon*

  • FUNCTIONS OF AMINO ACIDS*

  • FUNCTIONS OF AMINO ACIDS*

  • LEARNING OBJECTIVESState the composition and describe the structure of amino acids.Classify amino acids.List essential, semi-essential and non-essential amino acids.

    *

  • Classification and Structure of Amino Acids*AromaticHeterocyclicSulphur containing amino acidsAlipathic

  • LEARNING OBJECTIVESState the composition and describe the structure of amino acids.Classify amino acids.List essential, semi-essential and non-essential amino acids.

    *

  • ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS8 Amino Acids not Synthesized by the body & Therefore Must Be Taken in the DietLeucineIsoleucineThreonineTryptophanPhenylalanineValineMetheonineLysine*

    MnemonicPvt. Tim Hall 427 18

    H HistidineA Arginine

  • ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDSLeucineIsoleucineThreonineTryptophanPhenylalanineValineMetheonineLysine*To Maintain The Proper Nitrogen Balance In The BodyCHILD: Growth failure

    ADULT: decrease plasma protein and hemoglobin levelsDEFICIENCY(1 or more)

  • SEMI-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDSHistidine

    Arginine

    *Synthesized partially by the bodyBut not at the rate to meet the requirement in growing children, pregnant and lactating women

  • NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDSAlanineAspartic acidSerineProline

    *Can be synthesized by the body

    May not be required in the dietDerived from carbon skeletons of lipids and carbohydrates during metabolism or from the transamination of essential amino acids

  • Complete or Adequate Proteins: Animal Proteins- Supply all of the essential amino acids.Incomplete Proteins: Vegetable Proteins- Low in one or more of the essential amino acids

    ANIMAL PROTEINS

    SOURCETYPE OF CHONMISSING AAEggCompleteNoneMilk (Dairy)Complete NoneMeat, FishComplete None

  • VEGETABLE PROTEINSThe two vegetable proteins are called complementary proteins.

    Ex. Rice and Beans

    SOURCETYPE OF CHONMISSING AAWheatIncompleteLysineCornIncompleteLysine &TryptophanRiceIncompleteLysineBeansIncompleteMethionine &TryptophanPeasIncompleteMethionine

  • -C-C-CONH2-C-CONH2-C-COOH-C-C-COOH-H-CH3-C-OH-C-SH-C-C-S-C-C-C-C-C-NH3+Central lineAliphaticAmideAcidicImino,CircularBasicSulfurHydroxyAromatic Amino Acid Subway MapThis is NOT a metabolic pathway

  • POLARNON-POLARTyrHisGlyAcidicNeutralBasicAspGluGlnCysAsnSerThrLysArgAlaValIleLeuMetPheTrpProClassification of Amino Acids by Polarity

  • *

    * ( Tyr, Gly, His)