Amino Acids Ppt


Transcript of Amino Acids Ppt

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Roles of Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins

intermediates in metabolism.

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• In the structure , R represents a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

• The carbon atom next to the carboxyl group is called the α–carbon and amino acids with a side-chain bonded to this carbon are referred to as alpha amino acids

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In the alpha amino acids, the α–carbon is a chiral carbon atom, with the exception of glycine.

In amino acids that have a carbon chain attached to the α–carbon (s the carbons are labeled in order as α, β, γ, δ, and so on.

In some amino acids, the amine group is attached to the β or γ-carbon, and these are therefore referred to as beta or gamma amino acids.

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Physiologic pH….

Carboxyl group is dissociated = negatively charged ( Carboxylate ion ( -COO - ), and

The Amino group is protonated ( -NH3 + ).

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• The nature of the side chains ultimately dictates the role an amino acid plays in a protein.

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A. Amino acids with Nonpolar side chains

B. Amino acids with Uncharged Polar side chains

C. Amino acids with acidic side chains

D. Amino acids with basic side chains

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• A. Amino acids with non polar side chains• “oily or lipid – like property• Hydrophobic interactions• Does not participate in hydrogen or

ionic bonds• Proline- imino group

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B. Amino acids with uncharged polar chains

• Contain hydroxyl group• Participates in hydrogen bond formation• The side chains of asparagine and glutamine each

contain a carbonyl group and an amide group

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C. Amino acids with acidic side chains

• Proton donors• Negatively charged

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D. Amino Acids with basic side chains

• Proton acceptors• Positively charged

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Abbreviations and symbols

1. Unique first letter

cysteine- Cys C

Histidine- His H

Isoleucine-Ile I

Methionine- Met M

Serine – Ser S

Valine- Val V

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Abbreviations and symbols

2. Most commonly occuring amino acids have priority

Alanine – Ala A

Glycine - Gly G

Leucine -Leu L

Proline – Pro P

Threonine – Thr T

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Abbreviations and symbols

3. Similar sounding names- Some one letter symbols sound like the amino acid they represent:

Arginine- Arg - R ( “aRginine”)

Asparagine- Asn- N ( contains N)

Aspartate-Asp- D ( “asparDic”)

Glutamate- Glu-E (“glutEmate”)

Glutamine – Gln-Q (“Q-tamine”)

Phenylalanine-Phe-F (“Fenylalanine”)

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Abbreviations and symbols

3. Similar sounding names- Some one letter symbols sound like the amino acid they represent:

Tyrosine- Tyr - Y ( “tYrosine”)

Tryptophan- Trp- W (double ring in the molecule)

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Abbreviations and symbols

4.Letter close to initial letter:

Aspartate or asparagine- Asx- B

Glutamate or glutamine- Glx – Z

Lysine – Lys – K ( near L )

Undetermined amino acid - X

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The carboxyl and amino groups interact resulting in the transfer of proton from carboxyl group to amino group.

Thus the amino acid exists in ionised form known as zwitter ion.


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At pH between 2.2 and 9.4, the predominant form adopted by α-amino acids contains a negative carboxylate and a positive α-ammonium group, so has net zero charge

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Below pH 2.2, the predominant form will have a neutral carboxylic acid group and a positive α-ammonium ion (net charge +1), and above pH 9.4, a negative carboxylate and neutral α-amino group (net charge -1)

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At a certain hydrogen ion concentration (pH), the dipolar ion exists as a neutral ion and does not migrate to either electrode. This pH is known as the isoelectric point

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Amino acid deficiency

• Weak immune system• Loss of antibody production• Fatigue• Depression and mood issues• Inefficient Digestive System

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They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides

Or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins.

Process of translation

Ribozyme called ribosome

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These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids.

The process of making proteins is called translation and involves the step-by-step addition of amino acids to a growing protein chain by a ribozyme that is called a ribosome.

The order in which the amino acids are added is read through the genetic code from an mRNA template, which is a RNA copy of one of the organism's genes.

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• As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage.

• This polymerization of amino acids is what creates proteins.

• This condensation reaction yields the newly formed peptide bond and a molecule of water. In

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The amino acid is first activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond.

This aminoacyl-tRNA is produced in an ATP-dependent reaction carried out by an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase.

This aminoacyl-tRNA is then a substrate for the ribosome, which catalyzes the attack of the amino group of the elongating protein chain on the ester bond.

] As a result of this mechanism, all proteins made by ribosomes are synthesized starting at their N-terminus and moving towards their C-terminus.