Sdes bee lab manual

Click here to load reader

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)



Transcript of Sdes bee lab manual


2. SDESTHEVININS THEOREMAIM: Verification of Thevinins Theorem.APPARATUS:S. noApparatusType RangeQuantity1Thevinins Theorem 1 Trainer it2Regulated power supply(0-40)V13AmmeterDigital(0-100)mA14VoltmeterDigital(0-15)V15Digital Multi meter16Different load resisters75,100 ,150 7Connecting wiresSTATEMENT: Thevenins theorem states that any circuit having no, of sources, resistances and AB openO/P terminals can be replaced by a simple equivalent circuit consisting of single voltage sourcein series with a resistance where the values of voltage source is equal to the open circuit voltageacross the output terminals and series resistance is equal to the resistance seen in to the networkfrom output terminals with all sources are replaced by their internal resistance.PROCEDURE:1 . Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.2. Measure the current through the load resistance and note down IL .3. Remove the load resistance and measure the voltage across A,B which givn the Thevivinsvoltage(VTH)4. Measure the resistance between AB by short circuiting the voltage source which givesThevenins resistance (RTH).5. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.2 with VTH, RTH and the load resistance.6. Measure the load current and compare with the current flowing through the R L in originalcircuit.7. Thus Thevinin,s theorem is verified.E&E LAB Page 2 3. SDESTABULAR Vs(V) IL (mA) ILl (mA) Rth() Vth(V)CALCULATIONS:E&E LABPage 3 4. SDESRESULT:E&E LABPage 4 5. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:E&E LAB Page 5 6. SDESMAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREMAIM:Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem and find out the value of loadresistance when max power transferred to it.APPARATUS:S. no ApparatusType RangeQuantity1 Max. Power Transfer1Theorem Trainer it2 Regulated power supply(0-40)V13 AmmeterDigital(0-200)mA14 VoltmeterDigital(0-15)V15 Digital Multi meter16 Connecting wiresSTATEMENT: Max. Power Transfer theorem states that in a DC Network Max. PowerTransferred from the source to the load when load resistance is equal to the load resistance.PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.2. Measure the current passing through the load resistance RL and voltage across it for a supplyvoltage of V Volts3. Now vary the load resistance RL and measure the value of IL and VL_4. Tabulate all the values and find the power absorbed by the load. Resistance in each case.5. Observe the load resistance for which Max. Power is transferred and compare with the sourceresistance.6. Hence Max. Power Transfer Theorem is verified. .E&E LAB Page 6 7. SDESTABULAR COLUMN:S.NO. Load Current Load Voltage Power (PL) Resistance(RL) (mA) (mA)(mW) (m) 10. 11.EXPECTED GRAPH:E&E LAB Page 7 8. SDESGRAPH:A Graph is drawn by taking different values of load resistance on X-axis and therespective powers on Y-axisCALCULATIONS:RESULT:E&E LABPage 8 9. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:mE&E LAB Page 9 10. SDES SUPER POSITION THEOREMAIM: Verification of Super position Theorem.APPARATUS:S.noApparatus TypeRange Quantity1Superposition1Theorem Trainer kit2 Regulated power supply(0-40V) 13 Ammeter Digital (0-200) mA14 Voltmeter Digital (0-15)V 15 Digital Multi meter 16 Connecting wiresSTATEMENT:Super position theorem states that in any linear bilateral network consisting of two ormore sources, the response in any element is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses causedby individual source acting alone, while the other sources are non operative that is voltage sourceare replaced by a short circuit and current sources replaced by a open circuitPROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram2. Set V1=15V and V2=0Volts.3. Measure the current flowing through the ammeter I1,I2,I3.4. Now short circuit the voltage source V2 and Measure the current flowing through theresistance I1.5. Short circuit the voltage source V1, reconnect the voltage source V2, Measure the current I1 .6. It is found that I1= I1+ I17. Hence super position theorem is verified.E&E LABPage 10 11. SDESTABULAR COLUMN:I1 (ma)V (VOLTS) THERITICALPRACTICALV1=V2=V1=V2=V1=V2=CALCULATIONS:E&E LAB Page 11 12. SDESRESULT:E&E LABPage 12 13. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:E&E LAB Page 13 14. SDESRECIPROCITY THEOREMAIM: Verification of Reciprocity Theorem.APPARATUS:S no ApparatusType RangeQuantity1 Reciprocity Theorem 1 Trainer it2Regulated power supply(0-40)V13AmmeterDigital(0-200)ma14VoltmeterDigital(0-15)V15Digital Multi meter16Connecting wiresSTATEMENT: Reciprocity Theorem States that in any linear Bilateral network if a single voltage sourceVa in Branch a produce a current Ib in Branch b, then the removal of voltage source frombranch a and its insertion in branch b will produce a current Ib in Branch a.PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as per the diagram.2. Set the voltage of power supply of 10V.and connect across the terminals A&B3. A milli Ammeter connected to a terminal A&B and note down the current I.4. Now interchange the position of ammeter and voltage source and note down the current valuelet it be I.5. it is found that both the currents are equal that is I=I.6. Calculate the ratio of Voltage to current in both the cases.7. It is found that both are Equal.8. Hence Reciprocity theorem is verified.E&E LABPage 14 15. SDESTABULAR COLUMN:Voltage Current (mA)Voltage/CurrentV1=V2=V1=V2=CALCULATIONS:RESULT:E&E LAB Page 15 16. SDESCYCLE-IIE&E LABPage 16 17. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:E&E LAB Page 17 18. SDES Magnetization Characteristics of a D.C. Shunt GeneratorAim: To draw the magnetization characteristics of a DC shunt generator to determine thecritical resistance (Rc) and critical speed (Nc).Name Plate Details:Motor GeneratorPower= KW Power =KWArmature voltage = voltsSpeed =rpmField voltage= voltsArmature voltage=voltsField current= amps Armature current=ampsSpeed=rpm Field voltage =voltsArmature current =ampsField current = ampsWound= Shunt Wound= ShuntApparatus Required:S no Apparatus Type RangeQuantity1RheostatWire wound 2A/20022Ammeter Moving coil0-2A 13Volt meterMoving coil0-300V 24TachometerDigital0-10000 rpm1Theory:Magnetization Curve: The graph between the field current and corresponding flux per pole iscalled the magnetization characteristic of the machine. This is same as B-H curve of the materialused for the pole construction. In a d.c. generator, for any given speed, the induced e.m.f in the armature is directlyproportional to the flux per pole.ZNP Eg =X 60A Where, is the flux per pole in Webers, Z is the no. of conductors in the armature, N isthe speed of the shaft in rpm, P is the no. of poles and A is the no .of parallel paths.A = 2 (wave)A = P (lap)E&E LABPage 18 19. SDESObservation Table:Vs=220VS.No. If (Field)Eg Eg Eg amps(increasing) (decreasing) (Average) voltsvoltsvolts12345678Critical Resistance Calculations Critical speed calculationsSl.No. Speed (rpm) Induced emf(volts) 1 2 3 4E&E LABPage 19 20. SDESOpen Circuit Characteristics:The armature is driven at a constant speed and the field current is increased graduallyfrom zero to its rated value. The terminal voltage (VL) at no-load condition is measured atdifferent If values. The graph, VL vs. If is called open-circuit characteristic. VL differs from Egdue to (a) Armature reaction (b) voltage drop in the armature circuit. Ia is very small at no-loadcondition, these effects are negligible. Hence, VL = Eg at no-load condition. Thus, the opencircuit characteristic is same as magnetization curve.As shown in the figureCritical Field Resistance (RC): Critical Field Resistance is defined as the maximum field circuit resistance at whichthe shunt generator would just excite at any given speed. At this value the generator will justexcites. If the field circuit resistance is increased beyond this value, the generator will fail toexcite.Rc is given by initial slope value of the O.C.C. curve in the linear region (AB) passingthrough the origin for the speed at which data is obtained. If the field circuit resistance (Rf) is increased to RC, the machine fail to excite and noe.m.f. is induced in the generator. For exiting the generator, Rf < RC.Critical Speed: For any given field circuit resistance, the speed above which the generator builds upan appreciable voltage is called critical speed. As E N, the value of critical speed, Nc can be given as Nc = (B/A)*NE&E LABPage 20 21. SDESEXPECTED GRAPH: Rshcritical field resistance XC Eg voltsY BAZOIf ampsE&E LABPage 21 22. SDESProcedure: Note down the ratings of the d.c .shunt motor and the d.c .shunt generator. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram. Keep the generator field rheostat at maximum resistance position and motor fieldrheostat in minimum resistance position. Now start the motor using a 3-point starter Adjust the motor field rheostat to bring the motor speed to rated value. Now decrease the field rheostat of generator and note down If and Eg up to the rated-voltage of the generator. The experiment is repeated for decreasing order of If Maintain the speed of the motor (Prime Mover) at a constant value during theexperiment. Plot the magnetization curveGraphs:Draw the graph for (1) Eg Vs If & (2) Eg Vs NPRECAUTION: The motor initially should be started without any load. The rotor resistance starter should be in the maximum resistance position while starting.Result:E&E LABPage 22 23. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:,E&E LAB Page 23 24. SDES Swinburnes TestAim: To pre-determine the efficiency of a D.C. shunt machine considering it as a generatoror as a motor by performing Swinburnes test on it.Name plate details:MotorPower=hp Speed =rpmArmature voltage = volts Field voltage =voltsArmature current = ampsField current =ampsApparatus Required:SL NOApparatusTypeRangeQuantity1VoltmeterMoving coil 0-300V 12AmmeterMoving coil 0-2A 13AmmeterMoving coil 0-20A14Rheostat Wire wound1.5/ 300 15Tachometer Digital (0-10000 )rpm1Theory:Testing of D.C .machines can be divided into three methods: (i) direct, (ii) Regenerativeand (iii) indirect. Swinburnes Test is an indirect method of testing a dc machine. In this method, theconstant losses of the D.C. machine are calculated at no-load. Hence, its efficiency either asmotor or as a generator can be pre-determined. In this method, the power requirement is verysmall. Hence, this method can be used to pre-determine the efficiency of higher capacity dcmachines as a motor and as a generator.Disadvantages: (i) Efficiency at actual load is not accurately known (ii) Temperature rise on load is not known and (iii) Sparking at commutator on load is not known.Power input at No-load = Constant losses + Armature copper losses (which is negligible)Power input at No-load = Constant lossesPower input = Va Ia + Vf IfE&E LAB Page 24 25. SDESObservation table:S.No VL(V)IL(A) If(A)Stray lossesFixed lossesAs a motor: Sl. IL PowerCopperTotal Power Efficiency No.InputLossLossOutput 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.As a Generator:Sl IL PowerCopper TotalPowerEfficiency No.InputLoss Loss Output 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.E&E LABPage 25 26. SDESLosses in a DC machine: The losses in a D.C. machine can be divided as 1) Constant losses 2) Variable losses,which changes with the load.Constant losses:Mechanical Losses:Friction and Wind age losses are called mechanical losses. They depend upon the speed.A dc shunt machine is basically a constant speed machine both as a generator and as a motor.Thus, the mechanical losses are constant.Iron Losses: For a dc shunt machine, the field current hence the flux per pole is constant (Neglectingthe armature reaction which reduces the net flux in the air gap). Hence, hysteresis and eddycurrent losses (which are also called as iron losses) remains constant.Field Copper Losses:Under normal operating conditions of a D.C. shunt machine, the field current remainsconstant. Thus, power received by the field circuit (which is consumed as field copper losses) isconstant.Constant losses in a dc shunt machine=Mechanical + losses Iron losses+ Field cu. Losses.Variable Losses: The power lost in the armature circuit of a dc machine increases with the increase in load.Thus, the armature copper loss is called as variable losses.Procedure: Note down the ratings of the dc shunt motor Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram. Keep motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position. Now start the motor using a 3-point starter Adjust the motor field rheostat to bring the motor speed to rated value. Run the machine as a motor at no-load. Note down the voltage and current readings of the motor and generator at no-load. Calculate the efficiency of the machine working as motor and generator after taking the values of field and armature circuit resistances.E&E LABPage 26 27. SDESE&E LABPage 27 28. SDESConclusion: The power required to conduct the test is very less as compared to the direct loading test. Constant losses are calculated from this method are used to compute the efficiency of adc machine as a generator and as a motor without actually loading it. Hence, this is an economic methodRESULT:E&E LABPage 28 29. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:E&E LAB Page 29 30. SDES Brake test on a DC Shunt MotorAim:To obtain the performance characteristics of a DC Shunt motor by a load test. 1) Armature current Vs Speed 2) Armature current Vs Torque 3) Armature current Vs Induced emf 4) Armature current Vs Flux per pole 5) Torque Vs Speed 6) Output Vs EfficiencyName plate details:MotorPower=hpSpeed = rpmArmature voltage = voltsField voltage = voltsArmature current = amps Field current =ampsApparatus require:Si no Equipment Range Type Quantity1 Volt meter0-300VMoving coil12 Ammeter 0-2AMoving coil13 Ammeter 0-20A Moving coil14 RheostatWire wound1.5/300 15 TachometerDigital 10000 rpm1Theory:This is a direct method of testing a dc machine. It is a simple method of measuring motoroutput, speed and efficiency etc., at different load conditions A rope is would round the pulleyand its two ends are attached to two spring balances S1 andS2. The tensions provided by thespring balances S1 and S2 are T1 and T2 the tensions of the rope can be adjusted with the help ofswivels.The force acting tangentially on the pulley is equal to the difference between the readingsof the two spring balances in kg- force.The induced voltage Eb =V-Ia Ra and Eb= KN, Thus, K=Eb /NV= applied voltage, Ia =armature current, Ra =Armature resistance.Total power input to the motor Pin =Field circuit power + Armature powerE&E LAB Page 30 31. SDESObservation table:Armature voltage =Field voltage=Field current=No load speed=Sl. Ia N T1 T2 Input Shaft Shaft % E KNo. amps rpm kg kg (Pin) Torque (rad/sec) Output (volts) Vs/r watts (j/rad)(watts) LABPage 31 32. SDES= VfIf + Va IaIf r is the radius of the pulley , then torque at the pulley is given byTshaft = 9.81 (T1~T2 )r = 1.5 (T1~T2) N-m2 N = is the angular velocity of the pulley, in rad/sec. 60 2 NMotor output power Pout =Tshaft * =1.5 (T1~T2)60 Pout% Efficiency =X 100 PinA dc shunt motors rotates due to the torque developed in the armature when the armature andfield terminals are connected to the dc supply. The direction of rotation can be explained with thehelp of Flemings left hand principle.A counter emf or back emf (Eb) is induced in the armature conductors while the armature(rotor) rotating in the magnetic field. The direction of the induced emf can be explained with thehelp of Flemings right hand principle and Lenzs law. The is induced emf is also called as backemf Eb.ZN PThe equation of the motor is V= Eb + Ia Ra Where Eb = X 60 A V EbIa = RaThe value of Eb is zero while starting the motor. Hence the voltage across the armature has tobe increase gradually.2 NThe power developed in the rotor (armature) = EbIa = T Where = 60In a dc motor T Ia where = Flux produced by the shunt field per poleIa = Armature currentThe torque developed in the motor is opposed by the torques due to (a) Friction and windage(b) eddy currents and hysterisis and (c) mechanical load connected at the shaft. The motor runs ata stable speed when the developed torque and resisting torques balance each other. Let a small load be increased, then the resisting torque increases and motor speed falls. The V Ebback emf reduces due to the fall in the speed. Hence, the armature current increases (Ia =) RaE&E LAB Page 32 33. SDESIf is assumed constant, (i.e. neglecting the armature reaction) the torque developed by themot or increases and a new stable speed is reached at which the developed torque equals theresisting torque.Armature Current ~ Speed characteristics:The armature current Ia increases with increase in the load at the shaft. Hence Ia Ra dropincreases and counter emf (Eb) decreases.Eb = V-IaRa where Ra is armature resistance and Eb N, if is constant in the shunt motorby neglecting the armature reaction; the speed falls as Eb falls.In a dc motor Ra is very small, hence Ia Ra is a small value and fall in Eb with increase in loadis small. Thus, the speed falls slightly as Ia increases.Armature current ~ Torque characteristics:If is constant, developed torque increases with increase in IaT= K IaIn actual condition, slightly falls withy increase in Ia due to the effect of armature reaction.Armature current ~ induced emf (back emf): Induced emf (back emf Eb ) falls slightly with increase in Ia as per the equation Eb =V-Ia RaArmature current ~ Flux per pole:The resultant Flux per pole decreases with the increase in Ia due to the effect of armaturereact ion and amp-turns of the file d is constant at any load.Torque ~ Speed:With increase in load, Ia and Ta increases since the shunt field is constant. The fall in speedEbis very small as the Ia Ra drop is very small compared to V. In a dc shunt motor N Output ~ EfficiencyThe graph between Output ~ Efficiency indicates that max torque occurs when armaturecopper losses is equal to the constant losses. (Sum of field copper losses, mechanical losses andIron losses)E&E LAB Page 33 34. SDESProcedure:1. Note down the name plate details.2. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.3. Keep the motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position.4. Loosen the rope on the brake drum and put some water inside the rim of the brake drum5. Now start the motor using a 3-point starter6. Adjust the motor field rheostat to bring the motor speed to rated value.7. Record the readings of the meters at no-load condition.8. Gradually, increase the load on the brake drum and record the readings as per the giventable.9. Do not exceed the armature current more than its rated value.10. Gradually, reduce the load and switch off the supply.PRECAUTION: The motor initially should be started without any load. The rotor resistance starter should be in the maximum resistance position while starting.RESULT:E&E LAB Page 34 35. SDESOPEN CIRCUIT TEST:SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:E&E LABPage 35 36. SDES O.C. TEST AND S.C. TEST ON A SINGLE PHASETRANSFORMERAIM: 1. To obtain the equivalent circuit of the transformer (ref LV & HV side). 2. To predetermine the efficiency and voltage regulation at various assumed 3. To verify the predetermined results by a direct load test.NAME PLATE DETAILS: Rating: ____________KVA Primary Voltage:____________ Volts Secondary Voltage _____________VoltsAPPARATUS: S.N. Components TypeSpecifications Quantity 1AmmeterMI0 20 A& 2A 1+1 No 2VoltmeterMI0 300 V&75V1+1NO 3WattmeterLPF (Dynamo Type) 3KW, 0 300V,2 A1 No. 4WattmeterUPF(Dynamo Type)3KW, 0 300 V, 10A1 No.THEORY:A Transformer is a static device which transfers the electrical energy from one circuitto a nother circuit with changes in voltages and current but without any change in thefrequency. The transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction between twowindings placed on a common magnetic circuit. The two windings are electrically insulatedfrom each other and also from the core. The approximate equivalent circuit of the transformer isshown in figure 2 The losses in transformer are (i) magnetic losses and ohmic losses or copper losses. Thesecan be determined by performing (a) open circuit test and given transformer can bepredetermined at any given load (b) short circuit test. From the above tests, the efficiency andvoltage regulation of a given transformer can be predetermined at any given load. The powerconsumed during these tests is very small compared to that in a load test. Another parting whatfollows, LV side parameters are denoted by suffix 1 and HV side parameters by suffix 2OPEN CIRCUIT TEST;In the open circuit test, HV side is usually kept open and supply given to the LV side, asShown in the figure; when rated voltage is applied to the LV side, the ammeter reads the no-loadcurrent I0 is 2 to 5% of full load current. Hence the copper losses at no-load are negligible. W0represents the iron or core losses. Iron losses are the sum of hysteresis and eddy current losses.W0 = VLV I0 Cos 0Cos0 = W0 / VLV I0, I = I0 Sin 0 , Iw = I0 Cos0R01 and X01 is ref LV.R0= VLV / Iw, X0 = VLV / IE&E LABPage 36 37. SDESOBSERVATIONS:1. O.C Test: O.C. Voltage (V) O.C Current (A) No-Load Power (w)2. S.C Test: S.C. Voltage (V) S.C Current (A) Power (w)EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR 1 TRNSFORMER:E&E LAB Page 37 38. SDES This test is performed to determine t he equivalent resistance and leakage reactance ofthe transformer and copper losses at full-load condition. In this test, usually LV side is shorted and meters are connected on HV side. A variable lowvoltage is applied to the HV winding with the help of an auto-transformer. This voltage is variedtill the rated current flows in the HV side and LV side. The voltage applied is 5 to 10 percentageof rated voltage, while the rated current flows in the windings. The wattmeter indicated the fullload copper losses and core losses at Vsc. But the core losses at this low voltage are negligible ascompared to the iron losses at the rate voltage. 2 2 Hence,Wsc = Full load copper losses = I 2 R2eq = I 2R02 22 Z02 = Vsc / Isc and X02 = Z 02 R 02 Req2 and Xeq2 are referred to HV side. The same parameters, referred to LV side, will be 1 /aeq2 and 1/eq2PROCEDURE:OPEN CIRCUIT TEST:1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in the figure 1.1.2. Gradually increase the voltage using the auto-transformer till the voltmeter reads 230V3. Record the voltmeter, ammeter and L.P.F. wattmeter readings.4. The ammeter indicates the no-load current and wattmeter indicates the iron losses5. Switch off the supply and set the auto-transformer at zero position.S.C. TEST:1, Connect the circuit diagram as shown in the figure 1.22. Gradually increase the voltage using the auto-transformer till the ammeter reads 4.8 amps (therated current of the transformer on HV side)3. Record the voltmeter, ammeter and U.P.F. wattmeter readings.4. The ammeter indicates Isc, Voltmeter indicates Vsc and wattmeter indicates Wsc copper lossesof the transformer at full load condition.5. Switch off the supply and set the auto-transformer at zero position.E&E LABPage 38 39. SDESE&E LABPage 39 40. SDESE&E LABPage 40 41. SDESCIRCUIT DIAGRAM:E&E LAB Page 41 42. SDESBRAKE TEST ON 3-Ph SQUIRREL DAGE INDUCTION MOTORAIM: To conduct the load test on three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw theperformance characteristics curve.NAME PLATE DETAILS:3 INDUCTION MOTOR 3 AUTO TRANSFORMERAPPARATUS:Sl NoName of Type RangeQuantity Apparatus1Ammeter MI (0-10A)12Volt meterMI (0-600A) 13Watt MeterUPF(Dynamo (600V,10A) 2 Type)4Tachometerdigital(0-10000)rpm 1PROCEDURE: Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. The TPSTS is closed and the motor is started with the help of rotor resistance starter.Where the rotor resistance starter is turned on from maximum resistance to minimumresistance position to run the motor at its rated speed. At No load condition the speed, current, voltage and power are noted down. By applying the load with the help of spring balance and brake drum arrangement thespeed, current, voltage, power and spring balance readings or noted for various values ofload up to the rated currents. The load is later released gradually and the Rotor resistance starter is brought to theoriginal position before switching off the motor. The motor is switched off.E&E LAB Page 42 43. SDESTABUL AR FORMS No LineLoadWatt meter Readings Spring Balance Speed Voltage Current Readings (VL)(IL)(W1)(W2)(S1)(S2) (rpm)123456CALCULATIONS TABLE;S.NCurrent Input Torque Output Power p.f=O/P/I/P (Amps) Power(S1-S2)(R=t/2) 2NT/60 (W1+W2) (9.81)1234567E&E LAB Page 43 44. SDESFORMULAE:Torque= (S1-S2) (R + t/2)*9.81 N-mS1, S2 spring balance readings in KgR- Radius of the brake drum in m.T- Thickness of the belt in m.Output power =2NT/60 wattsN- Rotor speed in rpm.T- Torque in N-m.Input Power = (W1+W2) Watts.W1, W2 Wattmeter readings in Watts.Percentage of Efficiency= (output power)/Input power*100Percentage of slip = (Ns-N) Ns*100.Ns-Synchronous speed in rpmN-Speed of the motor in rpmPower Factor = (W1+W2) 3VLILPRECAUTION: The motor initially should be started without any load. The rotor resistance starter should be in the maximum resistance position while starting.RESULT:frE&E LABPage 44 45. SDESGRAPH for Mechanical Characteristics.GRAPH for Mechanical Characteristics.E&E LABPage 45