Radiation Safety and You

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Radiation Safety and You. Brian Kessler Zettl Group Safety Talk September 7, 2006. Types of Radiation. Ionizing Radiation Ionization potentials of the elements range from 3.89 eV (Cs) to 24.6 eV (He) Alpha Rays – He 4 nucleas Beta Rays – electrons/positrons - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Radiation Safety and YouBrian KesslerZettl Group Safety TalkSeptember 7, 2006

  • Types of RadiationIonizing RadiationIonization potentials of the elements range from 3.89 eV (Cs) to 24.6 eV (He)Alpha Rays He4 nucleasBeta Rays electrons/positronsX-rays and Gamma Rays - photons with
  • Radiation Producing Machines in the LabTransmission Electron MicroscopeElectrons, Secondary X-RaysScanning Electron MicroscopeElectrons, Secondary X-RaysElectron Beam Evaporator

  • Dosage and How to Measure ItUnits:Gray (Gy) = J/kg, physical amount of energy absorbedSievert (Sv) = Q*N*Gy, biological effect of energy absorbed (1 Sv = 100 rem)Quality Factor (Q) depends on the type of radiationphotons, electrons Q=1, Protons Q=5, Alpha particles Q=20N Factor (Q) depends on the exposed areaGonads, N=0.20, Colon, Lung, Stomach N=0.12, Bladder, Brain, Uterus, N = 0.05, Skin N=0.01 http://www.npl.co.uk/ionrad/quantities.html

  • Typical ExposureSignificant Background Sources of RadiationCosmic Rays, Radon Gas, Naturally Occuring Isotopes, Medical DiagnosticsAnnual Dose: 2 mSvFly LA-NY: 0.025 mSvGI X-Ray Series : 2.2 mSv

    http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/html/02whatis.html

  • Radiation DangerPrimary Risk - CancerRisk to General Population: 20%Risk to individual with 100 mSv excess exposure: 20.4%Secondary Risk Genetic EffectsIncreased Risk of Mental Retardation in Exposed Fetuses: 0.8%http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/html/04risks.html

  • How to Protect YourselfALARA A Low As Reasonably AchievableMinimize TimeMaximize DistanceUse Appropriate ShieldingAlpha Particles a sheet of paperBeta Particles a sheet of metalGamma Rays thick lead or concrete

    http://www.ehs.berkeley.edu/radsafety/rpmtraininghandout.pdf

  • What You Should Do NowReview and Complete Your General Employee Radiation Training through LBL:http://ehswprod.lbl.gov/EHSTraining/GERT/default.htmReview Berkeley EHS Radiation Safety Website:http://www.ehs.berkeley.edu/radsafety.htmlStay Safe!