Paradigma Keperawatan Rev

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NURSING PARADIGM

Kusman Ibrahim, Ph.D.

Faculty of Nursing, Padjadjaran University

Definition (wikipedia) It comes from Greek "" (paradeigma), "pattern, example, sample from the verb "" (paradeiknumi), "exhibit, represent, expose" and that from "" (para), "beside, by"+ "" (deiknumi), "to show, to point out" a dynamic field or "world" of concepts such that it represents a union between intelligent inquiry and some particular kind of world view

Definition of paradigm a way of looking at natural phenomena that encompasses a set of philosophical assumptions and that guides one's approach to inquiry" (Polit &Hungler, 1997: 463).

a world view or general perspective for viewing some complexity of the real world that becomes embedded in the orientation of those who subscribe to the paradigm (Chaska, 1990:167) Ways of looking at (Conceptualizing a Discipline (ex.Nursing) in a clear, explicit term that can be communicated to others (Kelly 2003:194)

Mataparadigm in nursing "is a statement or group of statements identifying its relevant phenomena" (Fawcett, 1984, pg. 84). The most abstract component in the structural hierarchy of contemporary nursing knowledge: identify the phenomena of interest of a discipline and describe the relationships among the phenomena (Khun, 1977) The phenomena of interest to the discipline of nursing is represented by four concepts: PERSON, ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, and NURSING

COMPONENTS OF NURSING KNOWLEDGECOMPONENTS LEVEL OF ABSTRACTION

METAPARADIGMPHILOSOPHIES

MOST ABSTRACT

CONCEPTUAL MODELSTHEORIES EMPIRICAL INDICATORS

MOST CONCRETE

Function of the metaparadigm Provide the general parameters of the field and give scientists a broad orientation to work Summarize the intellectual and social missions of a discipline and place a boundary on the subject matter of the discipline Distinguish a discipline from others

Example Nursing focus on the wholeness or health of humans, recognizing that humans are in continuous interaction with environments (Donaldson & Crowley, 1978) Medicine focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases

he meta-paradigm concepts

Health PersonNursing

Environment

Metaparadigm ConceptsPERSON ENVIRONMENT

NURSING

HEALTH

SOCIETY/ENVIRONMENT

Person

NURSING

HEALTH

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF CONCEPTS

NURSING THEORY

PersonThe recipient of nursing, including individuals, families, communities, and other groups.

EnvironmentThe persons significant others and physical surroundings, as well as to the setting in which nursing occurspersons home-clinical agencies- society.

EnvironmentAll the local, regional, national, and worldwide cultural, social, political, and economic conditions that are associated with the persons health.

HealthThe persons state of well being high-level wellness to terminal illness

NursingThe definition of nursing, the actions taken by nurses on behalf of or in conjunction with the person, and the goal or outcomes of nursing actions. Nursing actions: systematic process of assessment, labeling, planning, intervention, and evaluation

Jean Watsons Theory of Caring: MetaparadigmBy: Sheldon Hubert

THE PERSON (PATIENT) Is subjective and unique, not objective, predictable and calculating. Has distinct human needs, which are biophysical, psychophysical, psychosocial and interpersonal. Is to be valued, cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted. Is a functioning whole, there is no division among the mind, body and spirit (George/2002). Is directly influenced by their external environment.

THE ENVIRONMENT Is crucial to the holistic healing (mental, physical, social, emotional, spiritual, developmental, protective, supportive environments), which is conducive to a patients health and wellbeing. Affects both patients and nurses within a caringhealing model. (Bernick, 2004). Is usually designed as a home-like environment but these systems still fall short as healing spaces (Watson/1999). Contains noise, privacy, light, access to nature, color, space and smells that can have an impact on the caring-healing process (Watson/1999).

HEALTH Is viewed holistically, as the unity between the physical, social, mental and spiritual self, with all parts working together in harmony and functioning to their full capacity. Is a perceived by the patient and is influenced by their own unique life experiences (Bernick/2004). Entirely includes a individuals physical, social, aesthetic and moral realms, not just their behaviour and physiology (George/2002).

NURSING Is a caring, meaningful and harmonic connective bond that is shared between the nurse and the patient (George/2002). Is providing caring, professional and thoughtful interactions to restore and promote holistic health and to prevent illness. Is a holistic practice that is complementary to medicine.