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Identification of an Auto-regulatory Feedback Pathway Involving IL-1α in Induction of Constitutive NF-κB Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Jiangong Niu ‡,§ , Zhongkui Li , Bailu Peng and Paul J. Chiao ‡,§,#,¶ Departments of Surgical Oncology and # Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 § Program of Cancer Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 To whom correspondence should be addressed: Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 107 The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 Tel.: 713-794-1030 Fax: 713-794-4830 Email: [email protected] Running Title: NF-κB activation in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells 1 by guest on August 30, 2018 http://www.jbc.org/ Downloaded from

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  • Identification of an Auto-regulatory Feedback Pathway Involving IL-1 in Induction of

    Constitutive NF-B Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Jiangong Niu,, Zhongkui Li, Bailu Peng and Paul J. Chiao,,#,

    Departments of Surgical Oncology and #Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of

    Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030

    Program of Cancer Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of

    Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030

    To whom correspondence should be addressed: Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 107 The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 Tel.: 713-794-1030 Fax: 713-794-4830 Email: [email protected]

    Running Title: NF-B activation in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells

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  • Summary

    We previously reported that NF-B is constitutively activated in most human

    pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines but not in normal pancreatic tissues and

    immortalized pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. IBM-mediated inhibition of constitutive

    NF-B activity in human pancreatic cancer cells suppressed tumorigenesis and liver

    metastasis in an orthotopic nude mouse model, suggesting that constitutive NF-B

    activation plays an important role in pancreatic tumor progression and metastasis.

    However, the underlying mechanism by which NF-B is activated in pancreatic cancer

    remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that an autocrine mechanism accounts

    for the constitutive activation of NF-B in metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    Further investigation showed that interleukin-1 was the primary cytokine secreted by

    these cells that activates NF-B. Neutralization of interleukin-1 activity suppressed the

    constitutive activation of NF-B and the expression of its downstream target gene, uPA, in

    metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that regulation of

    interleukin-1 expression is primarily dependent on AP-1 activity, which is in part induced

    by signaling pathways dependent and independent of EGF receptors. In conclusion, our

    findings suggest a possible mechanism for the constitutive activation of NF-B in metastatic

    human pancreatic cancer cells and a possible missing mechanistic links between

    inflammation and cancer.

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  • Introduction

    NF-B is a family of pleiotropic transcription factors that control the expression of

    numerous genes involved in growth, tumorigenesis, tumor metastasis, differentiation, embryonic

    development, apoptosis, and inflammation (1-4). Five members of mammalian NF-B have

    been described: NF-B1 (p50 and its precursor, p105), NF-B2 (p52 and its precursor, p100), c-

    Rel, RelA (p65) and RelB, each of which has a 300-residue-long Rel homology domain (RHD)

    (2,3,5). The interaction of c-Rel, RelA and RelB with their inhibitors, the IBs, results in

    inactive complexes in the cytoplasm by masking the nuclear localization signal (6,7). The

    inhibitor proteins IB, IB, IB, IB, Bcl-3, and the Drosophila protein Cactus have been

    described and characterized (2,3,5). In most cell types, NF-B proteins are sequestered in the

    cytoplasm by the inhibitor IB in an inactive form(2,6,7). On stimulation, IB is phosphorylated

    by IB kinase (IKK), which triggers its rapid degradation (8-10). Consequently, NF-B proteins

    are released and translocated into the nucleus, where they activate the expression of target genes

    (1-3,5). One of the key target genes regulated by NF-B is its inhibitor IB. A feedback

    inhibition pathway for control of IB gene transcription and downregulation of transient

    activation of NF-B activity has been described (11-13).

    Members of NF-B family are involved in the development of cancer. For instance, v-

    Rel, which is carried by a highly oncogenic retrovirus, causes an aggressive tumor in young birds

    and is able to transform avian lymphoid cells and fibroblasts (1,14). The mutated c-rel oncogene

    also transforms cells. Many reports demonstrated that chromosomal amplification,

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  • overexpression, and recurrent genomic rearrangement in the genes encoding c-Rel, Bcl-3, p105

    (p50), and p100 (p52) have been identified in many human hematopoietic cancers and several

    types of solid tumor such as human non-small cell lung carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas

    of the head and neck, and adenocarcinomas of breast (1,15). Many tumors have acquired genetic

    alterations in the signaling pathways that regulate NF-B activation. For example, defective

    IB led to constitutive nuclear NF-B activity, which in turn conferred a growth advantage of

    Hodgkin's disease tumor cells (16). The elevated IKK activities were also found in some of the

    tumor cells, suggesting that IKK was activated by as yet unidentified aberrant upstream signaling

    cascades (16). We previously reported that RelA, the p65 subunit of the NF-B transcription

    factor, was constitutively activated in most pancreatic cancer tissues and human pancreatic

    cancer cell lines but not in normal pancreatic tissues and immortalized pancreatic ductal

    epithelial cells (17,18). Our more recent work showed that inhibition of constitutive NF-B

    activity by a mutant IB (S32, 36A) completely suppressed the liver metastasis of the

    pancreatic cancer cell line ASPC-1, and the tumorigenic phenotype of a nonmetastatic pancreatic

    tumor cell line, PANC-1, suggesting that constitutive RelA activity plays a key role in pancreatic

    cancer metastasis and tumor progression (19,20). However, the mechanisms by which NF-B

    transcription factors are constitutively activated in pancreatic cancer still remain to be elucidated.

    Several studies have shown that secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in

    cancers (21-24). These pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)

    and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are the potent activators of NF-B that induce phosphorylation and

    rapid degradation of IB, exposing the nuclear localization sequence of NF-B and resulting in

    NF-B nuclear translocation (25,26). Some of these cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF have been

    reported to be regulated by NF-B in some cancer cell lines (27-30). Therefore, it is possible

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  • that autocrine secretion of these cytokines forms a positive feedback loop that induces the

    constitutive NF-B activation. The involvement of autocrine stimulation mechanisms of these

    cytokines in cancer progression has been suggested (31-35). For example, overexpression of IL-

    1 as an autocrine growth factor has been reported in a number of tumors in which activation of

    Raf plays an important role in transformation, suggesting that blockade of IL-1 signaling may be

    an approach to limiting the growth of certain tumors (31). Both exogenous and endogenous IL-

    1 contribute to the transcriptional activation of NF-B and AP-1, induce the expression of IL-8,

    and promote cell survival and the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in

    vitro (32-34). A recent study also suggested that overexpression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) might

    confer the chemoresistance in certain pancreatic cancer cell lines through NF-B activation (35).

    However, the mechanism, by which the regulation of the expression of these inflammatory

    cytokines is altered, is unclear. Whether the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as

    TNF- and IL-1 activate NF-B or the constitutive activity of NF-B induces the overexpression

    of these cytokines in cancer cells is not known.

    To determine the mechanisms by which NF-B is constitutively activated in metastatic

    pancreatic cancer cells, we sought to delineate the signaling cascades that lead to constitutive

    NF-B activation. We generated a number of pancreatic cancer cell lines that express a

    phosphorylation-defective IB mutant to inhibit constitutive NF-B activity. Our results show

    that overexpression of IL-1 is primarily induced by AP-1 activity, which is partially dependent

    on the overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in several metastatic

    pancreatic cancer cell lines but not in nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines. Thus, autocrine

    stimulation of IL-1, but not IL-1, induces the constitutive activation of NF-B, which in turn

    induces the expression of its downstream target genes.

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  • Experimental Procedures

    Cell lines and Reagents The human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1, PANC-1, Capan-

    1, and CFPAC-1 were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)

    (Manassas, VA). Human pancreatic cancer cell lines MDAPanc-3 and MDAPanc-28 were

    established by Marsha Frazier and Douglas B. Evans (The University of Texas M. D. Anderson

    Cancer Center) (36,37). The human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-

    28/IBM were constructed as previously described by Dong et al. (18). Wild-type Mouse

    Embryonic Fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were established in our laboratory according to the report

    by Beg et. al. (38). All cell lines were grown in the original cell culture medium specified by the

    American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and DMEM containing 10% FCS.

    Neutralizing IL-1, IL-1, TNF, TNF, and IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) antibodies were

    obtained from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). EGFR neutralizing antibody C225 was

    obtained from Dr. Zhen Fan (The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center).

    The preparation of conditioned medium (CM): Human pancreatic cancer cells were

    cultured in serum-free medium for 48 h. The medium was then harvested and centrifuged at

    1000rpm for 5 min. Four milliliters of supernatant were then used as conditioned medium and

    added to WT-MEF cells.

    Nuclear Extract Preparation and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) The

    human pancreatic cancer cells were cultured in serum-free medium for 48 h. The harvested

    conditioned media were used to treat WT-MEFs at different intervals. Two microgram per ml

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  • (2g/ml) neutralizing antibodies were used to block the corresponding cytokines. EGFR

    antibody C225 was used as 20 ng/ml for 48 h prior to the experiment. The nuclear extracts were

    prepared according to the method of Andrews and Faller (39). DNA binding assays for NF-B

    proteins were performed with 15 g of nuclear extracts as described by Chiao et al (11). 32P-

    labeled double-stranded oligonucleotides (5- CTCAACAGAGGGGACTTTCCGAGAGGC

    CAT - 3) containing the B site found in the HIV long terminal repeat were used as probes. The

    mutant B site for HIV long terminal repeat (5- CTCAACAGAGTTGACTTTTCGAGAG

    GCCAT - 3) was used for competition studies. The competition was performed with a 50-fold

    excess of unlabeled wild-type or mutant B oligonucleotides. Supershift experiments were

    performed with anti-RelA and anti-p50 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    The reactions were analyzed on 4% polyacrylamide gels containing 0.25 X TBE

    (Tris/Borate/EDTA) buffer.

    Western Blot Analysis Cytoplasmic extracts were used for the detection of IB protein.

    Total protein extracts from human pancreatic cancer cell lines were isolated for the detection of

    IL-1 and IL-1 level. For detection of IL-1 and IL-1 levels in conditioned medium, the

    conditioned medium from human pancreatic cancer cell cultures was harvested at the same ratio

    of medium volume to cell number and dialyzed for 24 h, 1 ml of dialyzed medium was then

    dried to a volume of 30 l. The concentrated medium or 100 g of protein extracts was resolved

    by SDS-PAGE, transferred to nylon membranes (Immobilon-P. Millipore, Bedford, MA), and

    detected with IB, IL-1, IL-1 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), uPA antibody

    (American Diagnostica, Greenwich, CT), or -actin antibody (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO).

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  • Subsequent Western blot analyses were carried out with Lumi-light Western blot substrate

    (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN).

    Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern Blot Analysis

    Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent according to the manufacturers protocol

    (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). The RNA was then reverse-transcribed into

    cDNA. The primers used for IL-1 were 5-GGTAGTAGCAACCAACGGGA-3 and 5-

    TGGGTATCTCAGGCATCTCC -3, and the primers used for IL-1 are 5-AGCTGATGGCC

    CTAAACAGA-3 and 5-TCTTTCAACACGCAGGACAG-3. The PCR products were 419bp

    for IL-1 and 498bp for IL-1. The PCR conditions were as follows: 94 C for 5 min, then

    perform 30 cycles at 94 C for 1 min, 55 C for 1 min, and 72 C for 1 min. Finally samples were

    extended at 72 C for 7 min. The PCR products were cloned into a pCR2.1-TOPO vector

    (Invitrogen Life Technologies) and were subsequently sequenced to confirm their identity. The

    IL-1 (BamHI and EcoRV-digested) and IL-1 (EcoRI for IL-1-digested) cDNAs were

    purified and used as the probes for northern blot analysis.

    Total RNA (30 g) was subjected to electrophoresis through a 1.2% agarose gel containing

    formaldehyde, transferred to a Hybond nylon filter (MSI), and ultraviolet cross-linked. The blots

    were hybridized with 32P-labeled human IL-1 or IL-1 cDNA and exposed to display the

    results.

    Primer Extension and DNA Sequencing Total RNA (25 g) from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28

    cells were preheated at 65 C for 5 min and then put on ice for 5 min. After that, 200 ng of 32P-

    end-labeled primer (5-GCTGT AGTTG TGTTC TGGCT GA- 3), 5 units of RNase inhibitor,

    2.5 mM dNTP mix, 2.5mM MgCl2, 1l of Improm-II reverse transcriptase and 1X RT reaction

    buffer (Promega, Madison, WI) were added. The mixture were incubated at 25 C for 15 min,

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  • and then transferred to 42 C for 1 h. The reaction products were treated with RNase H for 30

    min, boiled for 5 min, chilled on ice, and analyzed in 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gels with

    DNA sequencing reaction products of human IL-1 genomic clone using the same 32P-end-

    labeled primer and DNA size marker, X174 (32P-end-labeled). DNA sequencing was performed

    using a Sequenase kit (United States Biochemical, Cleveland, OH).

    Mutagenesis of AP-1 sites in IL-1a promoter IL-1 promoter was cloned by PCR. The

    right primer was 5 -CGCTCGAGGCTGTAGTTGTGTTCTGGCTGA- 3 (the sequence

    underlined is the restriction site for Xho I), and the left primer was 5 -CGGAGCTCTGGGAA

    CCCAAAACA TTCAT- 3 (the sequence underlined is the restriction site for Sac I). PCR

    products were cloned into the pGL2 Firefly luciferase vector (Promega). The mutagenesis was

    performed using the mutagenesis kit from Stratagene (La Jolla, CA). The primer used for AP1-1

    (site 1) is 5 -CCAT TCCCAAACTTGTCCACTGGCTTCTGGCTGAGGCC- 3, for AP-1-2

    (site 2) is 5 -CCCTCT TCAGAAAAGATGGCACATTTTCCCTC- 3 (AP-1 sites were

    underlined and mutated sites were in bold letters). The mutated AP-1 sites were verified by

    sequencing.

    Transient Transfection and Luciferease Reporter Gene Analysis One microgram of IL-1

    reporter gene (1g) constructs were cotransfected into relA-/- MEF cells with an internal control,

    p-TK Renilla luciferase (pRL-TK) using lipotransfection method (FuGENE 6, Roche

    Diagnostics) in triplicate. The activity of both Firefly and Renilla luciferase were determined 48

    h after transfection using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system (Promega).

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  • Results

    Conditioned Medium from Metastatic Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells Induces NF-B

    Activation We previously reported that NF-B was constitutively activated in most human

    pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines (17) and that inhibition of constitutive NF-B activation

    suppresses tumorigenesis and liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer cell lines (19,20).

    Constitutive NF-B activity was greatly reduced in the metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines

    when the fresh medium was replenished 1-2 h before the EMSA (Niu et al., unpublished

    observation). One possible mechanism is that the constitutive NF-B activity was induced

    through autocrine stimulation. To test whether human pancreatic cancer cells secret an inducer

    for NF-B activation, we cultured the human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1 and

    MDAPanc-28, and the nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 in serum-free medium

    for 48 h, and then isolated the conditioned media to stimulate WT-MEF cells at different times.

    Our results showed that the conditioned medium from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 pancreatic

    cancer cell lines induced NF-B activation in a time-dependent mode but did not increase Oct-1

    DNA binding activity (Fig. 1A). TNF- induced NF-B activation in WT-MEF cells, but the

    conditioned medium from PANC-1 cells did not (Fig. 1B). These results suggest that metastatic

    but not nonmetastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines secrete the activators of NF-B, which

    may in turn induce NF-B constitutive activity in these cells. The competition and supershift

    assays confirmed the specificity and identity of the B DNA binding activity as p65(RelA)/p50

    heterodimers (Fig. 1C). Conditioned medium-stimulated NF-B activation was confirmed by

    the conditioned medium-induced and time-dependent degradation of IB (Fig. 1D).

    Furthermore, the conditioned media from the other human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines,

    Capan-1, CFPAC-1 and MDAPanc-3, also induced NF-B DNA binding activity in WT-MEF

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  • cells (data not shown). These results suggest that the secretion of NF-B inducer is a common

    phenomenon in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

    Interleukin-1 Is the Primary Cytokine Secreted by Human Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer

    Cell Lines To identify which inducer is secreted by these pancreatic cancer cell lines, we first

    screened a panel of neutralizing antibodies of common inducers of NF-B, including IL-1, IL-

    1, TNF, and TNF before we performed biochemical purification and identification

    approaches. The conditioned media from these cell lines were isolated and incubated with IL-

    1, IL-1, TNF, and TNF neutralizing antibodies. Subsequently, these media were used to

    stimulate WT-MEF cells for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, and nuclear extracts were then isolated for

    EMSA. We found that the IL-1 neutralizing antibody blocked NF-B-inducing activity in the

    ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 conditioned media, but the other neutralizing antibodies did not have

    much effect (Fig. 2A). Consistently, IL-1 neutralizing antibody blocked the NF-B inducing

    activity from the conditioned media of other human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines,

    Capan-1, CFPAC-1 and MDAPanc-3 (data not shown). This implies that IL-1 is the major

    cytokine and NF-B inducing activity secreted by these cells.

    To determine whether IL-1 autocrine stimulation induces constitutive NF-B activity in

    ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells, we treated these cells directly with neutralizing antibodies

    against IL-1, IL-1, TNF and TNF for 1 h and isolated the nuclear extracts for EMSA.

    Anti-IL-1 neutralizing antibody completely inhibited constitutive NF-B activity in these cells,

    but anti-IL-, TNF and TNF neutralizing antibodies only had minimal effects on constitutive

    NF-B activity (Fig. 2B). To provide further evidence of the role of IL- in autocrine

    stimulation, we treated WT-MEFs and MDAPanc-28 and ASPC-1 cells with anti-IL-1 receptor

    type 1 antibodies for 120 min to block their IL-1 receptors. The results showed that blocking the

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  • IL-1 receptor in these cells inhibited IL-1-induced NF-B activation (Fig. 2C and 2D).

    Together, these results suggest that IL-1 is the principal cytokine that contributes to the

    induction of constitutive NF-B activation in MDAPanc-28 and ASPC-1 cells.

    To determine the expression and secretion of IL-1 in MDAPanc-28, ASPC-1, and PANC-1

    cells, we performed Northern and Western blot analyses. In MDAPanc-28 and ASPC-1 cells,

    high levels of IL-1 mRNA were expressed, but its expression was not detectable in PANC-1

    cells (Fig. 3A). On Western blot analysis, high levels of IL-1 protein were detected in both

    cell extracts (50 g) and conditioned medium from the metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell

    lines ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 but not detected in those from PANC-1 cells (Fig. 3B).

    Although IL-1 mRNA was detected in these pancreatic cancer cell lines, much higher level of

    IL-1 mRNA was detected in MDAPanc-28 cells than those in ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cells (Fig.

    3A). The level of IL-1 protein was very low and barely detectable in ASPC-1 cells and

    undetectable in PANC-1 cells using 200 g protein extracts with the anti-IL-1 antibody,

    consistent with the expression patterns of IL-1 in these two cell lines detected in Northern blot

    analysis. However, none of the conditioned medium from these three cells had detectable IL-1

    neither (data not shown). Much lower levels of IL-1 as compared with the level of IL-1

    expressed in ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 is consistent with the minor reduction of constitutive

    NF-B activities in anti-IL-1 neutralizing antibody completely treated conditioned media from

    these cells (Fig. 2B). Together, these results demonstrate that IL-1 is the primary cytokine

    secreted by metastatic human pancreatic cancer cells and induces constitutive NF-B activity in

    these cells.

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  • Neutralizing Antibody of IL-1 Inhibits the Expression of NF-B Downstream Target Gene

    We previously reported that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), which plays important

    roles in tumor invasion, is regulated by constitutive NF-B activation in pancreatic cancer cells

    (40). To determine whether the inhibition of IL-1-induced NF-B activation decreases the

    expression of uPA, we treated ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells with IL-1 neutralizing antibody.

    Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of the IL-1 signaling cascade in these cells

    blocked the expression of uPA (Fig. 4). These results further suggest that IL-1-regulated NF-

    B activity plays a key role in controlling the expression of uPA.

    Inhibition of NF-B by IBM Does Not Alter the NF-B-Inducing Activity of IL-1 in the

    Conditioned Medium Our data suggest that IL-1 is the primary cytokine secreted by metastatic

    human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Since our results show that IL-1 autocrine stimulation

    activates NF-B activity constitutively in metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines, and the

    previous reports showed that IL-1 was not only one of the potent NF-B inducers but also one

    of the NF-B regulated genes, these led us to ask: which one comes first in these cells, IL-

    1 overexpression or NF-B constitutive activation? We had previously established ASPC-

    1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells by pooling ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells infected

    with a retrovirus encoding the phosphorylation mutant of IB (S32, 36A) (IBM) to

    specifically inhibit NF-B activity (18). As shown in Figure 5A, the NF-B constitutive activity

    in these cells was completely inhibited by IBM. However, conditioned medium from ASPC-

    1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells still activated NF-B and induced the degradation of

    IB in WT-MEF cells in a time-dependent manner (Fig. 5B and C). Importantly, anti-IL-1

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  • neutralizing antibody still inhibited IL-1-induced NF-B activity, indicating that IL-1 is the

    primary cytokine in the conditioned media from ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM

    cells that activates NF-B in WT-MEF cells (Fig. 5D). These results suggest that inhibition of

    NF-B did not inhibit the expression of IL-1 which is regulated by an NF-B-independent

    mechanism.

    Inhibition of NF-B Decreased but Does Not Completely Inhibit Expression of IL-1

    Although IBM-mediated inhibition of NF-B did not inhibit IL-1 expression completely and

    did not diminish the ability of IL-1 to induce NF-B activation as determined by EMSA, it was

    of great interest to determine whether the expression of IL-1 was decreased in MDAPanc-

    28/IBM and ASPC-1/IBM cells. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression of IL-

    1 and IL-1 at mRNA level were decreased in MDAPanc-28/IBM and ASPC-1/IBM

    cells (Fig. 6A). However, the sufficient levels of IL-1 protein and activity are remained in

    ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells for activating NF-B (Fig. 6B). IL-1 was

    barely detected in ASPC-1 protein extract and was not detected in the conditioned media from

    these pancreatic cancer cells (Fig. 6B and data not shown). These results suggest that

    transcription factors other than NF- primarily regulate the expression of IL-1, which induces

    constitutive NF-B activation in these cancer cells and constitutive NF-B activity then

    enhances the expression of IL-1. However, the signaling pathway and transcription factors that

    regulate IL-1 expression in metastatic pancreatic cancer cells remain to be determined.

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  • AP-1 Activity Modulated by Overexpression of EGFR Plays a Key Role in Regulating IL-

    1 Expression Very little is known about regulation of the IL-1 gene despite importance of IL-

    1 in cytokine signaling cascades and the reports that IL-1 is one of the downstream target

    genes regulated by NF-B and that the human IL-1 promoter contains an LPS-inducible AP-1-

    binding site composed of Jun and Fos proteins (30,41). AP-1 is regulated by many stimuli, most

    notably serum and growth factors (42,43). Overexpression of EGFR, which occurs in

    approximately 90% of human pancreatic tumors, may be the genetic alteration with the most

    significant clinical correlation (44,45). On the basis of these experimental findings, we sought to

    determine whether the EGFR signaling pathway and AP-1 play a role in regulating IL-1

    expression in these pancreatic cancer cells. Our results showed that EGFR blockade by anti-

    EGFR antibody (C225) reduced AP-1 and NF-B but not the Oct-1 DNA binding activities in

    ASPC-1, MDAPanc-28, ASPC-1/IBM, and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells (Fig. 7A and C).

    Inhibition of EGFR activation in ASPC-1, MDAPanc-28, ASPC-1/IBM, and MDAPanc-

    28/IBM cells also decreased the levels of IL-1 expression because the conditioned medium

    from these cells treated with anti-EGFR antibody (C225) reduced the NF-B-inducing activity in

    the WT-MEF cells (Fig. 7B and D). Together, these results suggest that the expression of IL-1

    is partially regulated by EGFR signaling cascades through AP-1 transcription factors.

    AP-1 transcription factors are regulated by multiple signaling cascades. As shown in

    Figure 7C and D, AP-1 activity was already elevated in the absence of growth factor stimulation

    and anti-EGFR antibody only partially inhibited this elevated AP-1 activity. To determine

    whether EGF-induced AP-1 activity can be inhibited by the mutant of EGFR downstream

    signaling molecules, AP-1 activity was determined using AP-1 luciferase reporter gene assays

    with anti-EGFR antibody (c225) treated AsPc-1 cells and AsPc-1 cells transfected with dominant

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  • negative Elk-1 (Elk-1) and ras (RsN17) and kinase-dead AKT and MEKK1. As shown in

    Figure 7E, These results suggest that growth factor dependent and/or independent activation of

    MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, and other signaling pathways are involved in the stimulation of AP-1,

    which in turn induce IL-1 expression in the pancreatic cancer cell line.

    To determine whether EGF stimulation induces expression of IL-1, we stimulated Panc-

    1, a nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell line with EGF (100 ng/ml) for 18 hours and analyzed

    the expression of IL-1. As shown in Figure 7F, expression of IL-1 induced by EGF

    stimulation in Panc-1 cells. The conditioned media from Panc-1 cells with or without EGF-

    stimulation were used to stimulate wild-type MEF cells and the results showed that NF-B was

    activated by the conditioned medium from EGF-stimulated Panc-1 cells and anti-IL-1

    neutralizing antibody only partially inhibited the conditioned medium-induced NF-B activation

    (Fig 7G). The partial inhibition of NF-B activation by the IL-1 neutralizing antibody may be

    due to the presence of either residual EGF or additional cytokines in conditioned medium.

    Taken together these results suggest that the IL-1 expression was induced by EGF in a

    nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1.

    Expression of IL- Is Regulated by AP-1 and NF-B To determine whether both AP-1

    and NF-B take part in regulating IL-1 expression, we sought to clone human IL-1 promoter

    regions. To date, most studies of the IL-1 promoter have been based on a previously reported

    IL-1 cDNA sequence (NCBI accession number X02851) (46). However, our RT-PCR results

    suggested that the IL-1 transcription starting site is farther upstream than the previously

    identified site (data not shown) (46). To verify this finding, we performed primer extension

    assays. Our results show that the newly identified transcription starting site was actually 458 bp

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  • upstream of the previous reported starting site (Fig. 8A and 8B) (46). There was one B-like site

    at -293, and two AP-1 binding sites at -367, and -22 in this fragment of the 623 bp newly

    identified IL-1 promoter region (Fig. 8A and B). TATA box was not identified in this region

    (Fig. 8A and B). Schematic diagram of IL- promoter and reporter gene constructs with wild-

    type and mutant AP-1 sequences indicated in Figure 9A. To determine whether these two AP-1

    elements (AP1-1 and AP1-2) in IL-1 promoter interact with Fos/AP-1, we performed EMSA

    with wild-type and mutant AP1-1 and AP1-2 probes. The competition and supershift assays

    showed the presence of c-Fos in the AP-1 DNA binding activity (Fig. 9B). These results suggest

    that IL- is likely to be one of the target genes regulated by AP-1 proteins. On the basis of these

    results, we performed IL-1 promoter luciferase reporter gene assays to determine whether these

    two AP-1 sites identified in IL-1 promoter are functional. Since pancreatic cancer cells have

    poor efficiency for transient transfection, and to better study the effect of AP-1 and NF-B on

    IL-1 transcriptional activity, we selected relA-/- MEF cells for the reporter gene analysis. We

    found that RelA (p65) activated this IL-1 promoter reporter gene construct, whereas dominant-

    negative c-Fos inhibited IL-1 promoter activity (Fig. 9C). Overexpression of c-Fos induced

    strong luciferase reporter gene activity in the reporter gene construct with wild-type AP-1 sites,

    but not in the reporter gene constructs with the double mutant AP-1 sites, MAP1-12 (Fig. 9C).

    The basal IL-1 promoter activity was also inhibited by the presence of the mutant AP-1 sites,

    MAP1-1, MAP1-2, and MAP1-12 (Fig. 9C). These results demonstrate that both AP-1 and NF-

    B regulate IL-1 expression. Thus, our findings suggest that the constitutive NF-B activation

    induced by IL-1 autocrine stimulation in these pancreatic cancer cell lines may be initiated by

    EGFR dependent or independent signaling cascades mediated AP-1 activity.

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  • Discussion

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of adult cancer death in the United

    States. The 5-year survival rate continues at 1-3% (47). At the time of diagnosis, most patients

    with pancreatic cancer have advanced and metastatic disease (48). Studies have suggested that a

    genetic profile for pancreatic cancer is emerging based on the most frequently detected mutations

    in this disease (49). K-ras mutation is an early event in pancreatic carcinogenesis that has been

    detected in 80-95% of pancreatic cancers; overexpression of EGFR occurs in approximately 90%

    of human pancreatic tumors; and inactivation of Smad4, Ink4a/Arf, and p53 tumor suppressor

    genes has been identified in approximately 50-75% of pancreatic cancers (49). However, the

    role of specific genetic alterations that initiate tumorigenesis and mediate its cardinal clinical

    features of locally aggressive growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance remains to be

    elucidated.

    Recently, we demonstrated that RelA, the p65 subunit of NF-B transcription factors, is

    constitutively activated in most human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines (17), and this

    activation has been shown to play key roles in pancreatic tumorigenesis and liver metastasis of

    pancreatic adenocarcinoma (19,20). Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which NF-B

    is constitutively activated in pancreatic cancer cells will elucidate the signaling cascades that

    directly or indirectly regulate NF-B activation.

    In this study, we found that the autocrine mechanism is responsible for the constitutive

    activation of NF-B in metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines but not in nonmetastatic

    ones. Subsequent studies showed that IL-1 is the primary NF-B-activating cytokine secreted

    by these cell lines. IL-1 has been shown to play important roles in pro-inflammatory responses,

    cancer cell growth, and metastasis (15,50-52), and has been suggested that it participates in

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  • cancer cell invasion and metastasis by regulating the expression of some adhesion molecules.

    For instance, IL-1 could increase the expression of MMP-9, E-selectin, integrin-1, and IL-8 and

    inhibit plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (34,50-53). A recent report suggested that IL-1

    enhances the adhesion of metastatic human pancreatic cancer cells to extracellular matrix (ECM)

    proteins, but not nonmetastatic ones (53). Our findings showed that IL-1 is the primary

    cytokine that causes constitutive NF-B activation in metastatic human pancreatic cancer cells

    and that blocking IL-1 in these cells inhibited the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen

    activator (uPA) (Fig. 4). Together with our previous findings that constitutively activated NF-

    B plays key roles in pancreatic tumorigenesis and metastasis and that overexpression of uPA in

    pancreatic adenocarcinoma is regulated by constitutively activated RelA (19,20,40), one possible

    mechanism by which IL-1 participates in pancreatic tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis is the

    IL-1-regulated expression of a number of key determinants for tumorigenic and metastatic

    phenotype through NF-B.

    IL-1 is a key mediator of the inflammatory response (54). It is not only a potent inducer of

    NF-B but also a downstream target gene of NF-B (25,30). This led us to an interesting

    question: Which of the molecular alteration, overexpression of IL-1 or constitutive activation

    of NF-B, precedes in the development of pancreatic cancer cells? In this study, we

    demonstrated that expression and secretion of IL-1 were decreased but not completely blocked

    by the IBM-mediated inhibition of NF-B, and that IL-1 present in the conditioned medium

    isolated from both ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells is still capable of activating

    NF-B in WT-MEF cells, similar to that isolated from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells. These

    findings suggest that expression of IL-1 is primarily regulated by NF-B-independent

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  • mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer cells. The constitutive NF-B activity triggered by IL-

    1 autocrine stimulation may enhance the IL-1 expression. Thus, this may initiate a possible

    formation of a positive feedback loop and connect inflammatory responses and cancer

    development.

    Previous studies have shown that the expression of IL-1 is regulated by NF-B and AP-1

    transcription factors (25,42). In our newly identified IL-1 promoter region, there are multiple

    NF-B and AP-1 sites, and our reporter gene analysis confirmed that IL-1 is regulated by both

    NF-B and AP-1. IL-1 has also been found to induce AP-1 activity (32). These findings

    suggest that IL-1 autocrine stimulation may be initiated through AP-1 activation.

    The recently proposed progression model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma suggests a profile of

    genetic alterations that includes overexpression of EGFR and mutations of the K-ras gene (49).

    EGFR and K-ras may induce AP-1 activation and IL- overexpression in pancreatic cancers.

    Studies have shown that EGF induced AP-1 activity, and both EGFR tyrosine kinase activity and

    autophosphorylation at Y (1173) play a critical role in EGF-induced AP-1 activation (55).

    Several reports have suggested that the Ras signaling pathway induces AP-1 activation and

    regulates IL-1 expression (56-58). Consequently, autocrine production of IL-1 induces the

    transcriptional activation of both NF-B and AP-1. These findings imply that these genetic

    alterations in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma possibly initiate the overexpression

    of IL-1, which, in turn, induces a large number of the downstream target genes that encodes the

    key determinants of tumorigenic and metastatic phenotypes through activation of NF-B and

    AP-1 transcription factors. The working model for constitutive NF-B activation in metastatic

    pancreatic cancer cells is illustrated in Fig. 10.

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  • In summary, we identified the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 as the primary cytokine that

    induces constitutive NF-B activation in metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The

    constitutive NF-B activity in turn enhances the expression of IL-1, suggesting that this

    autocrine mechanism plays an important role in the development of the tumorigenic and

    metastatic phenotype, making a positive feedback loop possible. Autocrine production of IL-1

    may be primarily induced by AP-1 activity, and AP-1 is a potential target for IL-1, suggesting

    that an additional positive feedback loop may be possible between IL-1 expression and AP-1

    activity. Many studies have shown that both NF-B and AP-1 are activated in response to

    growth factors and inflammatory stimuli, and constitutive activation of NF-B and AP-1 has

    been shown to be critical in the development of cancer. Therefore, our results also suggest that

    NF-B and AP-1 might be the missing mechanistic links between inflammation and cancer.

    Acknowledgement We are grateful to Dr. Inder M. Verma at Salk Institute for the generous gift of RelA-/- mouse

    embryonic fibroblasts, Dr. Zhen Fan at MDACC for the anti-EGFR antibody (C225), and Dr.

    Christian Schmidt for the wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts and critical reading of the

    manuscript. We also thank Ann Sutton (Department of Scientific Publications) for editorial

    assistance. The work was supported by grants from National Cancer Institute (CA73675-01,

    R21PA-98-029, CA097159 and CA78778-01).

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    Footnotes

    The abbreviations used are: TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukin; MEF, mouse embryonic

    fibroblast; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; EMSA,

    electrophoretic mobility shift assay; uPA, urokinase-type plasminogen activator.

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  • Figure Legends

    Figure 1. Conditioned media from metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell lines induce

    NF-B activation. EMSA was performed to determine the NF-B activity in WT-MEF cells

    stimulated by the conditioned media isolated from A, the human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell

    lines ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 and B, the nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 at

    different time intervals as indicated. The TNF-induced NF-B activity in WT-MEF cells was

    determined as a control (B, lanes 1-3). The Oct-1 DNA binding activities were determined as

    loading controls. C, The nuclear extract from WT-MEF cells treated with MDAPanc-28-

    conditioned medium was used for the competition and supershift assays as indicated. D, The

    cytoplasmic extracts isolated from WT-MEF cells stimulated with the conditioned media in A

    and B were used for western blot analysis for detecting the levels of IB proteins. NS, non-

    specific bands; FP, free probe; CM, conditioned-medium.

    Figure 2. IL-1 is the primary cytokine in the conditioned media from metastatic

    pancreatic cancer cells that induced NF-B activation. A, EMSA was performed to

    determine the NF-B activity in WT-MEF cells stimulated with anti-IL-1, -IL-1, -TNF, or

    TNF antibodies (2 g/ml for 2 h) neutralized conditioned media from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-

    28 cells for 30 min, as indicated. B, EMSA was performed to determine the NF-B activity in

    ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells treated with anti-IL-1, -IL-1, -TNF, or -TNF neutralizing

    antibodies (2 g/ml) for 1 h, as indicated. C, EMSA was performed to determine the NF-B

    activity in WT-MEF cells treated with and without anti-IL-1RI antibody (2 g/ml for 2 h), and

    stimulated with the conditioned media from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells for 30 min, as

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  • indicated. D, EMSA was performed to determine the NF-B activity in ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-

    28 cells treated with and without anti-IL-1RI antibody (2 g/ml for 2 h), as indicated. The Oct-1

    DNA binding activities were determined as loading controls in both C and D.

    Figure 3. IL-1 is differentially expressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. A,

    Northern blot analysis was performed with the total RNA isolated from PANC-1, ASPC-1 and

    MDAPanc-28 cells using either IL-1 or IL-1 cDNA as the probe as indicated. As a loading

    control, 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA were visualized by ethidium staining. B, Western blot

    analysis was performed to detect the levels of IL-1 and IL-1 using 50 g and 200 g whole

    cell extracts, respectively, and conditioned media from PANC-1, ASPC-1, and MDAPanc-28

    cells. The blots were re-probed with anti--actin antibody for loading controls, and the

    conditioned media were collected in the same volume:cell number ratio, dialyzed, and

    concentrated before the analysis.

    Figure 4. The expression of the NF-B downstream target gene uPA was inhibited by the

    IL-1 neutralizing antibody. The levels of uPA expression in ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells

    treated with or without anti-IL-1-neutralizing antibody (2 g/ml) for 1 h as indicated. The

    levels of -actin were determined as loading controls.

    Figure 5. Inhibition of NF-B alone is not sufficient to reduce the levels of IL-1

    expression and NF-B-inducing activity in conditioned media. A, NF-B activity in ASPC-

    1/Puro, MDAPanc-28/Puro, ASPC-1/IBM, and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells were confirmed

    by EMSA. B, The NF-B-inducing activities in the conditioned media from ASPC-1/IBM

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  • and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells were analyzed by EMSA using WT-MEF cells at various time

    points as indicated. C, The levels of IB protein were determined by Western blot analysis

    using cytoplasmic extracts isolated from WT-MEF cell stimulated by the conditioned media in

    B. The levels of -actin were determined with anti--actin antibody as loading control. D,

    EMSA was performed to determine the NF-B activity in WT-MEF cells stimulated with the

    conditioned media from ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells treated with anti-IL-

    1, -IL-1, -TNF, or -TNF-neutralizing antibodies (2 g/ml for 2h) for 30 min, as indicated.

    The Oct-1 DNA binding activities were determined as loading controls.

    Figure 6. Inhibition of NF-B decreased but not completely blocked IL-1 expression and

    secretion. A, Northern blot analysis of the levels of IL-1 and IL-1 expression in ASPC-

    1/Puro, MDAPanc-28/Puro and ASPC-1/IBM, MDAPanc-28/IBM cells. As a loading

    control, the levels of 28S and 18S ribosomal RNA were determined in these cells. B, Western

    blot analysis of whole cell extracts and conditioned media from ASPC-1/Puro, MDAPanc-

    28/Puro and ASPC-1/IBM, MDAPanc-28/IBM cells. 50 g and 200 g whole cell extracts

    were used for IL-1 and IL-1, respectively. The levels of -actin were determined with an anti-

    -actin antibody as loading control. The conditioned media were collected in the same volume:

    cell number ratio, dialyzed, and concentrated before the analysis as described in Experimental

    Procedures.

    Figure 7. Downregulation of EGFR activity reduced AP-1 activity and levels of IL-1

    expression. A, AP-1 and NF-B activities were determined by EMSA in the nuclear extracts

    isolated from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells treated with and without an anti-EGFR antibody

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  • (20 ng/ml) for 48 h. Oct-1 DNA activity was determined for the loading control. The levels of

    IL-1 and -actin expression were determined by Western blot analysis using cytoplasmic

    extracts isolated from the same ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells used in EMSA as described in

    Experimental Procedures. B, NF-B and Oct-1 activities were analyzed by EMSA in the WT-

    MEF cells stimulated with the conditioned media from ASPC-1 and MDAPanc-28 cells treated

    with or without an anti-EGFR antibody (20 ng/ml) for 48 h. C, AP-1 and Oct-1 activities were

    determined by EMSA in the nuclear extracts isolated from ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-

    28/IBM cells treated with and without an anti-EGFR antibody (20 ng/ml). The levels of IL-

    1 and -actin expression were determined by Western blot analysis using cytoplasmic extracts

    isolated from the same ASPC-1/IBM and MDAPanc-28/IBM cells used in EMSA as

    described in Experimental Procedures. D, NF-B and Oct-1 activities were analyzed by EMSA

    in the WT-MEF cells stimulated with the conditioned media from ASPC-1/IBM and

    MDAPanc-28/IBM cells treated with or without an anti-EGFR antibody (20 ng/ml). E, AP-1

    reporter gene assays. 1.0 g AP-1 reporter gene constructs and the control p-TK Renilla

    luciferase were cotransfected into Aspc-1 cells with 1.5 g of expression vectors encoding

    dominant-negative ELK-1, Ras, Akt, and MEKK-1 or with anti-EGFR antibody (C225) treatment

    in 12-well plates. The experiments were repeated in triplicate. F, Panc-1 cells were kept in the

    media with 0% serum for 48 h, then stimulated with 100ng/ml EGF for 18 h. The whole cell

    lysates were used to detect IL-1 and -actin expression. G, The conditioned medium from

    Panc-1 cells in F treated with or without neutralizing IL-1 antibody (2g/ml, 2h) were used to

    stimulate wild-type MEF cells. Nuclear extracts were used for EMSA to determine the NF-B

    DNA binding activity as indicated.

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  • Figure 8. A novel transcription start site for human IL-1 was identified. A, Primer

    extension analysis for determining the start site of human IL-1 transcription start site. The

    primer sequence is indicated in B. Lane 1, molecular marker; lane 2-3, primer extension

    products; lane 4-7, sequence for IL-1 genomic DNA using the same primer. B, Partial genomic

    DNA sequence for human IL-1 ( NCBI accession number AF536338). Arrow indicates the

    primer used for primer extension. The nucleotide sequence is numbered with the newly identified

    transcription start site (position +1, in bold letter and an arrow). One of the two AP-1 sites was

    boxed. The previously identified mRNA starting site is underlined (position +458).

    Figure 9. IL-1 promoter is regulated by AP-1 activity. A, The fragment of newly identified

    623 bp IL-1 promoter region was cloned into pGL2 Firefly luciferase reporter gene vector, the

    two AP-1 sites were mutated as indicated by bold letter. The arrows indicate the orientation of

    the AP-1 sites. B, EMSA was performed using MDAPanc-28 nuclear extracts with

    oligonucleotides encoding the wild-type and mutant AP-1 sties in IL-1 promoter (AP1-1 and

    AP1-2) as shown in A. The Fos supershift assays with and without competing peptide showed

    the presence of c-Fos in the AP-1 DNA binding activity and the Oct-1 DNA binding activities

    were determined as loading controls. C, Reporter gene analysis for IL-1 promoter. 1.0 g

    wild-type or mutant IL-1 reporter gene constructs were cotransfected with 1.5 g of wild-type

    c-fos, relA(p65) or dominant-negative c-fos into relA-/- cells in a 12-well plate using p-TK

    Renilla luciferase as a control as indicated. The experiments were repeated in triplicate. The

    activities of both Firefly and Renilla luciferase were determined using the Dual-Luciferase

    Reporter Assay System (Promega). The luciferase activities were normalized to the Renilla

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  • luciferase activity of the internal control. Data represent the mean standard error from three

    different experiments performed in triplicate.

    Figure 10. A working model for constitutive NF-B activation in pancreatic cancer. In

    metastatic pancreatic cancer cells, growth factors and/or other upstream signal cascades trigger

    AP-1 activation, which in turn induces the expression of its downstream target genes such as IL-

    1. The IL-1 autocrine stimulation activates NF-B, which further elevates the expression of

    its downstream target gene, IL-1, thus, resulting a positive feedback loop and causing NF-B to

    be constitutively activated. The constitutively activated NF-B regulates its downstream target

    genes, promoting pancreatic tumor progression and metastasis.

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 1

    A

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    FP

    WT-MEF

    0Min: 15 30 60 120 0 15 30 60 120AsPc-1 CM MDAPanc-28 CM

    *

    *

    *

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Oct-1

    NS

    WT-MEF

    C

    wt Bmut Banti-p65p65 peptideanti-p50p50 peptide

    ++

    + +

    +

    +++

    p65/p50p50/p50

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    D

    IB

    -actin

    WT-MEF

    0Min: 15 30 60 120 15 30 60 120

    AsPc-1 CM MDAPanc-28 CM

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    0 15 30 60 120

    Panc-1 CM

    10 11 12 13 14

    BWT-MEF

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    0Min: 15 30 60 120

    Panc-1CMTNF-

    Anti-TNF-30

    +300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8Oct-1

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 2

    AWT-MEF

    Aspc-1 CM MDAPanc28 CM

    Time (min)anti-IL-1anti-IL-1anti-TNF

    anti-TNF

    ++

    +

    +

    ++

    +

    +

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    0 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

    Oct-1

    BAspc-1 MDAPanc28

    anti-IL-1anti-IL-1anti-TNF

    anti-TNF

    ++

    +

    +

    ++

    +

    +

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Oct-1

    C

    MDAPanc28 CM D MDAPanc28

    + +

    1 2 3 4

    Aspc-1

    anti-IL-1RI

    WT-MEF

    Aspc-1 CMTime (min)anti-IL-1RI + +

    0 30 30 30 30

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    Oct-1

    1 2 3 4 5

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 3

    APanc1 Aspc1 MDAPanc28

    IL-1-

    IL-1-

    1 2 3

    28S

    18S

    B

    Panc-1 Aspc-1 MDAPanc-28

    IL-1Cell lysate

    Cond. Med.

    Cell lysate

    Cell lysate -actin

    IL-1

    IL-1

    1 2 3

    Niu et al. Fig. 4

    uPA

    -actin

    AsPc-1 MDAPanc-28

    Anti-IL-1 + +

    1 2 3 4

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 5

    A

    Aspc-1 MDAPanc28

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    Puro IBM Puro IBM

    1 2 3 4Oct-1

    B WT-MEF

    Aspc-1/IBM CMMDAPanc-28/IBM CM

    Time (min)

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    0 15 30 60 120 15 30 60 120

    Oct-1

    CWT-MEF

    IB

    Aspc-1/IBM CMMDAPanc-28/ IBM CM

    Time (min) 0

    -actin

    15 30 60 120 0 15 30 60 120

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    D

    WT-MEF

    Aspc-1/IBM CMMDAPanc28/IBM CM

    Time (min)anti-IL-1anti-IL-1anti-TNF

    anti-TNF

    ++

    +

    +

    ++

    +

    +

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    0 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11Oct-1

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 6

    A

    IL1-

    IL1-

    Puro IBM Puro IBMAsPc-1 MDAPanc-28

    1 2 3 4

    28S

    18S

    B

    IL-1Cell lysate

    Cond. Med.

    Cell lysate

    Cell lysate -actin

    IL-1

    IL-1

    1 2 3 4

    Puro IBM Puro IBMAsPc-1 MDAPanc-28

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 7

    Aspc-1 MDAPanc-28

    C225 (20 ng/ml) - + +-

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    AP-1

    A

    IL-1-actin

    Oct-1

    MDAPanc-28 CM

    1 2 3 4

    C225 (20 ng/ml)

    p65/p50p50/p50

    ASPC-1 CM

    - +-+

    MEF

    Time (min) 0 30 30 30 30

    Oct-1

    B

    1 2 3 4 5

    C

    AP-1

    Oct-1

    IL-1-actin

    Aspc-1/IBM

    MDAPanc-28/IBM

    - + +-C225 (20 ng/ml)

    1 2 3 4

    p65/p50

    p50/p50

    Oct-1

    ASPC-1/IBM CM

    MDA-Panc-28/IBM CM

    C225 (20 ng/ml) - +-

    MEF

    Time 0 30 30 30 30+

    D

    1 2 3 4 5

    Panc-1

    EGF (100ng/ml) - +

    IL-1

    -actin

    1 2

    E

    1 2 3 4

    p65/p50p50/p50

    Oct-1

    GMEF

    Panc-1 CM

    EGF (100 ng/ml) - +Time 0 30 30 30

    +-IL-1 +- -

    Rel

    ativ

    e Lu

    cife

    rase

    Ass

    ay

    AP-1-Luc

    D.N. ELK-1

    MEKK-1/K432A

    RsN17Akt K179M

    + + + + +

    +

    +

    ++

    F

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    +

    C225(20ng/ml) +

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  • Niu etal. Fig. 8

    A

    MD

    APan

    c-28

    72bp

    M ASPC

    -1

    A C G T

    TTTTCAACGGT

    AAAAGTTGCCA

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    -151 aggatcaaga cttctttgtg ctcaaatacc actgttctct tctctaccct 101 gccctaacca ggagcttgtc accccaaact ctgaggtgat ttatgcctta 51 atcaagcaaa cttccctctt cagaaaagat ggctcatttt ccctcaaaag 1 ttgccaggag ctgccaagta ttctgccaat tcaccctgga gcacaatcaa +50 caaattcagc cagaacacaa ctacagctac tattagaact attattatta+100 ataaattcct ctccaaatct agccccttga cttcggattt cacgatttct +150 cccttcctcc tagaaacttg ataagtttcc cgcgcttccc tttttctaag +200 actacatgtt tgtcatctta taaagcaaag gggtgaataa atgaaccaaa+250 tcaataactt ctggaatatc tgcaaacaac aataatatca gctatgccat +300 ctttcactat tttagccagt atcgagttga atgaacatag aaaaatacaa +350 aactgaattc ttccctgtaa attccccgtt ttgacgacgc acttgtagcc +400 acgtagccac gcctacttaa gacaattaca aaaggcgaag aagactgact +450 caggcttaag ctgccagcca gagagggagt catttcattg

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 9

    IL-1P-PGL2

    Luc

    -547 +76AP-1 B AP-1-366 -293 -23

    --tggctca----tggcaca--

    --aacaggt----aatcggt--

    MAP1-1 MAP1-2

    MAP1-12A

    B

    AP-1

    Oct-1

    AP1-1 AP1-2

    wt mut

    c-fos c-fos+ pep

    wt mut

    c-fos c-fos+ pep

    PGL-2IL-1P-PGL2 c-fosD.N. c-fosp65

    Fold

    Indu

    ctio

    n

    ++ ++

    +

    +

    ++

    MAP1-1MAP1-2MAP1-12

    ++

    +

    C

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    +

    +

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  • Niu et al. Fig. 10

    Growth Factors and other upstream signals

    AP-1

    IL-1

    Constitutively activated NF-B

    Secr

    ete

    uPA, other genes

    Pancreatic tumor progression

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  • Jiangong Niu, Zhongkui Li, Bailu Peng and Paul J. Chiaoinduction of constitutive NF-kappaB activation in pancreatic cancer cells

    Identification of an auto-regulatory feedback pathway involving IL-1alpha in

    published online December 16, 2003J. Biol. Chem.

    10.1074/jbc.M309789200Access the most updated version of this article at doi:

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    Departments of Surgical Oncology and #Molecular and CellulaTel.: 713-794-1030SummaryIntroduction

    Experimental Procedures

    ResultsFigure Legends