Glass Kosmaj Serbia

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    23-Jan-2018
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Transcript of Glass Kosmaj Serbia

  1. 1. 1st LANTERNA ION BEAMTECHNIQUES IN INVESTIGATION OF ROMAN IMPERIAL VESSEL ANDWINDOW GLASS FROM MT. KOSMAJ (SERBIA) National Museum Belgrade, Serbia Joef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia 3rd November, Novi Sad
  2. 2. Ion BeamTechniques PIXE and PIGE Accelerated charged particles (protons) are hitting the target and producing the characteristicX or -rays which are recorded with detector https://www.hzdr.de/db/Pic?pOid=29855
  3. 3. Experiments: Tandetron accelerator at the Joef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana
  4. 4. Technology of Glass Making Silica (sand) Flux (plant ash, natron, wood ash, lime) Decolourant (minerals) Brilliance (metals or minerals) Colorant (scraped metals or minerals) Glass Si Na K Mg Al Fe Ti Sr Zr Sb Mn Pb Co Cu Mn...
  5. 5. Short history of glass making Started at 3rd millennium BC in Mesopotamia, spred to Egypt, Mycenae, Persia compositionally soda-ash glass, Mg and K rich glass (chalcophythic plants) About 6th cent. BC to 8th cent AD glass becomes characteristic by lower Mg and K levels, richer in antimony or manganese as decolourants.This kind of glass prevailed during the Roman period (natron-lime-silica glass) Early Islamic and in Europe 8th cent AD. glass returns to high Mg, K levels (wood ash in western Europe)
  6. 6. The crude material was obtained in the region of Levant where remains of large glass furnaces have been found dated to the Byzantine period but assuming that it was the same method used in earlier times. The chunk glass was then crushed in small paces and sent to the secondary workshops for the production of glass objects Centralized Primary Production
  7. 7. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.. Map of the Roman Empire in 125 AD. during the reign of emperor Hadrian
  8. 8. One of the mining settlements in the province Moesia Superior was at today Mt. Kosmaj village Stojnik. There are several necropolis found dated to the period from 1st to the 3rd cent. AD, namely small Kopanica Sase tipe of burial. The cremated remains/a heap of ash with the bones of deceased and grave goods were placed into the interior of closed grave/buried pits with the sides and the bottom fired
  9. 9. All glass samples from Mt. Kosmaj are natron tipe MgO and K2O Concentrations in the Samples
  10. 10. 825231918132263031332422272128292013111617121591476310254 41,20 60,80 80,40 100,00 slicnost K1 K2 K3 % uzorci Cluster Analyses Three different compositional groups
  11. 11. K1; N=13 K2 N=13 K3 N=4 st. dev. . . . . Na2O % 18.37 2.77 15.11 2.97 15 0.61 MgO % 0.67 0.24 0.54 0.14 0.48 0.15 Al2O3 % 1.97 0.18 2.19 0.28 2.57 0.09 SiO2% 68.95 2.30 72.14 2.80 71.88 0.56 SO3% 0.40 0.06 1.06 0.37 0.49 0.02 Cl% 1.16 0.13 0.97 0.08 0.95 0.06 K2O% 0.45 0.03 0.59 0.14 0.86 0.4 CaO% 6.32 0.45 6.30 0.29 7.17 0.25 TiO2% 0.09 0.01 0.08 0.01 0.05 0.003 MnO% 0.92 0.07 0.29 0.17 0.199 0.08 Fe2O3% 0.57 0.04 0.42 0.07 0.318 0.07 Sb2O3% 0.02 0.08 0.19 0.08 0.006 0.01
  12. 12. DECOLOURANTS K3 pale green Mn about 0,2% as natural impurity K2 different colours and colourless MnO about 0,3% and SbO2 about 0,2 % K1 window glass MnO of about 1% 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Sb2O3% MnO% K1 K2 K3
  13. 13. Conclusions on 1st to 4th cent. AD glass from Mt. Kosmaj natron-lime-silica glass - all samples Vessel glass produced from Levantine sand, mostly recycled glass. Windows glass has same characteristics but unusually high levels of manganese for the glass that is not discoloured.This can indicate non purified minerals of manganese and unskillfulness of the glass workers possibly in secondary local production One small group of pale green glass has no signs of recycling, presenting the most similar material to standard roman composition but with some differences in recipes.
  14. 14. THANK YOU