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Dynamical Aspects of Automata and Semigroup Theories Wien, 2010. Upper bound on the length of reset word Trahtman A.N. Bar-Ilan University. q ά. ά. Complete deterministic directed finite automaton with transition graph Γ. Deterministic. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

### Transcript of Complete deterministic directed finite automaton with transition graph “

• Complete deterministic directed finite automaton with transition graph For a set of states Q and mapping consider a map Q and Qs for s=12 i . s presents a map of . Deterministic Complete for any vertex outgoing edges of all colors from given alphabet q

For edge q p suppose p= q Upper bound on the length of reset word Trahtman A.N. Dynamical Aspects of Automata and Semigroup Theories Wien, 2010

p

• Synchronizing and K-synchronizing graphK-synchronizing coloring of directed graph turns the graph into k-synchronizing automaton. If for some word s |s|=1 then s is synchronizing word of automaton with transition graph and the automaton is called synchronizing.If for some word s |s|=k and k is minimal then s is k-synchronizing word of automaton with transition graph and the automaton is called k-synchronizing.

• erny conjectureUpper bound: (n3-n)/6 Frankl, 1982, Pin, 1983 Kljachko, Rystsov, Spivak, 1987 Lower bound: (n-1)2 Cerny, 1964The gap exists almost 30 yearsJan erny found in 1964 n-state complete DFA with shortest synchronizing word of length (n-1)2. Conjecture: (n-1)2 is an upper bound for the length of the shortest synchronizing word for any n-state automaton.The conjecture holds in a lot of private cases. Some interesting corollaries follow from the study of small DFA

• All automata of minimal reset word of length (n-1)2for n
• The upper bound on the length of the minimal synchronizing word of n-state automaton is not greater than (n3-n) 7/ (6x8) + n2 /2Some improvement of the known upper bound (no changed from 1982)A small modification of the old upper bound makes the coefficient 7/8

• All automata of minimal reset word of length less than (n-1)2

The set of n-state complete DFA (n>2) with minimal reset word of length (n-1)2 contains only the sequence of Cerny and the eight automata mentioned above, 3 of size 3, 3 of size 4, one of size 5 and one of size 6.The growing gap between (n-1)2 and Max of minimal length inspires Conjecture

Sizen=5n=6n=7n=8 q

• Synchronization algorithms of TESTAS An automaton with transition graph G is synchronizing iff G2 has a sink state. It is a base for a quadratic in the worst case algorithm for to check synchronizability. The algorithm is used in procedures of the package TESTAS finding synchronizing word. The procedures are based on semigroup approach (almost quadratic algorithm) on Eppstein algorithm, O(n3) and its generalizations, on the ideas of works of Kljachko, Rystsov, Spivak and Frankl. O(n4) A minimal length synchronizing word is found by non-polynomial algorithm

• Distribution of the length of synchronizing word Lengths (near minimal) are found by an algorithm based on the package. The algorithm consistently sifts non-synchronizing graphs, graphs with very short reset word and a part of isomorphic graphs. The minimal length is found for graphs with very long reset words.All remaining graphs of 10 vertices over 2 letters Maximal value of the length found by the algorithm 93The length found by minimal length algorithm 81 (Err < 13%)

• Distribution of synchronizing automata of size n, size of alphabet q, according to the length of reset word

three cases: n=10, q=2; n=7,q=3 and n=7,q=4The maximal number of graphs has its length of reset word near n+1

• Road coloring problem Adler, Goodwyn, Weiss, 1970 1.directed finite strongly connected graph 2.constant outdegree of all its vertices 3. the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one.

Has such graph a synchronizing coloring?

The problem awaked an unusual interestand not only among the mathematiciansTheorem: Let every vertex of strongly connected directed finite graph have the same number of outgoing edges (uniform outdegree). Then has synchronizing coloring if and only if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one............

• Road coloring for mapping on k states 1.directed finite strongly connected graph 2.constant outdegree of all its vertices The problem also depends only on sink (minimal) strongly connected component with constant outdegree - for to be complete and deterministicThe problem was solved by Beal, Perrin, A quadratic algorithm for road coloring, arXiv:0803.0726v6, 2008, see also Budzban, Feinsilver, The Generalized Road Coloring Problem and periodic digraphs arXiv:0903.0192, 2009 -

• Directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices has K- synchronizing coloring if and only if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is KTheorem: (Beal, Perrin)

• An arbitrary graph Then has K- synchronizing coloring. Let a finite directed graph have a sink component 1. Suppose that by removing some edges of 1 one obtains strongly connected directed graph 2 of uniform outdegree. Let K be the gcd of lengths of the cycles of 2.The package TESTAS finds k- synchronizing road coloring for a graph having a subgraph with sink SCC of uniform outdegree.Finite directed graph of uniform outdegree is eitherK- synchronizing or has no sink SCC

• Algorithms for Road Coloring The known algorithms are based on the proof of the Road Coloring Conjecture.The cubic algorithm (quadratic in most cases) of Trahtman is implemented in the package TESTAS Beal and Perrin declared creation of a quadratic algorithm The coloring for K-synchronizing and for arbitrary automaton is also implemented in the package TESTAS

• The visualization used the cyclic layout ( the vertices are at the periphery of a circle). The visibility of inner structure of a digraph with labels on the edges is our goal. It is clear that the curve edges (used, for instance, in some packages) hinder to recognize the cycles and paths. Therefore, we use only direct and, hopefully, short edges. .Among the important visual properties of a graph structure one can mention paths, cycles, strongly connected components (SCC), cliques, bunches, reachable states etc. Visualization of a directed labeled graph

• Linear Visualization Algorithm

The first step is the selection of the strongly connected components (SCC). A linear algorithm is used in order to find them. Our modification of the cyclic layout considered two levels of circles, the first level consists of SCC , the second level presents the whole graph with SCC at the periphery of the circle. So strongly connected components can be easily recognized. The pictorial diagram demonstrates the graph structure. Any deterministic finite automaton is accepted