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Transcript of Πληροφορική Γ΄ Γυμνασίου - Σημειώσεις ΜΑθητή

  • : :

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    2013 :

    ISBN: 978-9963-0-4685-0

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  • 5

    ......................................................................................................................... 11

    ENOTHTA 2 / ...... 13

    2.1 ........................ 15

    1. .................................................................................................................. 15

    2. , .................................................... 15

    3. .................................................................................. 16

    4. ........................................................................................................ 16

    5. / ................ 17

    6. ......................................................................... 18

    7. ( ) ................................................... 21

    8. ............................................................................................................. 23

    ................................................................................................................ 24

    2.2 To ..................................... 27

    1. .................................................................................................................. 27

    2. ........................................................................................... 27

    3. ............................................. 28

    4. ................................................................................................................ 29

    5. .......................................................................................... 29

    ................................................................................................................ 30

    2.3 ................................................................................................... 31

    1. .................................................................... 31

    2. .............................................................. 34

    3. ............................................................... 38

    ................................................................................................................ 42

    2.4 ...... 45

    1. .................................................................................................................. 45

    2. ............................................................... 45

    3. ...................................... 46

    4. .......................................................................................................... 47

    5. ................................... 47

    ................................................................................................................ 54

    ENOTHTA 6 ........................................................................ 55

    6.1 ...................................................... 57

    1. (Database) ...................................................................................... 57

  • 6

    2. () .................................................. 57

    3. ....................................... 58

    4. ........................................... 59

    5. .......................................................... 59

    ................................................................................................................ 60

    6.2 .............................................................................. 61

    1. ............................................ 61

    2. (Relationships) ............................................................ 62

    3. (Objects) ............................................................ 64

    4. ................................................................................... 64

    5. () ........................................................... 65

    ................................................................................................................ 66

    6.3 . , ........................................................................................ 67

    1. (Microsoft Access) ........................................................ 67

    2. .............................................................. 67

    3. (Blank database) ........................................... 67

    4. (Save) ......................................................................... 68

    5. (Table) .......................................................................................................... 69

    6. (Table Design) ...................... 69

    7. (Table) ................... 70

    8. ......................................................................................... 71

    9. (Data Type) .................................................................................... 71

    10. (Field Properties) ............................................................................. 72

    11. (Views) ...................................................................................... 73

    12. (Open)............................................................................... 75

    13. (Close Database) ............................................................... 75

    14. (Exit) ............................................................ 75

    ......................................................................................................................... 76

    6.4 .................................... 77

    1. ................................................................................................. 77

    2. (Delete Table) ................................................................................. 79

    3. (Primary Key) ................................................................................... 80

    4. .......................................................................... 81

    ......................................................................................................................... 82

    6.5 , .............. 85

    1. , , ....................................................................................................................... 85

    ......................................................................................................................... 87

  • 7

    6.6 ....................................... 89

    1. (Form) ......................................................................... 89

    2. (Form) .................................... 89

    3. (Form Wizard) .......................... 90

    4. , ................................................................................................ 90

    5. (Delete Record) ..................................................... 90

    6. (Views) ...................................................................................... 91

    ........................................................................................................................ 93

    6.7 ...... 95

    1. ............................................................................................... 95

    ....................................................................................................................... 100

    6.8 ................................... 101

    1. (Find)........................................ 101

    2. (Filter) ............................................ 102

    3. (Clear Filter) ................................................................................ 102

    4. (Selection Filter)......................................................................... 103

    ....................................................................................................................... 107

    6.9 ..................................... 109

    1. (Queries) ................................................................................................ 109

    2. (Query Wizard) .......... 110

    3. (Query Design) ............. 110

    4. ......................................................................................... 111

    5. (Delete Query) ....................................................................... 112

    6. ............................................ 112

    7. (Criteria) ................................................................................. 113

    ....................................................................................................................... 115

    6.10 , ........................ 117

    1. (Reports) .................................................................................................... 117

    2. (Report) ............................... 117

    3. (Report Wizard) .................... 118

    4. (Views).................................................................................... 118

    5. .............................................................................................. 120

    6. (Delete Report) ............................................................................ 120

    7. (Print Report) ............................................................................. 121

    ....................................................................................................................... 122

    6.11 ................................................................... 125

    1. (Sort) ................................................................................... 125

    2. (Sort) , , ........................................ 125

    3. , , (Remove Sort) ......... 126

  • 8

    ....................................................................................................................... 127

    6.12 .............................................................................. 129

    1. ................................................................................................................. 129

    2. ........................ 130

    3. ............................. 130

    4. (Relationships) ........................................................................ 131

    .............................................................................................................. 134

    6.13 ................ 135

    1. ................................................................................................................. 135

    2. -- (One-To-Many, 1-) ........... 135

    3. (Delete Relationship) ....................................... 137

    4. ....................................... 137

    ....................................................................................................................... 138

    6.14 ........... 139

    1. (Queries in Related Tables) .................. 139

    2. (Query Wizard) .......... 139

    3. (Query Design) ............. 140

    ....................................................................................................................... 141

    ENOTHTA 7 , ................................................143

    7.1 .......................................................... 145

    1. / ............................................................................... 145

    2. ................................................................................................... 148

    3. .......................................................................... 149

    4. ....................................................... 151

    5. ............................................................................................ 151

    .............................................................................................................. 153

    7.2 ......................... 155

    1. ................................................................................................. 155

    2. , , (), ................................................... 157

    3. .......................................................................................... 157

    4. ................................. 158

    .............................................................................................................. 160

    7.3 .................................................. 161

    1. ................................................................................................... 161

    2. .......................................................................................... 161

    3. ............................................................................................ 162

    4. (1) ................................................................... 162

    5. (1) ............................................ 163

  • 9

    6. 1 .................................................... 165

    7. ................................................... 166

    ............................................................................................................... 168

    7.4 ................................................... 169

    1. .......................................................................... 169

    2. ....................................................................................................... 177

    3. ...................................... 183

    4. ................................................................................ 185

    ............................................................................................................... 190

    7.5 ............................................................. 191

    1. ................................................................................................................. 191

    2. ...................................................................................................... 191

    3. ....................................................................................... 192

    4. ................................................................................. 194

    ............................................................................................................... 195

    7.6 Pascal................................................ 197

    1. ................................................................................................................. 197

    2. Pame ........................................................................................... 197

    3. ........................................................................................... 197

    4. Pame ...................................................................... 198

    5. ...................................................................................................... 198

    6. (Debugging) ................................................................................... 201

    7. ( Compile) .......................................................................................... 201

    8. ( Run) ....................................................................................................... 201

    9. (Save, Save as) ..................................................................................... 202

    10. (open) ............................................................................................ 202

    11. ifthenelse ............................................................................................. 203

    12. ...................................................... 203

    ............................................................................................................... 207

    ....................................................................................................................... 208

  • 11

    2009

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  • 13

    ENOTHTA 2 /

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    2.1

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    , / .

    1.

    (

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    ,

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    , 0 ( ) ,

    1 ( ), ,

    (binary digit, bit). ,

    1

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    16

    bit ,

    , byte 8 bit , .. 10010101. byte

    256 . ,

    0 255 (

    byte, 4).

    ()

    ,

    bit. bit,

    ,

    .

    ()

    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).

    Byte:

    () KB 1 KiloByte = = 1024 Byte 1.000 Byte

    () MB 1 MegaByte = = 1024 KB 1000 KB= 1.000.000 Byte

    () GB 1 GigaByte = = 1024 MB 1000 MB = 1.000.000.000 Byte

    () TB 1 TeraByte = = 1024 GB 1000 GB = 1.000.000.000.000 Byte

    () PB 1 PetaByte = = 1024 TB 1000 GB = 1.000.000.000.000.000 Byte

    3.

    (Motherboard) ,

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    .

    (ports)

    .

    .

    .

    (Read Only Memory, ROM) .

    (Power Supply),

    ()

    /.

    , ,

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    4.

    (Ports)

  • .2 / .2.1

    17

    .

    :

    /

    USB

    (Universal Serial

    Bus)

    (, , ,

    ,

    , , , ..).

    VGA

    .

    LAN/Ethernet

    .

    HDMI

    High Definition.

    , .

    o (Audio Out) o

    (line in) o (Mic)

    , PS2 ( ),

    (Serial port), (Parallel LPT port)

    (Game port). USB,

    .

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    (microprocessor).

    ,

    ,

    , ,

    ( 2):

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    .

    2

  • .2.1 .2 /

    18

    (Control Unit),

    , .

    .

    ,

    .

    (Registers), ,

    , ..

    .

    (Clock),.

    . MHz ( )

    GHz ( ).

    . ,

    .

    , (.. x86, ARM, MIPS)

    (. 2.2 GHz)

    , W (.. 28 W).

    6.

    .

    , , , , , ..

    ,

    . , , , ,

    , ..

    . ,

    ( ),

    , ,

    .

    :

    (.. USB, PS2, VGA, HDMI).

    .

    bit , bits per second (bps) ,

    kbps, Mbps, ..

    1kbps 1000 bit ,

    Byte, 1 kB 1024 Byte!

    .

  • .2 / .2.1

    19

    (dots per inch, dpi), (.. 600 dpi).

    ()

    (.. 12801024).

    (.. 14 Megapixels).

    (pages per minute, ppm)

    .

    ,

    (characters per second, cps)

    (.. 70 cps).

    .

    (.. 4).

    (.. 22).

    ,

    (.. 16:9).

    () .

    bit 8 16 bit .

    bit ( 24 48 bit).

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    / (frame rate)

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    / Hz frames per

    second, fps (75 Hz, 16 fps).

    / .

    (milliseconds, ms), 5 ms.

    ( )

    ANSI Lumens (.. 1400).

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    (.. 0.05).

    ,

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    (Keyboard)

    (USB, PS2)

    (.. 10)

    (Mouse)

    (USB, PS2)

    (.. 5)

    (Camera)

    (.. USB)

    (. 5 Megapixels)

    (.. 24 bit)

    / (.. 16 fps)

    (.. 60)

  • .2.1 .2 /

    20

    (Microphone) (.. 20)

    (Scanner)

    (flatbed scanner),

    (document scanners)

    (feeder).

    (.. USB)

    (.. 1200 dpi)

    (.. 8 ppm)

    (.. 4)

    (.. 24 bit)

    (.. 80)

    (Monitor)

    (VGA, DVI, HDMI)

    (.. 12801024)

    (.. 22)

    (.. 16:9)

    (.. 24 bit)

    / (.. 160 Hz)

    (.. 3 ms)

    (.. 1400 ANSI Lumens)

    (.. 120)

    -

    (Video

    Projector)

    (VGA, DVI, HDMI)

    (.. 12801024)

    (.. 16:9)

    (.. 24 bit)

    / (.. 160 Hz)

    (.. 5 ms)

    (.. 2800 ANSI Lumens)

    (.. 300)

    (Printer)

    (dot matrix

    ) (ink jet

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    (laser

    ,

    toner )

    (.. USB)

    (.. 600 dpi)

    (.. 24 ppm 70 cps)

    (.. 4)

    (.. 24 bit)

    (.. 200)

    (.. 0.05/)

  • .2 / .2.1

    21

    (Plotter)

    (.. USB)

    (.. 1)

    (.. 500)

    (Speakers)

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    (Headphones) (.. 15)

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    (Random Access Memory, RAM)

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    RAM ( ),

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  • .2.1 .2 /

    22

    ROM .

    / (Basic Input/Output System, BIOS),

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    ROM ,

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    ( ), , (USB, SD, ..),

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    : byte . (.. 1.44

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    . bit (bits per second,

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    MB/s). (

    ) (revolutions per minute, rpm, .. 7200 rpm),

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    , 150 KB/s CD 1,32 MB/s

    DVD (.. CD 52x 7,8 MB/s, DVD 16x 21 MB/s).

    /:

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    (.. USB, IDE, SATA, SCSI, SAS).

    : ( MB

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  • .2 / .2.1

    23

    -

    .

    -

    MB

    (Floppy

    Disk) 1,44 MB 50 B/s 300

    (Hard Disk)

    160GB-

    4TB 150 MB/s 0,08

    (Hard Disk)

    160GB-

    4TB 60 MB/s 0,10

    CD-ROM

    700 MB 7,8 MB/s

    -

    CD-R 0,70

    CD-RW 1,40

    DVD-ROM

    4,7 GB 21 MB/s

    -

    DVD-R 0,14

    DVD-RW 0,28

    Blue Ray

    Disc

    25 GB

    50 GB

    100 GB

    128 GB

    72 MB/s 0,12

    -

    USB Flash

    Drive 2-128 GB

    100 MB/s-

    500 MB/s

    1,5

    SD

    1,5

    8.

    . ( ) . , ( /) () (. & , ) . , .

  • .2.1 .2 /

    24

    :

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    .

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    (1) , (2) ,

    (3) (4) .

    (Programme):

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    (bit), Byte (B)

    8 bit , KB,

    MB, GB, TB, PB ( 1024

    ).

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    (Motherboard) :

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    /.

    , (Central Processing Unit, CPU):

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    ( MHz

    GHz) Watt

    (W). (microprocessor).

    :

    /

    (.. , , ,

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    12 Mbps, (.. 600 dpi, 12801024, 14 Megapixels),

    (.. 12 ppm, 70 cps),

    (.. 4, 22),

    (.. 16:9), ,

    / (frame rate) (.. 75 Hz, 16 fps),

    .

  • .2 / .2.1

    25

    : ,

    (Random Access

    Memory, RAM),

    , (Read Only

    Memory, ROM)

    / (Basic

    Input/Output System, BIOS),

    .

    : ,

    .

    (

    ), , (USB, SD, ..),

    (CD, CD-R/RW, DVD, DVD-R/RW),

    .

    (.. 700 MB, 4.7 GB, 500 GB, 1 TB),

    (.. 50 kB/s, 1 Gb/s, 150 MB/s, CD 52x, DVD

    16x), (.. 7200 rpm),

    /, ,

    (.. USB, IDE, SATA) .

  • 27

    2.2 To

    :

    . ( / ) / .

    / / .

    / , .

    1.

    ,

    (, ),

    , ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ( ) ( )

    . (

    ).

    , ,

    ( )

    ,

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    , ,

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    : .

    ,

    ( 3

    3).

    2.

    (Application Software)

    ( 3),

    .. , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    , , Internet Explorer (

  • .2.2 .2 /

    28

    Microsoft), Chrome ( Google), Firefox (

    Mozilla Foundation), Opera ( Opera Software), Safari (

    Apple).

    , ,

    Word ( Microsoft,

    ) Writer ( The Document Foundation,

    ).

    3.

    (System Software)

    ,

    ( 3).

    . :

    (Windows, Linux, Mac OS, ..)

    (device drivers), ,

    (.. )

    .

    (Operating System)

    ( 3). ,

    ,

    (, ) ,

    (

    ).

    (

    ),

    (

    ).

    (

    ,

    ,

    , 3

    ( )

    (driver)

    (driver)

    (driver)

    (driver)

  • .2 / .2.2

    29

    ),

    ( ,

    ), (

    )

    (

    , .. ).

    4.

    (User),

    ( 3).

    , ,

    /.

    ,

    .

    5.

    , 3,

    , ,

    .

    .

    ( )

    .

    (, , , )

    ,

    .

    . ,

    ,

    (.. Intel Core 2 Quad, ARM 9, , , , ..).

    , , (.. Windows 7, Windows 8, Android,

    iOS, Mac OS X, Linux, ..) (

    ). Apple (..

    Apple iPad 2), iOS.

    Windows 7,

    , Windows 7 (

    x86, Intel

    Core 2 Quad). , Apple

    iPad 2 AutoCAD ( ),

    Windows, iOS

    Windows. , (.. )

    , (Apple iPad 2)

    ,

  • .2.2 .2 /

    30

    (

    ).

    (System

    Software):

    ()

    ,

    .

    . , ,

    (device drivers), /

    .

    (Operating

    System):

    .

    ( ,

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    .

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    1. ., ., ., ., (2003) , . 6169, .

  • 31

    2.3

    :

    .

    / .

    .

    / .

    .

    / .

    ,

    . ,

    ,

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    ,

    ,

    .

    1.

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    :

    .

    , , , ,

    .

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    .

    .

    ( ) ( ).

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    32

    .

    .

    .

    1.2

    H

    , ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    UPS

    (Uninterruptible Power Supply / ).

    UPS : (1)

    ,

    (2)

    , ,

    (50 Hz - 60 Hz).

    UPS ,

    , .

    ,

    . UPS

    . UPS

    IEC, .

    UPS

    ,

    .

    1.3

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    4 Uninterruptable

    Power Supply

    (UPS)

    5

    IEC

    6

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    33

    (..

    ).

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    (backup file) m

    , ,

    m. ,

    chkdsk (chkdsk.exe),

    ( ). chkdsk

    .

    1.4

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    4 GB RAM,

    (1)

    , (2)

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    , ,

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    ,

    7

    RAM

    8 /

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    34

    .

    1.5

    , . ,

    .

    (Serial Number) . ,

    / .

    .

    ,

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    2.

    2.1

    ,

    . , ,

    . ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    , ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    USB

    . ,

    9

    10

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    35

    ,

    , .

    Dropbox

    Google Drive.

    .

    2.2

    . ,

    : (Viruses),

    (Trojan Horses) (Worms).

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    (..

    ).

    :

    ,

    .

    (antivirus) .

    , , ,

    : (1) , (2)

    (3) .

    .

    (firewall)

    ,

    .

    11

    ( ,

    ).

    12

    .

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    36

    . ,

    .

    .

    2.3

    ,

    . ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , Windows

    . ,

    :

    1. Start .

    2. Control Panel.

    3. Programs and Features

    Run programs made for

    previous versions of Windows.

    4. Next

    Program Compatibility.

    5. ,

    .

    13

    Skype,

    14

    Program Compatibility

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    37

    2.4

    ,

    ,

    . ,

    , .

    :

    .

    .

    (drivers)

    .

    .

    2.5

    ,

    , .

    ,

    .

    (Restore this item)

    (Recycle Bin) .

    ,

    (Undelete)

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , . ,

    . , ,

    , , ,

    . ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    15

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    38

    (overwrite) . ,

    ,

    Microsoft Word,

    (Manage Versions). ,

    (Restore Point)

    (Disk Images) .

    3.

    3.1

    ,

    , .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    .

    (RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury):

    .

    .

    : ,

    , ,

    .

    .

    :

    .

    ,

    .

    /: .

    ,

    (,

    , )

    .

    :

    .

    ',

    .

    16 MS-Word,

    17

    18

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    39

    , , ,

    .

    (Toasted Skin

    Syndrome):

    ,

    .

    52

    .

    ,

    , ,

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    . ,

    ,

    .

    1. , (

    ).

    ,

    .

    2.

    45 .

    .

    50 .

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    .

    ,

    .

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    ,

    .

    19

    20

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    40

    4. .

    .

    5. ,

    . ,

    .

    6. 90-120 .

    .

    7. ( ) .

    8.

    .

    9.

    .

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    10

    .

    3.2

    , ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    .

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    41

    3.3

    ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    (Internet Use Gaming Disorder),

    (Internet Addiction Disorder - IAD),

    (Pathological Internet Use)

    (Problematic Internet Use).

    ,

    , ,

    .

    , , ,

    ,

    ,

    , , ,

    , , ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    3.4

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ,

    . , ,

    .

    :

    . 6 8

    ,

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    42

    .

    , / / ,

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    .

    ,

    . ,

    www.cyberethics.info 22674747 (

    Hotline), / .

    :

    (,

    ).

    .

    UPS

    (Uninterruptable

    Power Supply/

    ):

    ,

    ,

    . , ,

    (50 Hz - 60 Hz).

    :

    .

    :

    .

    :

    ,

    .

  • .2 / .2.3-5

    43

    :

    :

    (RSI - Repetitive Strain Injury).

    , ,

    .

    :

    (Toasted Skin Syndrome).

    ,

    .

    : ,

    .

    : ()

    () .

    :

    .

    1. ., ., ., ., (2006) ', ', '

    , . 109-112, .

    2. . (n.d.). . 12,

    2013 , http://www.pi.ac.cy/InternetSafety/parent.html.

    3. ., ., ., ., (2003) , . 38-39,

    .

    4. . Vstore.gr. 1, 2013 ,

    http://support.vstore.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 14:2012-01-04-14-14-

    49&catid=1:2011-12-15-12-23-02.

    5. ., ., ., ., . (1999)

    , , , . 39-42, .

    6. , ., (2008). ECDL 4 . . 83-91, .

    7. . (n.d.). Olympia.gr. 1,

    2013 , http://olympia.gr/2010/10/11/.

    8. . (n.d.). Google.

    1, 2013 , http://www.google.com.cy/intl/el/goodtoknow/.

    9. Internet & Computer Addiction. (n.d.). Helpguide.org. 1, 2013 ,

    http://www.helpguide.org/mental/internet_cybersex_addiction.htm.

  • .2.3-5 .2 /

    44

    10.

    Microsoft. (n.d.). Microsoft. 1, 2013 ,

    http://support.microsoft.com/kb/824684/el.

    11. . (n.d.).

    . 1, 2013 , http://www.dpa.gr

    /portal/page?_pageid=33,15048&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

    12. ; (n.d.). PhysioAid. 1, 2013 , http://www.physio-aid.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id =87:2009-09-30-07-46-14&catid=4:2009-05-10-09-25-22&lang=en

    13. . & .

    1, 2013 , http://dide.ilei.sch.gr/keplinet/tech/ups.php.

    14. UPS. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. 1, 2013 , http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/UPS.

    15. , USB; (n.d.). Tictac Laboratories.

    1, 2013 , http://www.tictac.gr/.

  • 45

    2.4

    :

    ( , RAM, , , / ) .

    ( ) .

    1.

    (

    ) . ,

    ( )

    . , ,

    ,

    .

    ,

    . , ,

    .

    , .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    2.

    .

    /

    , ,

    , / /.

    ,

    ,

    (.. ) ,

    .

    ,

    (plotter) .

    ( ),

    /

    ,

    .

    (

    ). ,

  • .2.6-7 .2 /

    46

    ,

    .

    , 200

    1.000 200.000.

    800 , , 160.000,

    40.000.

    , ,

    ,

    ,

    .

    3.

    ,

    .

    . , ,

    Microsoft PowerPoint ( )

    LibreOffice Impress,

    .

    , (..

    ),

    .

    () (requirements)

    .

    (minimum requirements),

    ( ).

    .

    :

    Windows 7 :

    x86 1 GHz, RAM

    1 GB, 16 GB.

    AutoCAD 2013

    : Microsoft Windows XP ,

    x86 1,6 GHz, RAM

    2 GB ( 4 GB, 2 GB

    ), 6 GB,

    1024 x 768 ( 1600 x 1050, 1024 x 768

    ).

    SimCity :

    Microsoft Windows XP , x86

    2 GHz, RAM 2 GB,

  • .2 / .2.6-7

    47

    10 GB,

    512 MB RAM 256 kbps.

    4.

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ()

    , ,

    ( )

    , .

    ,

    ,

    .

    34 .

    5.

    ( ).

    5.1

    ,

    . , ,

    ,

    .

    .

    , :

    ; ;

    ( ) ; (

    ).

    ;

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    ( )

    ; ;

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    , ).

    / /,

    , , ;

    ;

    ;

    ; (.. CD,

    , ..)

    ;

    ,

    / ; (

  • .2.6-7 .2 /

    48

    , ..

    , , ..)

    5.2

    . ,

    ( ).

    ,

    , .

    (.. Mozilla Firefox, Skype)

    .

    ( ,

    RAM , ..).

    5.3

    ( , , , , ,

    ..).

    ( )

    .

    ,

    .

    ( )

    .

    . ,

    :

    : CPU 2.20 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 500 GB, CD/DVD, 17, 600

    : CPU 2.53 GHz, RAM 8 GB, HDD 250 GB, CD/DVD, 15, 650

    RAM

    . ,

    ,

    .

    ( ) ,

    :

    .

    ( 100).

  • .2 / .2.6-7

    49

    , 0 () 1

    () .

    .

    , , () .

    .

    ,

    .

    5.4 1

    . ,

    .

    17

    . ,

    ( 30 , 2 GB)

    ,

    Skype ( ).

    ,

    Windows. 1000 .

    :

    . .

    : 2 GB 30

    4 , 240 GB (

    ).

    : , ,

    , Skype.

    : Windows.

    17.

    : , , , .

    : .

    :

    :

    : Windows (.. Windows 7,

    x86 1 GHz, RAM

    1 GB, 16 GB).

    / : Microsoft Office 2010 Home &

    Student Edition, 119 LibreOffice v.4, 0 (

    1 GB).

    : Adobe CC Windows, 1200 (

    1024x768, 2GB, )

    Inkscape Gimp, 0 ( ).

  • .2.6-7 .2 /

    50

    Skype ( , ,

    ).

    : Microsoft Security Essentials ( Windows).

    .

    LibreOffice v.4 , Inkscape Gimp,

    Adobe CC .

    :

    , x86, 1 GHz,

    RAM 2 GB, 259

    GB, 1024x768, , (

    ).

    /

    ( CD/DVD, ,

    , , Windows 7:

    1: CPU 2,00 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 500 GB, 17 1024x768, 480

    2: CPU 2,00 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 250 GB, 15 1200x800, 500

    3: CPU 2,20 GHz, RAM 6 GB, HDD 500 GB, 17 1200x800, 650

    4: CPU 2,53 GHz, RAM 8 GB, HDD 750 GB, 17 1800x1024, 800

    2 , .

    1

    .

    .

    , RAM,

    . ,

    , 30, 30, 10 30 (

    )

    :

    -

    / RAM

    RAM

    15 20 35 30 100

    1 2 4 500 786432 480 0,79 0,50 0,67 0,55 61,77 0,13

    3 2,2 6 500 960000 650 0,87 0,75 0,67 0,67 75,25 0,12

    4 2,53 8 750 1440000 800 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 100,00 0,13

    2,53 8 750 1440000

    , 61, 100. ,

    .

    ,

  • .2 / .2.6-7

    51

    (

    ).

    , 4

    .

    2:

    , ,

    .

    ( )

    , (

    ,

    20 ).

    (

    Linux) ,

    3 .

    250 MB 250 .

    20,

    .

    ()

    ( Microsoft Word

    ). ,

    .

    .

    :

    ,

    , .

    :

    .

    : , ,

    .

    : Windows.

    20.

    : .

    : .

    :

    .

    : 250 MB 365

    3 , 273750 MB, 268 GB (

    ).

    : .

    : Linux.

  • .2.6-7 .2 /

    52

    20 ppm.

    : .

    : (UPS), DVD Drive

    .

    :

    :

    :

    : Windows (.. Windows 7 Professional,

    x86 1 GHz, RAM

    1 GB, 16 GB,

    150).

    / : Microsoft Office (Word,

    Outlook) 2010 Home & Student Edition, 119 (

    1 GB).

    : Internet Explorer Firefox Opera Chrome Safari (

    ).

    : Kaspersky Pure 3.0 (75).

    :

    : Linux (.. Ubuntu Server 14LTS,

    x86 1 GHz, RAM

    512 MB, 5 GB).

    ( ,

    ).

    .

    Microsoft

    Security Essentials, Kaspersky, .

    :

    , x86,

    1 GHz, RAM 1 GB,

    16 GB 20.

    , x86,

    1 GHz, RAM

    512 GB, 273 GB, DVD Drive,

    20ppm UPS.

    /

    ( CD/DVD

    ):

    1: CPU 1,60 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 250 GB, 17, 370.

    2: CPU 1,60 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 250 GB, 20, 420.

    3: CPU 2,20 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 250 GB, 20, 550.

  • .2 / .2.6-7

    53

    4: CPU 2,20 GHz, RAM 4 GB, HDD 500 GB, 17, 500.

    5: CPU 2,50 GHz, RAM 8 GB, HDD 1 TB, 20, 690

    , 1 4 ,

    . ,

    2.

    , 1, 2 3 ,

    . 4,

    .

    RAM ( ),

    :

    /

    RAM

    RAM

    40 40 20 100

    HY4 2,2 4 500 500 0,88 0,50 0,50 65,20 0,13

    HY5 2,5 8 1000 690 1,00 1,00 1,00 100,00 0,14

    2,5 8 1000

    5 4,

    , .

    .

    :

    1: , , 1200dpi, 20ppm, 0,142 , 80.

    2: , , 300dpi, 22ppm, 0,022 , 200.

    3: , , 600dpi, 24ppm, 0,024 , 350.

    1 , 250

    ( 273750 3 ), 1

    38953, 2 6223 3 6920.

    2 .

    UPS ( 60

    100).

  • .2.6-7 .2 /

    54

    :

    (/,

    , , ,

    ,

    , ).

    .

    :

    .

    :

    .

    :

    .

    : ,

    .

    .

    :

    ( 100 ),

    .

    :

    .

    . ,

    ,

    .

    1. Windows 7. 04.07.2013. http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows7/products/system-requirements

    2. AutoCAD 2013. 04.07.2013. http://docs.autodesk.com/ACD/2013/ENU/System%20Requirements/index.html

    3. / SimCity. 04.07.2013. https://help.ea.com/article/simcity-system-requirements

  • 55

    ENOTHTA 6

    / /

    :

    ()

    ()

    -

    ()

  • 57

    6.1

    :

    . (/).

    . (.. , , , , , ..).

    1. (Database)

    .

    , .

    : , , ,

    , ..

    :

    (.. )

    (.. ).

    .

    2. ()

    ,

    1960.

    , .

    1970

    () - Database Management System (DBMS).

    .

    (Relational Database),

    .

  • .6.1 .6

    58

    ,

    (Relational Database Management System, RDBMS), Microsoft

    Access.

    3.

    (1) :

    ,

    . ,

    .

    (2) :

    .

    (.. , , , ,

    , ..), (..

    ).

    .

    (3) : ()

    . ,

    .

    ,

    . ,

    ,

    .

    (4) :

    .

    ,

    , , ,

    , ..

    (5) ()

    :

    .

  • .6. .6.1

    59

    .. ,

    ,

    .

    4.

    ,

    .

    ,

    ,

    (..

    ).

    5.

    :

    (

    ).

  • .6.1 .6

    60

    (Database):

    .

    :

    .

    :

    ,

    .

    () (Database

    Management System, DBMS):

    .

    (Relational Database):

    ,

    .

    (Relational Database

    Management System,

    RDBMS):

    .

  • 61

    6.2

    :

    (, ).

    .

    . .

    1.

    1.1 (Table)

    .

    ()

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ..

    () ().

    :

    YouthMembers

  • .6.2 .6

    62

    1.2 (Record)

    .

    1.3 (Field)

    .

    . .

    .

    , ,

    , ,

    .

    2. (Relationships)

    ,

    .

    . , Relationship,

    (

    ).

    ,

    .

  • .6. .6.2

    63

    :

    (,

    ..)

    ,

    .

    :

    2.1 : -- (One-To-One, 1-1)

    , .

    2.2 : -- (One-To-Many, 1-)

    , ,

    .

    --,

    (YouthCentre.accdb). :

    Activities

    .

    YouthMembers

    .

    --. , YouthMembers

    Activities,

    .

  • .6.2 .6

    64

    3. (Objects)

    3.1 (Table)

    ,

    .

    3.2 (Form)

    .

    .

    .

    3.3 (Queries)

    ,

    .

    3.4 (Reports)

    .

    ,

    .

    4.

    -

    -

  • .6. .6.2

    65

    5. ()

    , ,

    () - Database Management

    System (DBMS).

    : MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server,

    Microsoft Access, Oracle, SAP, dBASE, FoxPro, IBM DB2 FilemakerPro.

    ()

    :

    .

    () :

    .

  • .6.2 .6

    66

    (Table):

    .

    .

    () ().

    (Record):

    .

    (Field):

    .

    (Relationships):

    .

    .

    Relationship.

    (Objects):

    (Tables)

    (Forms)

    (Queries)

    (Reports)

    () (Database

    Management

    System, DBMS):

    ,

    . :

    MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, SQLite, Microsoft SQL Server,

    Microsoft Access SAP.

  • 67

    6.3 . ,

    :

    .

    .

    . .

    1. (Microsoft Access)

    , ,

    () - Database Management

    Systems (DBMS). Microsoft Access.

    2.

    (1) StartAll ProgramsMicrosoft Office .

    (Desktop), .

    3. (Blank database)

    , ,

    :

    (1) File New (

    ) Available Templates, Blank

    database Create.

  • .6.3-4 .6

    68

    CTRL + N .

    (2) ,

    ,

    Create.

    (3) , Microsoft Access 2010,

    .

    4. (Save)

    (Flash Memory),

    USB.

    Microsoft Access

    Database, .accdb .

    (1) File Save Database As

    ,

    (

    ALT + F , A ).

    FileSave

    ,

    .

    FileSave

    CTRL + S .

    (2) (Filename), (Save in)

    (Save as type).

    (3) , Save .

  • .6. .6.3-4

    69

    5. (Table)

    (

    ) .

    .

    , ,

    , ..

    6. (Table Design)

    (1) Create Tables

    Table Design.

    (2) ,

    Field Name

    .

    (3) Data Type

    .

    (4) Description -

    .

    (5) , ,

    .

    (6) , ,

    .

    (7) ,

    .

  • .6.3-4 .6

    70

    7. (Table)

    (1) Create Tables

    Table.

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) ,

    .

    (4) , ENTER

    .

    (5) , ,

    .

    (6) ,

    .

  • .6. .6.3-4

    71

    8.

    , :

    (1) ,

    .. (.), (!)

    ([ ]).

    (2) .

    9. (Data Type)

    .

    .

    Microsoft Access,

    :

    Text

    Number

    Date/Time /

    Currency

    AutoNumber

    Yes/No / / /

    Microsoft Access, ()

    :

    Memo

    OLE Object OLE -

    (, , )

    Hyperlink (

    )

    Attachment

  • .6.3-4 .6

    72

    Calculated

    Lookup Wizard ( )

    :

    () Text - 255 ,

    .

    () Number -

    .

    () Date/Time -

    .

    () Currency -

    .

    () AutoNumber -

    .

    () Yes/No -

    ( , ).

    () Memo - 65.535 ,

    .

    () OLE Object -

    , .

    () Hyperlink - .

    () Attachment - .

    () Calculated - .

    () Lookup Wizard -

    .

    10. (Field Properties)

    ,

    :

    (1) .

    (2) .

    (3) .

    .. Microsoft Access :

    Field Size

    Format ( )

    Input Mask

  • .6. .6.3-4

    73

    Caption ()

    Default Value ()

    Validation Rule

    Validation Text

    Required ( )

    Decimal Places

    :

    () Field Size -

    .

    () Format -

    .

    () Input Mask -

    .

    () Caption -

    .

    () Default Value -

    .

    () Validation Rule -

    .

    () Validation Text -

    .

    () Required -

    .

    () Decimal Places -

    .

    11. (Views)

    11.1 (Design View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Tables,

    ,

    (Datasheet View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Design View

    .

  • .6.3-4 .6

    74

    .

    (All Access Objects)

    Tables,

    ,

    Design View

    o .

    11.2 (Datasheet View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Tables,

    ,

    (Datasheet View).

    Home Views

    Datasheet View

    .

    .

  • .6. .6.3-4

    75

    12. (Open)

    ,

    , :

    (1) File Open.

    CTRL + O .

    (2) ,

    .

    13. (Close Database)

    (1) File Close Database.

    ALT + F , C .

    14. (Exit)

    (1) File Exit.

    ALT + F , X .

  • .6.3-4 .6

    76

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Blank database)

    CTRL + N

    (Save)

    CTRL + S

    (Save Database As)

    ALT

    +

    F , A

    (Table Design)

    (Table)

    (Design View)

    (Datasheet View)

    (Open)

    CTRL + O

    (Close Database)

    ALT

    +

    F , C

    (Exit)

    ALT

    +

    F , X

  • 77

    6.4

    :

    . .

    1.

    , ,

    (Datasheet View).

    1.1 - (Field Width)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , .

    1.2 - (Row Height)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • .6.5 .6

    78

    1.3 / (Hide/Unhide Fields)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    1.4 (Insert Field)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) , () ,

    .

    1.5 (Delete Field)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    1.6 (Rename Field)

    (1) ()

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    1.7 (Text Formatting)

    (1) Home

    Text Formatting

    .

    1.8 (Background Color)

    (1) Home

    Text Formatting

    .

    (2) ,

    Background Color

    .

  • .6. .6.5

    79

    , Alternate

    Background Color

    .

    (3) , .

    1.9 (Cell Effect)

    (1) Home

    Text Formatting

    .

    (2) ,

    Cell Effect

    (Raised)

    (Sunken)

    .

    (3) ,

    .

    1.10 (Gridlines Shown and Gridline Color)

    (1) Home

    Text Formatting

    .

    (2) ,

    Gridlines

    Shown

    (Horizontal)

    (Vertical)

    .

    (3) , ,

    Gridline Color

    .

    (4) , .

    2. (Delete Table)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Tables,

    ,

    .

    (2) , Delete

    .

  • .6.5 .6

    80

    Home Records

    Delete.

    Delete .

    3. (Primary Key)

    .

    , / ,

    .

    , , ,

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    ..: , ..

    ,

    .

    , . ,

    ,

    , , ,

    .

    , (

    , , ) .

    ,

    (AutoNumber) ,

    .

    :

    ,

    ( TelNumber) ,

    ( ) .

    Email .

    (Firstname Surname) ,

    (

    ).

  • .6. .6.5

    81

    (YouthMemberID)

    AutoNumber .

    Microsoft Access

    , . Microsoft Access,

    ,

    . ,

    , ,

    .

    4.

    (1)

    (Datasheet View).

    (2) Home Views

    Design View .

    Design View .

    (3) ,

    .

    (4) Table Tools->Design

    Tools Primary Key

    .

  • .6.5 .6

    82

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Field Width)

    (Row Height)

    /

    (Hide/Unhide Fields)

    (Insert Field)

  • .6. .6.5

    83

    (Delete Field)

    (Rename Field)

    (Text Formatting)

    (Background

    Color)

    (Cell Effect)

    (Gridlines Shown

    and Gridline Color)

  • .6.5 .6

    84

    (Delete Table)

    Delete

    (Primary Key)

  • 85

    6.5 ,

    :

    , (). .

    1. , ,

    , ,

    ,

    (Datasheet View).

    1.1 (New Record)

    (1) () .

    (2) ,

    .

    (Navigation Area)

    New (blank) record

    .

    1.2

    (1) ,

    :

  • .6.6 .6

    86

    1.3

    (1)

    (, ..),

    :

    1.4 (Delete Record)

    (1) .

    (2) Home Records

    Delete.

    (3) ,

    .

  • .6. .6.6

    87

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (New Record)

    (Navigation Area)

    (First record)

    (Previous record)

    (Current Record)

    (Next record)

    (Last record)

    (New (blank)

    record)

    (

    )

    ()

    TAB

    ()

    SHIFT

    +

    TAB

    (Delete Record)

  • 89

    6.6

    :

    () .

    , .

    (/, /).

    1. (Form)

    ,

    ,

    (Forms).

    ,

    (). ,

    .

    ,

    .

    2. (Form)

    (1)

    (2) Create Forms

    Form

    .

    (3) , ,

    .

  • .6.7 .6

    90

    3. (Form Wizard)

    (1)

    (2) Create Forms

    Form Wizard.

    (3) ,

    Selected Fields:

    Selected Fields:

    .

    (4) ,

    .

    (5) ,

    .

    4. ,

    (1)

    (Form View).

    (2) , :

    5. (Delete Record)

    (1)

    (Form View).

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) Home Records

    Delete.

    (4) ,

    .

  • .6. .6.7

    91

    6. (Views)

    6.1 (Design View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Forms,

    ,

    (Form View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Design View

    .

    .

    (All Access Objects)

    Forms,

    ,

    Design View

    .

    6.2 (Form View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Forms,

    ,

    (Form View).

    Home Views

    Form View .

  • .6.7 .6

    92

    .

  • .6. .6.7

    93

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Form)

    (Form Wizard)

    (Navigation Area)

    (First record)

    (Previous record)

    (Current Record)

    (Next record)

    (Last record)

    (New (blank)

    record)

    (Delete Record)

  • .6.7 .6

    94

    (

    )

    ()

    TAB

    ()

    SHIFT

    +

    TAB

    (Design View)

    (Form View)

  • 95

    6.7

    :

    .

    1.

    ,

    .

    (Label)

    (Text Box)

    .

    ,

    (Form View).

    1.1

    1.1.1

    (1) Home Views

    Design View

    .

    Design View .

    (2) ,

    .

    (3)

    , ,

    .

  • .6.8 .6

    96

    1.1.2

    (1)

    .

    (2)

    , ,

    .

    1.1.3

    (1)

    .

    (2)

    , ,

    .

    1.2

    (1) (

    ) ( ).

    :

    (handles).

  • .6. .6.8

    97

    (2) ,

    ,

    .

    1.3

    (1) (

    ) .

    (2) ,

    ,

    .

    1.4

    (1) (

    )

    .

    (2)

    .

    1.5 (Formatting)

    (1) (

    ) .

    (2) , Form Design Tools->Format

    Font

    .

  • .6.8 .6

    98

    1.6 (Select All)

    (1) Form Design Tools->Format

    Selection

    .

    CTRL + A .

    1.7 (Delete Field)

    (1)

    .

    (:

    .)

    (2) , Home

    Records Delete

    .

    Delete

    .

    Delete .

    1.8 (Add Existing Fields)

    (1) Form Design Tools->Design Tools

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    1.9 (Label)

    (1) Form Design Tools->Design Controls

    .

    (2) ,

    .

  • .6. .6.8

    99

    1.10 (Insert Image)

    (1) Form Design Tools->Design Controls

    .

    (2) ,

    Insert Picture

    ,

    .

    (3) , ,

    .

    1.11 (Background Image)

    (1) Form Design Tools->Format Background

    .

    (2) ,

    Insert Picture

    ,

    .

    (3) ,

    .

    1.12 / (Grid)

    (1) .

    (2) ,

    .

  • .6.8 .6

    100

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Formatting)

    (Select All)

    CTRL + A

    (Delete Field)

    Delete

    (Add Existing Fields)

    (Label)

    (Insert Image)

    (Background

    Image)

    /

    (Grid)

  • 101

    6.8

    :

    , .

    .

    1. (Find)

    (Find)

    .

    (Datasheet View) ,

    (Form View) .

    .

    (1) /

    / (Datasheet View) /

    (Form View).

    (2) , Home Find

    Find.

    CTRL + F .

    (3) ,

    Find What:

    .

    (4) Look In: Current document

    Match: Any Part of Field.

    (5) ,

    .

    (6) ,

    .

    (Navigation Area)

    (Search)

    .

  • .6.10 .6

    102

    , ENTER

    .

    2. (Filter)

    (Filter).

    (Datasheet View) ,

    (Form View) .

    .

    (1) /

    / (Datasheet View) /

    (Form View).

    (2) ,

    , (..

    Town

    ) .

    (3) , .

    Home Sort & Filter

    Filter

    .

    (: .)

    3. (Clear Filter)

    (1) /

    / (Datasheet View) /

    (Form View).

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) , .

    Home Sort & Filter

    Filter

    .

    : .

  • .6. .6.10

    103

    4. (Selection Filter)

    (1) /

    / (Datasheet View) /

    (Form View).

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) , Home

    Sort & Filter Selection

    ,

    :

    (:

    TEXT Filters, NUMBER Filters DATE Filters.)

    (4)

    (TEXT Filters):

    Equals - / /

    . (..

    .)

    Does Not Equal - /

    / . (..

    .)

    Begins With - /

    / . (..

    .)

    Does Not Begin With -

    / / . (..

    .)

    Contains - /

    / . (..

    .)

  • .6.10 .6

    104

    Does Not Contain -

    / / . (..

    .)

    Ends With - /

    / . (..

    .)

    Does Not End With -

    / / . (..

    .)

    (NUMBER Filters):

    Equals - / /

    . (..

    99123456

    99123456.)

    Does Not Equal - /

    / . (..

    99123456

    99123456.)

    Less Than or Equal To -

    / / . (..

    99123456

    99123456.)

    Greater Than or Equal To -

    / / . (..

    99123456

    99123456.)

    Between -

    . (..

    99123451 99123456

  • .6. .6.10

    105

    99123451 99123456 .)

    (DATE Filters):

    Equals - / /

    . (.. Birthdate

    12/08/1999

    12/08/1999.)

    Does Not Equal - /

    / . (..

    Birthdate 12/08/1999

    12/08/1999.)

    Begins With - / /

    . (.. Birthdate

    12 12/08/1999

    12.)

    Does Not Begin With - /

    / . (..

    Birthdate 12

    12/08/1999

    12.)

    Contains - /

    / . (..

    Birthdate 08

    12/08/1999

    08.)

    Does Not Contain -

    / / . (..

    Birthdate 08

    12/08/1999

    08.)

  • .6.10 .6

    106

    Ends With - /

    / . (..

    Birthdate 1999

    12/08/1999

    1999.)

    Does Not End With - /

    / . (..

    Birthdate 1999

    12/08/1999

    1999.)

    Between -

    . (.. Birthdate

    12/08/1999 14/08/1999

    12/08/1999 14/08/1999

    .)

  • .6. .6.10

    107

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Find)

    CTRL + F

    (Filter)

    (Clear Filter)

    (Selection Filter)

  • 109

    6.9

    :

    (). , , . , ( : =, , , =, between and ...).

    , ( : AND, OR, NOT *, ?).

    /, / (Ascending/Descending).

    1. (Queries)

    ,

    .

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    (Queries).

    ()

    :

    .

    .

    .

    .

    , , .

    ,

    . ,

    :

    (1)

    ,

    ,

    .

    (2)

    ..

  • .6.11-12 .6

    110

    2. (Query Wizard)

    (1)

    (2) Create Queries

    Query Wizard.

    (3) , Simple Query Wizard

    .

    (4) ,

    Selected Fields:

    Selected Fields:

    .

    (5) , ( )

    .

    (6) ,

    .

    3. (Query Design)

    (1)

    (2) Create Queries

    Query Design.

    (3) , (Show Table)

    / /

    /

    (Design View) .

    (4) ,

    .

    (5) ,

    .

    (:

    .

    ( *

    .)

    ,

    .)

  • .6. .6.11-12

    111

    (6) ,

    .

    (: , Delete

    .)

    (7)

    .

    (8) , Query Tools->Design

    Results Run

    Microsoft Access .

    (9) , ,

    .

    4.

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Queries,

    (Datasheet View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Design View

    .

    ,

    Design View .

    (3)

    , :

    Query Tools->Design

    Query Setup

    Show Table

    .

    ,

    / / /

    /

    /

    .

  • .6.11-12 .6

    112

    ,

    .

    (4) , ,

    .

    5. (Delete Query)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Queries,

    .

    (2) , Delete

    .

    Home Records

    Delete.

    ,

    .

    , , Delete .

    6.

    :

    (1)

    .

    ,

    . ( * .)

  • .6. .6.11-12

    113

    (2)

    ,

    :

    Field: .

    Table: / / .

    Sort: :

    Ascending ( ),

    Descending ( ),

    (not sorted) ( ).

    Show:

    .

    Criteria: ,

    ,

    .

    7. (Criteria)

    ,

    :

    2012

    31/1/1967

    Between and Between 1/1/2013 and 31/12/2013

    = =35

    > >36

    < = >=50

  • .6.11-12 .6

    114

    * *

    ? ???

    [ ] []

    ! [!]

    - [-]

    # 2#5

  • .6. .6.11-12

    115

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Query Wizard)

    (Query Design)

    (Run)

  • .6.11-12 .6

    116

    (Show Table)

    (Sort)

    (Delete Query)

    Delete

  • 117

    6.10 ,

    :

    ().

    , , , .

    1. (Reports)

    , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    ().

    .

    , .

    . ,

    .

    2. (Report)

    (1) /

    .

    (2) Create Reports

    Report

    .

    (3) , ,

    .

  • .6.13 .6

    118

    3. (Report Wizard)

    (1) /

    (2) Create Reports

    Report Wizard.

    (3) ,

    Selected Fields:

    Selected Fields:

    .

    (4) ,

    .

    (5) , ,

    , /

    .

    (6) ,

    .

    (7) ,

    .

    4. (Views)

    4.1 (Design View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    ,

    (Report View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Design View

    .

    .

  • .6. .6.13

    119

    (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    ,

    Design View

    .

    4.2 (Layout View)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    ,

    (Report View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Layout View

    .

    .

    (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    ,

    Layout View

    .

  • .6.13 .6

    120

    5.

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    (Report View).

    (2) , Home Views

    Design View

    .

    ,

    Design View

    .

    (3) , ,

    .

    6. (Delete Report)

    (1) (All Access Objects)

    Reports,

    .

    (2) , Delete

    .

    Home Records

    Delete.

    ,

    .

  • .6. .6.13

    121

    , , Delete .

    7. (Print Report)

    (1)

    (2) File Print

    Quick Print

    .

    Print

    ,

    ..

    CTRL + P .

    Print Preview

    .

  • .6.13 .6

    122

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (Report)

    (Report Wizard)

    (Design View)

    (Layout View)

  • .6. .6.13

    123

    (Delete Report)

    Delete

    (Print Report)

    CTRL + P

  • 125

    6.11

    :

    /, / , , , .

    1. (Sort)

    .

    , ,

    ,

    . ,

    .

    ,

    .

    , :

    ,

    (/Ascending)

    (/Descending).

    ,

    (/Ascending)

    (/Descending).

    2. (Sort) , ,

    (1) :

    ,

    (Datasheet View).

    ,

    (Form View).

    ,

    (Datasheet View).

  • .6.14 .6

    126

    ,

    Layout View

    (Layout View).

    (2) , .

    (3) , Home

    Sort & Filter Ascending

    Descending

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    3. , , (Remove Sort)

    (1) Home

    Sort & Filter Remove Sort

    .

  • .6. .6.14

    127

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    // / (Sort Ascending)

    // /

    (Sort Descending)

    // / (Remove Sort)

    /

    // /

    (Sort Ascending /

    Descending)

  • 129

    6.12

    :

    ().

    .

    1.

    . ,

    .

    (, ),

    .

    .

    :

    , ,

    ,

    .

    () ,

    Relationships.

    .

    .

    .

    :

    ,

    ( ,

    ). ,

    (

    /

    /).

    / / ,

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    .

  • .6.16 .6

    130

    , .

    2.

    ,

    (

    , query).

    :

    .

    .

    (, ..),

    .

    , .

    .

    ,

    , ,

    .

    ,

    .

    3.

    (Primary Key) ( )

    ( ,

    ).

    ( - Primary Table)

    ( - Secondary r Related Table),

    .

  • .6. .6.16

    131

    4. (Relationships)

    :

    -- (One-To-One)

    -- (One-To-Many)

    -- (Many-To-Many) ( )

    4.1 -- (One-To-One, 1-1)

    ( - Primary Table)

    (

    - Secondary Table), .

    .

    MS Access.

    :

    :

    .

    .

    (1) ,

    , :

    1 ;

    = 1

    (2) , ,

    :

    1 ;

    = 1

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    1

    1

    1 1

    1 1

  • .6.16 .6

    132

    (3) :

    --

    :

    .

    .

    (..

    , ,

    ,

    ).

    4.2 -- (One-To-Many, 1-)

    ( - Primary Table)

    ( -

    Secondary Table), ,

    ( - Primary

    Table).

    .

    MS

    Access.

    :

    :

    , ,

    .

    1 1

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    ----------------

    1

  • .6. .6.16

    133

    (1) ,

    , :

    1 ;

    =

    , ,

    :

    1 ;

    = 1

    (2) :

    --

    :

    .

    , , .

    .

    , .

    (..

    ).

    :

    ,

    . (YouthMembers)

    (Activities). ,

    :

    1

    1 YouthMembers Activities

    1

    1 1

  • .6.16 .6

    134

    ,

    .

    --, :

    (Primary Key):

    .

    ,

    .

    (Relationships):

    , .

    . Relationship.

    :

    (One-To-One, 1-1) (One-To-Many, 1-)

    (One-To-One) (1-1):

    , .

    (One-To-Many) (1-):

    , , .

  • 135

    6.13

    :

    . .

    1.

    .

    Microsoft Access.

    (Relationships)

    . ,

    .

    , ,

    ,

    .

    2. -- (One-To-Many, 1-)

    :

    (1)

    .

    (2) Database Tools Relationships

    Relationships

    .

    ,

    .

    (3) ,

    / / / /

    /

    .

    (4) ,

    .

    (5) , (ActivityCode)

    (Activities) ,

  • .6.17 .6

    136

    (ActivityCode) (YouthMembers)

    .

    (6) ,

    :

    Enforce Referential Integrity ( ) -

    .

    Cascade Update Related Fields (

    ) -

    .

    Cascade Delete Related Records (

    ) -

    ,

    .

    (7) , .

    (8) , Relationship Tools->Design

    Relationships Close

    , .

  • .6. .6.17

    137

    3. (Delete Relationship)

    :

    (1) Database Tools Relationships

    Relationships

    .

    (2) ,

    .

    (3) , Delete,

    , .

    4.

    , .

    ,

    :

    (+)

    . , ,

    Activities

    . ,

    YouthMembers Activities.

    (1) (Activities)

    (Datasheet View).

    (2) ,

    .

  • .6.17 .6

    138

    (Description)

    (Tab)

    (Icon)

    (Group)

    (Dialog Box)

    (Keys)

    (One-To-Many,

    1-)

    (Delete

    Relationship)

    (Edit Relationship)

  • 139

    6.14

    :

    .

    1. (Queries in Related Tables)

    .

    ,

    ,

    .

    : ,

    .

    2. (Query Wizard)

    (1) .

    (2) Create Queries

    Query Wizard.

    (3) , Simple Query Wizard

    .

    (4) ,

    Selected Fields:

    Selected Fields:

    .

    (5) , ( )

    .

    (6) ,

    .

  • .6.18 .6

    140

    3. (Query Design)

    (1) .

    (2) Create Queries

    Query Design.

    (3) , (Show Table)

    / /

    /

    (Design View) .

    (4) ,

    .

    (5) ,

    .

    (:

    .

    ( *