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Ψηφιοποίησης Κινούµενης Εικόνας

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2000-2006 : 1 - : 1.3 ,

@ 4 : ( )

,

- , 2005

1. .............................................4 .......................................7 3. ....................11 .......................................18 4.1.1 ............................20 4.1.2 ......................................................................21 4.1.3 .......................................................22 4.1.4 ................................25 4.2.1 .......................................32 4.2.2 .........................................33 4.2.3 - ....34 4.2.4 ( )..............................................37 5. ................40 5.2.1 DV.......................................................................41 5.2.2 MPEG-1................................................................41 5.2.3 MPEG-2................................................................42 5.2.4 ..................................................43 5.2.5 MPEG-4.............................................................................43 5.2.6 .264/AVC.........................................................................45 6. ..............................47 6.3.1 .........................................................51 6.3.2 (Low-level versus high-level descriptions)..............54 6.3.4 (Extensibility).............................................55 6.3.4 ...................................................55 6.3.5 ..................................................................57 6.6.1 (Systems Tools)................................63 2

6.6.2 DDL (DDL Tools)...................................................67 6.6.3 (Visual Tools)............................................68 6.8.1 (Color)....................................................................70 6.8.2 (Texture)....................................................................71 6.8.3 (Shape)...................................................................72 7. MPEG-21: Multimedia Framework............................................75 8.................................................................................87 ........................................................92 ...........................................................................94 ..........................................................................103

3

1.

, 1900 . , , . ,

( ) . , , , , . (negatif) , , (, , .) (VHS, BETA) . ( , , , packaging .) . , , . , ,

4

( 16mm, Super 16 35mm), betacam. , , . , , . , . , , ( - ) . , . , . , , , , . , , , : 2 (2048 1556 pixel) 4 (4096 3112 pixel) ( 2 4 16 35 mm- ) MPEG-2, Full D1 PAL MPEG-1 SIF VHS MPEG-1 QSIF 5

( ), DVD, digital beta (video servers) , DVD. , MPEG-7 . , : . , . ( ) , . , , . ( ), . ( ) . , , . 6

DVD , .

2. , ( 59) ( 60) , , . . 35mm, 16 Super 16. , . ( ) , . , , , ( , , .), . . , . 7

, (BETA SP, Digital BETA, DV Cam), . , , . , . . . () , . , , . , , . . , , , . , , . , () , ( ). ( , ) . : 8

, . . . , , . . , . , . . , : , . . , . , , ( ), ( ), ( ). 9

. MPEG-1 MPEG-2 , MPEG-7 MPEG-21 , , , . ( DVD ) , , . , . , , , . , (.. ) .

. , . 10

, , , .

3.

. , , . , , , . BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), INA (Insititut National De L Audioviseul), SVT (Swedish TV Archive) , NRK (Norwegian Broadcasting Archive), NAA (Netherlands Audio-visual Archive), TRT (Turkish Broadcast Archive), ORF (Osterreichischer Rundfunk, RAI, (British Film Institute). inerva (National Representatives Group) , - . 3.1 , , 11

. . 1 , . 1. (mm) 16-mm 9.65x7.26 pixels 1.33 Mpixel N / Pr N N / Pr 3.2 6.6 4.1 77 160 100 195 214 238 270 350 285 595 366 731 769 856 1008 1306 s 1.06 x 0.85 0.8 Super 16 35-mm (USA) 35-mm (EUR) 35-mm (TV) 35-mm Academ y N 35-mm Cinema scope 35-mm full 20.95 x 17.53 24.00 18.00 2.39 x 1.33 2.1 x 3.67 31.2 750 332 471 12 2803 1190 1764 N / IP/ 13.8 IN/ Pr N / Pr 19.6 20.95x11.3 3 20.95 12.62 20.95 11.78 20.95 x 15.29 1.85 12.20x7.35 1.66 1.34 x 1.09 0.81 2.1 x 2.37 N 8.1 N / IP / 8.9 IN /Pr N / IP/ 9.9 IN / Pr N / Pr N / Pr 11.2 14.5 (Pixels) (Frame) Mbyte Mbyte Gbyte s s/sec Frame s/1

x 1.66 x 1.78 1.37

1.13 2.1 x 2.64 1.26 2.3 x 2.99 1.3 2.3 1.68 x 3.87

1.75 2.64 x 5.23 1.98

screen (USA) N 41.3 992 3715

() telecine 4 . : frames , .. 4:4:4 4:2:2. , 2K (2048x1556), 4 (4096x3112) (1920x1080). bits , .. 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 bits. 2 . 2. ( ) 4 (4096 x 2 3112 ) frames/sec / 4:4:4 10-bit 24 38.24 47.8b (2048x15 56 ) 4:4:4 10-bit 24 9.56 12b 4:4:4 10-bit 24 6.22 7.77b 4:2:2 10-bit 30 4.15 5.18b 4:2:2 10-bit 25 4.15 4.15b 13 1920 pixels x 1080 HD

bits/sec

9.18 Gbit/s

2.3 Gbit/s

1.5 Gbit/s

1.25 Gbit/s

830 Mbit/s

bits/sec

1.15 Gb/s 4.13

286.8 Mb/s 1

186.6 Mb/s 672 GB

155.5 Mb/s 560 GB

104 Mb/s 374 GB

, DLT, DTF, super DLT, SAIT . . 3.2 : (digital video format) . (data tapes) . 3.3 , . , . , , ,

. , , , 14

, , , , . , . , , , courier . : : . : , (courier). . : , . , , , 24-bit, 48 kHz. - (post-production). 15

: , . : , . : . : , , , , . , . . . -, , . , , 250.000, , , . 16

, , , . , . , DVD, (High Definition TV), (home cinema)

,

. (HD-TV). . 8 bit 4:2:0 4:2:2 . HD-TV 1920x1080 pixel (~2K) 60:1 200:1. . 10 12 bit, 4:4:4 40:1. , , cintel, 4112x3138 pixels (4). . 17

MPEG-1, MPEG-2, M-JPEG, M-JPEG2000 JPEG-LS , , , . . Layered Low-complexity Lossless (L^3) DALSA Adaptive Block Size DCT (ABSDCT) QUALCOMM.

4

1. , (negatives) (telecine). . (, ). 4-5 . telecine . , (color correction), telecine. , , 24 () , 12 MBytes 2K 50 MBytes 4. 1,5 TBytes 18

2K 5 TBytes 4. ( 6 ) telecine . ( DCT-based , 4:1 26:1 ) 200-500 GBytes. , ( , 5 GBytes ) MPEG-2, MPEG-1 SIF MPEG-1 QSIF ( ) (DVD) . 4 . () (MPEG2-DVD)

()

(telecine)

(digital beta)

(2 4)

(MPEG1-SIF)

(MPEG1-QSIF)

1. 1-2 ( ) (master file), 1 , 1 , 1 MPEG-2, 1 MPEG-1 SIF 1 MPEG1 QSIF ( ). 19

2 4 ( 16 mm 4 35 mm ), ( ) . ( ) , 20% 4. , ( 20%) , .