ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ-ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ #452

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ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΣΥΛΛΟΓΟΥ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ -ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ ΜΗΧΑΝΙΚΩΝ - ΤΕΥΧΟΣ 452

Transcript of ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΜΗΧΑΝΟΛΟΓΩΝ-ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΛΟΓΩΝ #452

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    KIKO ENTYOY 011127IIOKTHIA:

    ANEHNIO YOO IMATOYXNMHXANOON - HEKTPOON

    APITONIKOY 18 & OPIOY MET 116 36 AHNA.: 2109212741-2-4, fax: 2109217928

    e-mail: [email protected], http://www.psdmh.gr

    IOIKHTIKO YMBOYIO

    YNTAKTIKH EITPOH:

    : :

    :

    :

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    art director:

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    K [email protected]

    M B

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    [email protected]

    wikimedia.orgdreamstime.com

    ETIO

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    20, 15343 A .: 210 6008530, 210 6006917

    fax: 210 6006981www.provoli3.gr

    T 452, -- 2012

    EPIEXOMENA

    - M-H ETIOY

    : 2109212741, fax: 2109579009 e-mail: [email protected] : 2106006917, fax: 2106006981

    M ETIO M H .

    4 Editorial

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    42 CIGRE 2012

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    DITORIAL

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    23/02/13

    EnergyTech HELEXPO

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    - .. . - - (, -, ) . - - . , - . , - , ...

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    , - . , . , , . , - - 0,6 - . - - . , - - 85% . 15 kWh/m2. - .

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    , . , - . - - . - - . - , - PassivHaus. - - W/(m2.K) - .

    -, , , - - PassivHaus. - , , , /-, . - - 0,35 W/(m2.K) U 1,1 W/(m2.K), 90% -, -. , - /.

    -, - . - - -

    . - , - , - - 2 3 C. , - 1 2 C. - , - - .

    - , - . - - . - - .

    - COMBI, - . . - - , - .

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    11/12/2012

    5/12/2012, - , .. - PHARAE PALACE , : ,

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    (....-)

    .. (....-) 06 2012, .. :

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    1. - -; H - : - . . - , -, , - , -, - , , , - . -. , . . , - 50 60, , , - - .

    - . , - , - , - , - 2010/31/. 01/01/2021 - , 2019 - - .

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    : - : , . . . , , - - - . - -, , - : , , . () . - . , , . - - , - ( - ). - . - , - . - - . - - - . -, -. , - - , - . - . - , -, , - . -

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    3. : - . - Passiv Haus Institut, - , : :

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    - / (/) - ( , , -, ) . 220 x55 mm2 - 1 m3/h . -. , .

    - - 100%. , - - .

    4. PassivHaus - . , - , - ( ), - , . ( 20 cm) - ( 0,09 W m2 C.

    . - . - , - . , - -. .

    , - , -. , . - - . 10 cm - . .

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    5. , , - - . - - 15 18C -

    ( ) / 95%. - . -, : = (2 1) /(3 1) =

    /

    , - : (15 0) / (20 0) = 75% .. 95%, - 19C :19/20 = 95%.

    - 95% -

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    6. , - ( + ) . - - . -

    . , - , -, - 48C . - , - - . - 75%, - 15C. - - , = 30C, 48C :

    = 1 (m3/h) x 1,2 (kg/m3) x 1000 J/(kg C) x 30 C / (3600 s/h) = 10 W, kg/s, - m3/s, - (1,2 kg/m3) cp - 1000 J/(kg C) . - 10 W - (m3/h) 1 m3/h -, 10 W/m2. . :

  • 18 -

    . - , 2421 - . - - . PassivHaus Institute. - - , , - , - 15kWh/m2.

    7. . 38C - 26C, 92% - 27 C. - , - 2 - . 2 = 14 C : = 1 ( m3/h ) x 1,2 (kg/m3) x 1000 (J/(kg C) x (27 - 14 )C / (3600 s/h) = 4,33 W = 14,8 Btu/h 2 = 12C, = 4,95 W.

    - , - 2 3 m3/(h . m2). 2 12 C, 10 15 W/m2. .. 100 m2, - 1 1,5 kW, 3412 6824 Btu/h. - - .

    8. : - - (1-5 kW), , - , - . - - - - . - .

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    9. , - - - , ( , ), - : - 10 20m2 - 200 1.000 - - - - .

    (- -). (- 50 C)

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    - . - - (). - - .

    10 / , - /-. - . .. 100 m2, 7000 Btu/h., - .

    , - , :) , - , - ( -) 35mm 100 . ) -. - , - , - 200 600 . ) / 3 5 kW - / PassivHaus. : (COP) -: 4,2 (COP) : 5 ( 2,5 ))

    /- . - , - 200 600 . - - - , .

    11. - -: -, 60% - , - - , - , ,

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    12. : , - - - . . . , - , , , - , - . - , , , -.

  • 20 -

    - .

    - - (70%-35%-15%, 1-2-)- - -

    : 396 ., , .. (....) (.....) 2007-2013 1 1:2

    - 2012 70% 30% . - 1990, - , - - - 5/6

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    http://exoikonomisi.ypeka.gr

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    - 30% 40% / - , 250 ( ) 800 ( )

    , - :- 2.100 / .. - - () ( ).

    :. . :

    () : & :- 1955 - (..)- , - : - -- -

    - , / : & :- , - > 30% kWh/m2)

    : kWh/m2 - kWh/m2

  • 22 -

    / ( 2012) : 79.126 : 50% 24.390 4.182 13.687 : 10.097 8.094

    /

    107 kWh/.. 40%

    12.000 200 . kWh

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    GAS SYSTEM INT. A.E, 2002 , , , , - . . IMMERGAS,BUDERUS,BAXI,VAILLANT, KITURAMI, LG, GIERCH, WEISHAUPT, DAIKIN - . -, . - . . . 16 - .

    , -, , -, , , .

    - -

    . 16, . 54640 .: 2310 902333FAX: 2310 902 353

  • 24 -

    1. - - - . - - () ( 158). - - - - . - , - . (Tension Leg) - . - (-) , - -

    - (dynamic positioning) . - - , - , - - , - - . - , - . - - - . - - - - - -. - - -

    , , , Strathclyde University of Glasgow1

    , ,

    ,

    ,

    1. , www.martech.gr, e-mail: [email protected]

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    . - - - .

    2. (Intense Floatation) , . . 1 -. , , . .

    1: -

    2 . - (), -

    (). - - . - - - - - . - . semi-submersibles (S-S), - , .

    2:

    , 2, -, 1, - . - , , - ( ), -, . . . ,

    , - - (heave), - (roll, pitch). - (surge, sway) (yaw). - - . - - (, , ). - . - . - - - (restoring forces). - - . - - (), - . - (rolling) (pitching), - . - - . - - , - . - - (surge, sway,

  • 26 -

    yaw) - . - -: ( ), :

    : - ( .L P . - .

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    (surge, sway, yaw), , - (heave, roll, pitch). 3, - ( ). - , -, - - (roll, pitch). - .

    - - - - ( 4).

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    : ( - ) . ( - . [1]). - -:

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  • - 27

  • 28 -

    - . - - , - . - . - - (Payload). - .

    3.

    3.1 - [1], [2], [3]. [1] - - . - , - , - - - (dynamic positioning). - -. , . - - ( Froude Krilov). - -

    - . - . - -. [1] , - - :

    (+11)(u - rv) + B11u = Fx (1) (M+A22)(v+ ru) + B22 v = Fy (2)(I66 + A66)r + B66 r = FM (3):M 11, 22 - 66 -

    11, B22 o

    u, v -u, v (- )r , r - Fx, Fy -FM

    . - , :

    (+11)u + B11u = Fx (4)(M+A22)v + B22v = Fy (5)(I66+A66)r + B66 r = FM (6) , - ( -sway).

    5: , -.

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  • 30 -

    7 ( - ) - , . (4), (5) (6) - (, , ) - . a x + B x = Fm +Fw + Fo (7)

    : Fm Fw Fo

    7 - :x = L sin() (8) x = - Pa tan() (9) , -, :Hx = - Pa sin() (10) (11) (7), a x + Bx + (Pa/L) x = Fw (12) - - . , - (drift forces) ( [1]). - - - - . - -

    - , - 7. - (12) :a x + Bx + (Pa/L) x = Fs + Fk (13)

    :Fs Fk .

    - . - . , - - . - :

    - (F). . F < Pa - (13). - - Pa. - (13) :

    a x + Bx + ((Pa F)/L) x = Fs + Fk (14)

    F >Pa ( - ) - .

    - - -

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    (Fo) - - . . , :

    (15)

    3.2 - - (yaw). - . - - - . - (-) . - 8.

    8.

    - - . , - , -

    -. - :

    i = (T1-T2)s (16)

    i = FcSc + FwaSwa +

    - (. - , ). (16) -, - . 2 . 2 - - . 2. 2 - - . - - - . - - . - - - - .

    3.3 - -. - x, , - . :

    (17)

    - (18)

    - , . . - -, . ( -). - - - - . - - , , , - - . - - ) , ) - , , - . -, , -

  • 32 -

    . (13) - n = [Pa/(MaL)]

    (19)

    -

    Tn = 2[(MaL)/Pa] (20)

    (19) - Pa. , -, - -, . 7 - :

    z = L(1-sin) (21)

    - - .

    3.4 -- (13) :ax(t) + Bx(t) + (Pa/L)x = Fk (22)

    (-, ) . - n(t) = aosin(t) (23):n(t) a - x(t) = xosin(t + ) (24)

    :x(t) xo -

    Froude-Krilov :

    (24) - , :x(t)=xocos(t+) (26)x(t)=-xo

    2sin(t+) (27) (26) (27) (22) :

    (28) (22) (13) - - . (28) Froude Krilov : -. xo : (29)

    (xo/ao) - (Response Amplitude Operator, RAO) . RAO - - - (, - ). :RAO = xo/ao = R(/L) = R() (30)

    , RAO = k, ,xo = kao (31)

    - (14) :

    (32) Fo

    (25)

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    Fo = [(Pa/L) Ma2]k (33)

    - - (25) (24) - (33) (31). - - , k (31) 0.5, .xo = 0.5 ao (34)

    - 7 :x(t) = Lsin(t) (35) . (35) (13) - .

    3.5 - - - - . - -, () - - - . - . 9 - .

    9: ( JONSWAP)

    :SJ = (ag2/5)exp[-5/4(m/)4].exp(y)(36)

    :a = 43(Hs/gT02)2

    = , rad/s = 163(V/gTo)

    2

    V = Hs = g = To m =((4/5))

    1/4 (g/V)

    = ( = 3.3)y = (- m)

    2/22 m2

    = 0.07 m RAOs - - .

    3.5.1 - :z()= (2S()) (37)z() mS() - m2s ( deg2s - yaw).

    - - (wave spectrum partitioning) - M() = R()z() (38)() - ( m degrees)R() RAOs / z() Sm() = ()2/ (39)

    3.5.2 - -, - . - , - - . - - - (37). 10 -

    (40) x(t) = mi =

  • 34 -

    i = i = - 0 2

    10: -

    3.6 - Morison Equation (Froude Krilov) RAO. - - - . - - RAOs - . - Morisson - . Morison - (ref[4]) :

    (41)CI CD x

    x x

    CI , CD :

    ci, cd D - .

    - 11 - Keulegan - Carpenter. -

    Vm , - -.

    11. ci cd Keulegan - Carpenter

    4. -

    - . - - . :1. - . .2. - .3. - - .4. - - . - , - - . : . - . - - , .. (swells) - - - . - - .

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    . - - - . - - . - , - . [13], - - . - - - - (- - ). - - , (.. ) (.. -, ). - 10 - ( 60 ) . - - . - (roll, pitch) - , - , - .

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    4.1 - - [5]. 11 - -, , 12 . 13 , - - , ( -), - - , . , , , - , - -.

    11:

    12:

  • 36 -

    13: -

    4.2 (artificial Islands) - (artificial islands) , -. - , - - . - - , , - . - (accommodation platforms) - . 14 (modular) - . 1 - . - -.

    14. -

    1: - -

    4.3 - . - - - . -

    , - .

    - - . - ( 30 40 ) . - - - . - .

    - - : 40 300 ( 80 - , - . 15 - AUTOSHIP 16 .

    , - - - .

  • - 37

    15. -

    16. -

    4.4 - - , , - , - (Not n My Back Yard) - - . - - . - - 40 -

    - . - , , , UK . - . - - - - . - - . 17 - 850 KW. 3 MW .

    17:

    17 : 3 MW

    , - - , -, , - , - , -, . - .

    4.5 -. (WECO-Wave Energy Converter) - - , - . - . 18 - .

  • 38 -

    18. - -

    4.6 - , - , , . - , - - , - - . - - - ( 3s), - - - . - - -

    . 19 - -.

    19. -

    - - - , - , - - , . . :1. - .

    2. - - . . 2 - 158 , 3 .

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    5. - , -, . - - -

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    - . - , - - Morison 3.5. 20 (-) - ( 4.3) -. 100m , 6m 8s. - 36m/s - 1,5knot. - - - - -

    ( , ) 21 - - .

    20.

    21 .

  • 40 -

    22 - Morison. 22: -

    - - . - (.. ). - - - SAP 2000 . - -, -, . , , () .

    . - , . - - . SAP 2000, - , - . - . - - - .

    7. -, , . - - . -

    - - . - - - . - - - - .

    6. [1]Daskalakis A., An Integrated Approach to the Station-Keeping Problem, Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Strathclyde, 1987[2]Lewis Edward V. (editor), Principles of Naval Architecture, 2nd Revision, Vol. III: Motions in Waves and Controllability, SNAME, 1989[3]Brebia C.A. and Walker S., Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Structures, Newnes-Butterwoths, 1979.[4] Daskalakis A., Open sea fish farms based on integrated intense Floatation and wave absorbing technologies, Aquaculture Europe 2001, Rhodes, October 2011. [5] ., , ., , - , , - 2012[6] Daskalakis A. System for electricity production from multiple sources with multiple uses based on the exploitation of wave energy, Patent submitted to European Patent Office, 20-5-2005.[7]. ., - , , 28-12-2000.[8] ., - - - , , - , - ,

  • - 41

  • 42 -

    26 31 -, Palais des Congres , - (CIGRE) . - CIGRE - -.

    , Liu Zhenya, - - . - - (HVDC) + 800 kV - ().

    , - . - , - . - (). - - . . -

    , , -, .., 50 kWh , , 2 3 , 50 kWh. , - - - , - , , - . - , , 243 .

    446 , 16 . -, 175 .

    - - CIGRE: ELECTR 5 CIGRE . , , - - CIGRE .

    - , /- .

    CIGRE 2012

    . *

    * . CIGRE

  • - 43

  • 44 -

    E

    : .

    . .. (... 237/05-12-2012) , , -, , , , -, , ,, -, , , - 13 - .

    . ... . 869/2012 (... 3074/21-11-2012) - - - 2012... . 5-//.1.20/543/.20506 (... 2940/05-11-2012) - 135 . 4001/2011 ( 179).

    . .. (... 237/05-12-2012)

    , , -, , -, , , , - ,, , , - , - 8 - .. . . 227/2012 (... 227/16-11-2012) - , . 3982/2011, - - .

    . .. (... 237/05-12-2012) , , -, , -, , , , - ,, , , - , -

  • - 45

    14 - 19 - ....... ( ... 211 /31-10-2012 ) . 16 49 .4030/2011 , ( 249)

    .. . . 1175/2012 (... 2939/02-11-2012) - , 3 10 . 3983/2011 ( 144).... . 531.56/.. 3432/2012 (... 2936/02-11-201) VI 1997, , 1973, 1978 ( ).... . 531.56/.. 3431/2012 (... 2936/02-11-2012) VI 1997, , 1973, 1978 (- ).

    .. . //3616 (... 3134/27-11-2012) ( 8 .. 104/2011).

    . . . 125/2012 (... 221/08-11-2012) 2010/65/ - , 20 2010, /

    2002/6/.. . . 121/2012 (... 214/05-11-2012) .. 347/1998 (231) 96/98/ 20 1996, - .. 158/1999 ( 156), 137/2002 ( 112), 294/2003 ( 251),194/2009 ( 239), 39/2010 ( 79) 128/2011 ( 259) 2011/75/ 2 2011 (L 239/1/15.09.2011)... . 4113.270/01/2012 (... 2932/02-11-2012) - , 2008 (International Code of Safetyfor Special Purpose Ships, 2008), - - () SC 266(84)/13.05.2008 , - - () SC 299(87)/14.05.2010.

    - .. . 22022 (... 3017/14-11-2012) - 21617/7.12.2010 ( 1980 ) -, - -. , -, - -... . 2//22285 (... 2998/12-11-2012) . 2/16570/7.9.2005 - ( 1306//16.9.2005) . .

    .. . 49901 (... 3076/21-11-2012) .

    47718/08112011 ( 2669) - - ( ) - - . 3299/2004, - . 46015/29102012 ( 3003).

    ... . 48263/959 (... 2997/12-11-2012) K - - , - . 23 - 30 . 4070/2012

    .. . .122.1/908/144145/2 (... 3048/16-11-2012) ... - .... . 19/.45403/4662 (... 3011/13-11-2012) - .

    .. . . 1201 (... 3000/12-11-2012) - 2012.

    ... (... 210 /30-10-2012) -.

    .. . 33 5042999 2012 (... 3049/16-11-2012) - , , . . 4093 (... 222/12-11-2012) - 2013 2016 . 4046/2012 2013 2016.

  • 46 -

    & ..

    , - -, - -. - , , , - ... - , - . - , , - ..., . -

    , - - . - - 7kw - 38kw. - . ,

    - ,

    -. ( - 70%) - - - - - -, -

    , - , . , 3Mw. , -, , , - ... , . - , - , - , - - , , . - - , - - . -

    Atenas - - 14kw Ecoforest

    600kw Heizomat

  • - 47

    , - - .: - (50%-95%), - (90+%), - ( CO2), -, , - 1 5 . www.eco-heat.gr .

    Aleo solar AG

    High EfficiencyOldenburg, Prenzlau / 13 2012. aleo solar AG 2013 , , EVA . S_19 S_79 S_18 S_24 aleo . , High Efficiency Solrif.

    , . EVA , . : Light Har-vesting String (LHS) . , . Jens Sabotke, aleo so-lar AG. High Efficiency 265 Watt made in Ger-many. High Efficiency aleo S_19 265 Watt, S_79 260 Watt, S_18 255 Watt S_24 205 Watt. . IEC , 2013 UL MCS. : www.aleo-solar.de

    SMA Solar Technology AG

    - - , . SMA 93 Sunny Island , 205 Sunny Boy ,

    . 1 MW . , 10 , , . , . , , . 1 MW, , , SMA Sunny Island. 1.411 100% , . PowerSmart Solar. , 4.032 , 298 SMA, 121 Sunny Island Charger 1.344 . SMA . 30 , , .

  • 48 -

    SMA , . , , , , , SMA, , Zyg-munt Nejman, SMA Australia. , . PowerSmart Solar . , Joe Suveinakama, , Apia, . . . 200 . , . , .

    : , [email protected]

    WILO Hellas 2013 - :

    ErP ( ) - / - 2015 2020 / ErP-ready - / - - / - . - 1 2013 . - . : . - - - ( ) ErP, 2013. - - - , . 2015 2020 , - - .

    WILO SE, , . - - . Wilo-Yonos PICO Wilo-Stratos PICO -

    Wilo-Stratos ErP- ready. - , - . A-G - (EEI). 1 - 2013. 95% . - . - -, - - - 2020. 2020 23 TWh. - - CO2 11 . .

    - -, - . - -. - CO2 - .

    - ErP, -

  • - 49

    . 16 2011 -, -. - - - , - IE2. - . - 2015 2017.

    , , 1 2013 - , - . - - . - . 2013 1 - 2015. 10% - 40% - . Inline - Wilo-Stratos GIGA, - , , . - IE4 ( IEC TS 60034-31 Ed.1). . ErP-ready. :E-mail: [email protected] www.wilo.gr www.wilo-erpready.gr

    -, WILO SE, , - . Wilo-Yonos PICO ( ) Wilo-Stratos PICO ( ) Wilo-Stratos () .

    Inline Wilo-Stratos GIGA, , - . IE4 ( IEC TS 60034-31 Ed.1). - . , - ErP ready .

  • 50 -

    Olympia Electronics

    -

    , . - - :-- - (Access control)- ( -, .) - -- - -- - 10 . - / . - . - - . - 90 - - (Building Management System) BMS. - BMS . , - .

    BMS - - - S - - - ( ). BMS - (hardware). - - , - :-Modbus-Bacnet-KNX-OPC-Instabus-LON -ProFibus

    , . BMS - - .

    OPC - . - - (.. - , , - ..). - - .

    1. CMI.

    2. Gateway

  • - 51

  • 52 -

    4. BMS BSR-2114.

    - BMS - BMS Olympia Electronics CMI. CMI - . - -/ CMI Getaway CMI. - BMS CMI. - - Modbus, BacNet, OPC. - - . - internet.

    Gateway BMS - - . Gateway - - .H Olympia Electronics - BSR-2114 BSR-2104. - EN 54 -

    LPCB. BMS CMI Gateway BMS.

    2 4 . 150 - - . - - -. .

    BMS, . - . 1023 10 . - BMS. - . - - . BMS - 1023 -. - , . - - . - . BMS .

    3. - BSR-2114

  • - 53

  • 54 -

    ..

    / 999,84kWp .... .. (3)

    - 999,84kWp - & BEMEKE A.B.E.E. .

    4.166 - 240Wp, , - .

    - - - - . inverter DC -. 35 inverter , 27,6kW 20kW, string 70 MPPT . inverter - , ..

    - 0,4/20KV, 1.000KVA. - - - - real-time - pv string - - internet.

    , - .. - -

    . .. - :1. 300kWp, -, 2. 100kWp , , -: www.bienter.gr

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